MARGARET À BARROW (1500-1560)
Margaret à Barrow was the daughter of Sir Maurice of North Barrow, Somerset. The surname is variously spelled as à Barrow, Barrow, Arbarrow, Aborough, Abarowe, d’Abarow, and Barough. Margaret may have been part of Sir Thomas More’s household in 1510/11 and have studied with his daughters. She was renowned for her learning. At about that same time, although it may have been as late as 1522, she married Sir Thomas Elyot (c.1490-March 26, 1546). They lived at Long Combe, Oxfordshirefrom 1522-30 and then at Carlton cum Willingham, Cambridgeshire. In his will, he left his property to Margaret for her lifetime but instructed that his library be sold and the proceeds go to poor scholars. She married her second husband, James Dyer of Wincanton, Somerset (1510-March 24, 1582) by special license dated February 9, 1546/7. He was knighted in 1553. Their London house was in Cow Lane, near Smithfield. She had no children by either husband. The Oxford DNB entry for Sir James Dyer gives her date of death as 1569. The entry for Sir Thomas Elyot says 1560. Another record says she was buried August 26, 1560 at Great Staughton, Huntingdonshire, where her husband was later buried beside her. Their effigies were not added until early in the next century. The History of Parliament entries for Dyer and Elyot say her father was John Abarough of Downton, Wiltshire. Portrait: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger labeled “The Lady Eliot.”
JOYCE ACTON (1532-February 10, 1595/6)
Joyce Acton was the daughter of Thomas Acton of Sutton Park, Tenbury, Worcestershire (1486-January 2, 1546/7) and Mary Lacon (1506-April 27, 1563). At not quite thirteen, she married Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote, Warwickshire (1532-July 7, 1600). Her dowry allowed him to pull down his old house and build a new mansion. They entertained Queen Elizabeth there in August 1572. They were the parents of Anne (1550-1596) and Sir Thomas (1551-1605). The will of Joyce’s mother, dated April 13, 1563 and proved May 18, 1563, left to her daughter Joyce and Joyce’s husband “the rule, custody and government” of her two daughters by her second husband, George Vernon of Hodnet, Shropshire, Dorothy(d.1599) and Anne (d.1570). She also left Lucy her gold wedding ring and a gold portague (a coin). Joyce’s daughter married Edward Ashton of Tixhall, Staffordshire (1551-February 1, 1597) on April 27, 1581. It was an unhappy relationship and Ashton blamed his mother-in-law. Portraits: effigy on parents’ tomb, Tenbury; effigy on husband’s tomb, Charlecote Church.
see MARY LACON
JOAN ACWORTH, ACKWORTH, or AKWORTH (1519-December 1590)
Joan Acworth was the daughter of George Acworth of Luton, Toddington, Bedfordshire (d. May 17, 1530) and Margaret Wilberforce (d.1539), Joan married William Bulmer (1512-1555/6) at an early age, then left his house to go into service with the dowager duchess of Norfolk (Agnes Tylney). Joan was involved in a love affair with Edward Waldegrave of Rivers Hall, Essex (1514-August 13, 1584) at the same time Catherine Howard was living in that household. When Catherine married King Henry VIII, Joan was at court as a chamberer and was called upon to testify against the queen when the scandalous behavior of her early life was revealed in 1541. Both Joan and Edward Waldegrave were arrested and held for several months. At the time of Catherine Howard’s trial and execution in 1542, Joan Bulmer was listed as a widow, but in fact her husband was still alive. She could not marry Waldegrave until June 1556. Her children with Waldegravewere Anne (b.c.1544), Mary, Bridget, Edward, and Margaret or Margery. She was buried December 10, 1590 at Lawford, Essex.
AMY ADAMS (before 1532-1607+)
Amy Adams was the daughter of Hugh Adams of Castleton, Glamorganshire (d.1532) and Jane ferch Llwellyn. Some genealogies say her father was Hugh (or Robert) Games of Castleton but both the Oxford DNB and the History of Parliament agree that the correct surname is Adams. After her father died, she became the ward of Alexander Popham of Huntworth, Somerset and at some point before 1550 was married to his second son, John Popham (c.1532-June 10, 1607), who later became Attorney General. Their children were Elinor (1551-1607+), Penelope, Elizabeth, Mary, Amy, Katherine (d.1588), and Francis (c.1570-1644). The DNB entry for Popham says Amy survived him. His estate was worth £10,000/year at the time of his death. Portrait: effigy on the family monument in Wellington, Somerset. In addition to Amy and her husband, figures surrounding their effigies portray his parents, their son and his wife, their daughters, three maidservants, and their son’s thirteen children.
see CATHERINE JENYN
see MARGERY PERIENT
ALICE AGAR (d.1557+) (maiden name unknown)
Alice Agar, a widow from Colchester, Essex, went into exile under Mary Tudor as an “unescorted woman,” arriving in Geneva on June 5, 1557 with her children Joan (or Jane), Priscilla, and Thomas, a ribbon-maker. Later that year she married another protestant exile, Thomas Spencer of Wroughton, Wiltshire (b.1525), a doctor of divinity and pastor of Hadleigh.
ISABEL AGARD (d.1520+)
Isabel Agard was a member of the Agard family of Foston, Staffordshire. She married John Stonor (1480-1550). She may be the Mrs. Stonor who was with Anne Boleyn in the Tower of London in 1536 and/or the Mrs. Stonor who was Mother of Maids under Henry VIII’snext four queens. See the entry for Isabel’s sister-in-law, Margaret Foliot for more speculation on this identification. Isabel was the mother of Francis Stonor(1520-1564) and Henry Stonor. Retha Warnicke identifies Mrs. Stonor as “perhaps the wife of John, the king’s sergeant at arms,” in her The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn.
ANNE AGLIONBY or EGLIONBY (d. 1568+) (maiden name unknown)
Marion Colthorpe, “Women at Court: Royal Household” inThe Elizabethan Court Day By Day (2017) (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Mrs. Aglionby, Mother of Maids, as Anne, wife of Hugh Aglionby(d. by 1554) and states that Mrs. Aglionby was a Gentlewoman of the Queen’s Household by Christmas 1565 and described as Mother of Maids in 1568. She had a lease from the Crown of East Mersea manor in Essex. For an alternate identification of Mrs. Aglionby, Mother of Maids, see ELIZABETH AGLIONBY or EGLIONBY below.
ELIZABETH AGLIONBY or EGLIONBY (d.1589+) (maiden name unknown)
According to Susan James, Kathryn Parr’s biographer, Elizabeth Aglionby or Eglionby was a gentlewoman of Kathryn Parr’s privy chamber from 1543-47, then became the lady governess of Kathryn Parr’s daughter, Mary Seymour, in 1548. She later served as Mother of Maids under Elizabeth Tudor from 1562 until she was replaced around 1588/9 by Mrs. Jones. James states that she was not the wife of Hugh Aglionby, secretary to Kathryn Parr, but she is incorrect in saying Mrs. Aglionby was Mother of Maids until 1588/9. See the entry for ANNE AGLIONBY and the list of Women at the Tudor Court.
AGNES OF ELTHAM (1498-1530)
Agnes of Eltham’s father is unknown but she is alleged to be the illegitimate daughter of Bridget of York (November 10, 1480-1517), a nun who was the daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. Other sources say simply that Agnes was an orphan who was a ward of Dartford Priory in Kent, where Bridget Plantagenet was cloistered. Until 1503, when Bridget’s sister, Queen Elizabeth of York, died, Agnes’s expenses were paid by the Crown. When she left the nunnery in about 1514 to marry, she reportedly had “a considerable dowry.” She married Adam Langstroth of Cosh, Arncliffe, Yorkshire (1490-1549) and had at least one child, Christopher (c.1530-September 6, 1612).
DUCHESS OF ALBA
see MARIA ENRÍQUEZ
INEZ de ALBERNOS (d.1503+)
According to Lady Cecilie Goff in A Woman of the Tudor Age, “A sister of Lady Willoughby [Maria de Salinas, mother of Catherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk], Lady Inez of Albernos and Salinas, married Frances [sic] Guevara of Stanyott in Lincolnshire, and six shillings are paid to ‘Mr. Guevara’s man, which brought two oxen in present to my master’ while a half-year’s annuity of £15 is paid to Mr. Guevara.” This information was taken from the Household Accounts of the duchess’s household for February 1560/1. Earlier in the same volume, Goff gives the names of Maria de Salinas’s parents as Martin de Salinas and Josepha Gonzales de Sales. The Oxford DNB agrees with this but, as is so often the case, other scholarly sources disagree, identifying Maria and Inez as two of at least six children born to Juan Sancriz de Salinas (d.c.July 1495) and Inez Albernos/Albornos/Albornoz. Martin de Salinas (d. September 28, 1503) was their uncle and took over their upbringing. A list of Spanish ladies remaining in England with Catherine of Aragon in 1500 includes the “daughter of Inez Dalbornoz.” This was probably not Maria de Salinas, as most of her daughter’s biographers agree that she did not arrive in England until c.1503, when she replaced Maria de Rojas in Catherine’s service. If this daughter was the subject of this entry, then she followed the practice, not uncommon in Spain, of using her mother’s surname. She appears to have returned to her native land to marry Juan Velez de Guevara (sometimes spelled Govery by the English) of Segura/Sejuia. It was their son, Francisco (Sir Francis) Velez (Velles) de Guevara (d. February 10, 1592/3), who settled in England c.1552. He received a pension of £30 from his cousin, the duchess of Suffolk. Francis Guevara apparently remained in England during the reign of Queen Mary, while the duchess was in exile on the Continent, although he later came to share her Protestant beliefs. He settled in Stenigot, Lincolnshire and married Denise Reade of Boston on January 5, 1555/6. After her death, he wed Anne Egerton (d. 1586), sister of Sir Charles Egerton of Markenfield, Yorkshire. He had numerous children, all of whom remained in England and married into English gentry families. There is no indication that his mother ever returned to England.
see ALICE MIDDLETON
see JANE CORDELL
see MARGARET TALKERNE
see URSULA DRURY
MARGARET ALDY (c.1529-May 1588)
Margaret Aldy was the daughter of William Aldy or Alday of Guildford, Surrey. In about 1555, she married William Bond of Buckland, Somerset and London (c.1524-May 30, 1576), who was a London alderman from 1567-76 and sheriff of London in 1567. He was a member of the Haberdashers’ Company and the Merchant Adventurers who exported cloth to Antwerp, imported wine from France, owned his own ship, and engaged in trade in the Baltic, Russia, and Spain. In 1567, he bought Crosby Place, one of the most splendid houses in London. In addition, at the time of his death, he owned six messuages in London and had £4200 in cash. Margaret and William Bond had five children: Anne (d. October 9, 1615), Daniel (d. March 6, 1586/7), William (1557-February 10, 1608/9), Martin (d. May 11, 1645), and Nicholas (d. February 3, 1590/1). In 1579, by then a widow, Margaret was the only woman among the charter members of the Eastland Company, formed to foster trade with Scandinavia and ports on the Baltic. Their numbers also included her son William and her brother-in-law, Sir George Bond (1534-1592). She is mistakenly identified as Margaret Gore, daughter of Thomas Gore, a London merchant and member of the Spanish Company (trading with Morocco) by Henryk Zins in England and the Baltic in the Elizabethan Era. Margaret Gore was her daughter-in-law, the wife of her son William.
see ELIZABETH OGLETHORPE
MARGARET ALLDE (d.1600+) (maiden name unknown)
Margaret was the widow of a printer, John Allde (d.1584). She continued his business at the Long Shop in the Poultry, next to St. Mildred’s church and across from the stocks used for prisoners from the Counter, for twenty-one years after his death. This was a fairly common practice among widows of members of the Stationer’s Company, although few kept at it so long or took as many apprentices as Margaret Allde. She is recorded as taking apprentices in 1593, 1594, and 1600. Her son Edward (d.1628) was also a printer, joining the Stationer’s Company in 1584. His premises were at the Sign of the Gilded Cup without Cripplegate. When he died, his widow, Elizabeth (d.1636) carried on the business until 1633, when it passed to her son-in-law (alternately identified as her son by a previous marriage), Richard Oulton or Olton.
see AGNES HILL
AVIS ALLEN (1560-June 13, 1597) (maiden name unknown)
Avis or Avisa Allen, according to Simon Forman’s book of nativities, quoted in Barbara Howard Traister’s The Notorious Astrological Physician of London: Works and Days of Simon Forman, was born a bastard and her mother didn’t love her. She was “somewhat talle. a good motherly face fair and of a good nature and disposition.” She also had a mole under the nose and above the lip. Avis married William Allen, a cheesemonger who lived on Thames Street in the parish of St. Botolph, Billingsgate. She was a recusant and in April 1593 was fined £100 for her failure to attend church. In November 1593 she consulted astrologer Simon Forman and soon after became his mistress, an affair that continued on and off for the rest of her life. That she distilled waters gave them something in common. There are numerous entries about her in Forman’s casebooks. On March 13, 1594, for example, Simon and Avis went together to inspect the earl of Cumberland’s new ship, The Scorge of Malice. Many of the details are included in A. L. Rowse’s Sex and Society in Shakespeare’s Age. According to Simon’s records, Avis conceived a child on September 27, 1595 at 5:30 in the afternoon. On June 26, 1596, she gave birth to a son, Alexander. Forman appears to have believed the child was his, but he was accepted as William’s. Alexander was born sickly, however, and died on July 9. In the autumn of 1596, Avis believed herself to be pregnant again but was unsure who the father was. Her maid, Kate Alison, who was Avis’s age, was also pregnant. Kate’s lover was fourteen years her junior but Avis made sure he married her, even though he apparently preferred another young woman who was also carrying his child. Forman’s nativity of Avis indicates that she gave birth to one son and one daughter and had eleven or twelve miscarriages and that she was childless when she died. Avis was often ill in the last year of her life and Judith Cook, in Dr. Simon Forman, a most notorious physician, speculates that her death was due to tuberculosis, or septicaemiacaused by a dead foetus, or a combination of both. Forman himself seems to have believed she died of apoplexy.
GODLINA ALLEN (d.1567+) (maiden name unknown)
Godlina Allen of Wye in Kent is one of the subjects of an essay by Catherine Richardson (“A Very Fit Hat”) in Everyday Objects, edited by Tara Hamling and Catherine Richardson. In 1566, at which time she was a widow with children, she was being courted by Richard Tusten, a servant of Nicholas St. Leger, who often made trips to London on his master’s behalf. During these trips he bought presents for her, including a “silk hat and sweet [perfumed] gloves.” She was later charged with breach of promise for accepting these gifts, since acceptance was seen as agreement to a betrothal. Godlina claimed she refused the hat and gloves at first and then, three weeks before Christmas, accepted them with the expectation that she would pay Tusten for them. During the same week she took the gifts, she was married to another man, Simon Ansell, at MershamChurch. The records in Canterbury Cathedral Archives & Library contain contradictory accounts of these events, but one deposition suggests that Godlinawas coerced into marrying Ansell by her cousin, Thomas Sprot, vicar ofBoughton Aluph. Money was probably the motive. Wealthy widows were often the target of unscrupulous men.
see MARY LONG
REBECCA ALLEN (d.1608+)
Rebecca Allen was the daughter of David Allen, rector of Ludborough, Lincolnshire, a protestant rector. She was taught Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. She married Thomas Rainbow, vicar at Lindsey, Lincolnshire, and was the mother of Edward Rainbow, Bishop of Carlisle (1608-March 26, 1684).
see AUDREY PAGET
see JOAN WOODWARD
see CATHERINE SODAY
see MARGARET CROPWELL
see MARY MATHEWS
see ELIZABETH BRYCE
CHRISTIAN ANDERSON (d. April 1592)
Christian Anderson was the eldest daughter of Thomas Anderson, a London grocer, and his second wife, Catherine Hopton, who were married on December 1, 1541 in St. Mildred, Poultry. In 1556, she married John Robinson (d. February 1599/1600), a merchant taylor, merchant of the staple, and alderman. Nine sons and seven daughters are shown on their tomb in St. Helen’s, Bishopsgate, including John (d.1602+), Henry (d.1653), Arthur (d. 1622), Peter (d.1584), Robert (b.1576), Humphrey (1578-1626), Thomas (1581-1583), Anne (d.1633), Mary, Elizabeth (1581-1596+), Catherine (b.1584), and Christian (d. 1594). Christian was buried on April 26, 1592, having been married to her husband for thirty-six years. Portrait: effigy on tomb in St. Helen’s.
ANNE ANDREWS (1432-July 25, 1520)
Anne Andrews was the daughter of John Andrews of Baylham, Suffolk (c.1415-1473) and Elizabeth Stratton (c.1425-1474). Her first husband was Sir John Sulyard of Weston, Essex and Welhorden, Suffolk (c.1420-March 18, 1487/8), Chief Justice of Common Pleas. She was his second wife. Their children were Anne, John (d. March 1539), Alice, Andrew, and Elizabeth (d.1529). Her second husband was Thomas Bourchier(d.1491). They had no children. In 1519, Anne offered to cancel her son-in-law’s debt to her if he would assure her daughter’s jointure according to the contract she had signed with his father. In her will, she left this same son-in-law, Roger Appleton, a silver and gilt spoon with her arms on it. Anne was buried with her first husband.
SARA AÑES (c.1550-1595+)
Sara Añes was the eldest daughter of Dunstan Añes (c.1520-1594), also known as Gonsalvo Añes, Gonzalo Jorge, and Benjamin George, a grocer in London who was also the English financial agent for Dom Antonio, pretender to the Portuguese throne after the death of King Henry in 1580. Her mother was Constance Ruiz (c.1530-1594+). She had thirteen siblings. Born in England, she grew up in a house in Crutched Friars. The family belonged to the English church but observed traditional Jewish customs in private. By 1564, she had married Roderigo Lopez (c.1517-x. June 7, 1594). Like her father, he was the son of a Jew baptized by force in Portugal in 1497. They settled in the parish of St. Bartholomew-the-Less. She had nine children, including Ellyn/Elinor (bp. June 9, 1564), Ambrose (bp. May 6, 1565), Douglas (bp. May 13, 1573), William (bp.October 24, 1577), Anne (bp. March 1, 1579), and Anthony (b.c.1582). They were living in the ward of Farringdon Without in 1567. In 1568 they attended church at Little St. Bartholomew, in 1571 they were recorded as living in St. Andrew’s Holborn, and in 1583 were in Aldgate ward. During those years, Lopez became the personal physician of Sir Francis Walsingham (by 1571), the earl of Leicester (by 1575) and was appointed as a royal physician to Queen Elizabeth (by 1586 and possibly as early as 1581). He received a life pension of £50 and was granted lands and tithes in Worcestershire. The family later lived in Wood Street, and in Mountjoy’s Inn, Fenchurch Street. At the request of Sir Francis Walsingham, Lopez corresponded with Spanish officials and he continued to do so even after Walsingham’s death. King Philip sent him the gift of a jeweled ring worth £100. Unfortunately, Lopez made an enemy of the queen’s favorite, the earl of Essex, and it was Essex who, in 1594, accused him of having tried to poison the queen. Lopez was tried on this charge, but much was made of his Jewish origins and that was held against him. He was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn for treason. In August 1594, Sara petitioned the queen for assistance, since all her husband’s possessions had been seized by the Crown upon his arrest. She wrote that she was left with five children and “in woeful agony and extremity of sickness, utterly despairing the recovery of her former health and strength.” She included an inventory of seized goods, asking for the return of the lease of her house and her household stuff. The queen, who had not been entirely convinced that Lopez was guilty, even though she signed his death warrant, returned everything except King Philip’s ring. Sara’s son Anthony returned to school in Winchester the following year. For more details, see the Oxford DNB articles on her husband and father and the essay “Portingale Women and Politics in Late Elizabethan London” by Alan Stewart in Women and Politics in Early Modern England 1450-1700, edited by James Daybell.
JANE ANGER (d. 1589+)
Although there were at least two women named Jane Anger living in Tudor England, most people think this was a pseudonym used by a man to reply to an attack in print on women (Boke his Surfyt in love). Jane Anger her Protection for Women appeared in 1589 and “Jane Anger” is styled a gentlewoman on the title page. Retha M. Warnicke comments, in Women of the English Renaissance and Reformation, that “whoever Anger was, she was not of noble or of royal status, and as a routine matter, could have expected some censure for her audacity in publishing any secular work, even one more conservative than a defense of her sex.” The entry in the Oxford DNB under “Anger, Jane” adds no biographical details.
ANNE OF CLEVES (September 22, 1515-July 16, 1557)
The daughter of John, duke of Cleves (d.1539) and Mary of Berg and Juliers(d.1543), Anne of Cleves married Henry VIII of England (1491-1547) on January 6, 1540 but was persuaded to accept an annulment granted on July 9 of that same year. She retired to Richmond and Bletchingley, properties granted to her in a generous settlement, and was thereafter treated as the king’s sister. A false rumor, circulated in 1541, claimed she’d given birth to a child. She was present at ceremonial occasions during the reign of Mary I and after she died at Chelsea, she was buried in Westminster Abbey. Biographies: Mary Saaler, Anne of Cleves: Fourth Wife of Henry VIII; Elizabeth Norton, Anne of Cleves, Henry VIII’s Discarded Bride (2009); chapters in Antonia Fraser, The Wives of Henry VIII, Alison Weir, The Six Wives of Henry VIII, and other collective biographies of Henry VIII and/or his wives; Oxford DNB entry under “Anne [Anne of Cleves].” Portraits: two by Hans Holbein the Younger, one a miniature; one by Barthel de Bruyn the Elder.
CORDELL ANNESLEY (d. April 23,1636)
Cordell or Cordelia Annesley (Ansley/Anslowe/Onslow) was the youngest daughter of Brian Annesley of Lee, Kent (d. July 7, 1604) and Audrey Tyrrell. Her father was a gentleman pensioner to Queen Elizabeth and by January 1598, Cordell was at court as a maid of honor, a post she held until 1603. In 1604 she was caring for her father, who was deemed “unfit to govern himself.” Her sister Grace had married a man named Wildgoose, who wanted their father “begged for a lunatic,” but Cordell felt that his many years of “service to her late Majesty deserved a better agnomination.” Cordell was his executor and proved the will the same day he died. This was challenged by Wildgoose but the challenge was unsuccessful. Annesley was buried in Lee church on July 13, 1604 and Cordell erected a monument to him “at her own proper cost and charges in further testimony of her dutiful love.” At some point, Cordell was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Anne of Denmark. On February 5, 1607/8 in St. Giles Cripplegate, Cordell married, as his second wife, Sir William Harvey (Hervey/Hervy) of Kidbrooke, Kent and Westminster (d. July 8, 1642). His first wife had been Mary Browne, dowager countess of Southampton, which gave the family a connection to William Shakespeare and has led to Harvey being a contender as the “Mr. W.H.” responsible for the publication of the sonnets. Cordelia is the name of one of the daughters in King Lear (1605/6) and some have speculated that there are parallels to the situation between her father and his daughters, Grace, Christian (d. 1605), and Cordell. Christian Annesley was also a maid of honor (1591-94) and married William, 2nd baron Sandys in September 1595 as his second wife. By William Harvey, Cordell had seven children, including William (d.1620+), Henry, John, Dorothy (d. February 19, 1632), Eleanor (d. before December 1637), Helena (d. before 1642), and Elizabeth (d.1642+). Cordell was buried May 5, 1636.
see GODLINA ALLEN
see DOROTHY FOSSER
see JOYCE CURZON
ALICE APPLETON (d.1538)
Although Alice’s maiden name is given as King in Suffolk Manorial Families, King was the surname of Alice’s second husband’s first wife. Alice was the daughter of Thomas Appleton of Waldingfield, Suffolk. She married Robert Maye of Bocking Essex, by whom she had two daughters, Margaret (d.1552) and Alice (d.1552+). She was his second wife. He wrote his will April 12, 1512 and it was proved August 8, 1514. He did not mention either wife in this will. Alice married Thomas Spring of Lavenham, Suffolk (c.1456-June 29, 1523), a rich clothier. Some say he was the wealthiest man outside the nobility outside of London. Alice brought 600 marks to the marriage, but he was far richer, holding twenty-five manors when he died. In 1522, he was in possession of £1800 in ready money and was owed another £2200. He had numerous children by his first wife but only one child with Alice, a daughter named Bridget (d.1557+). Alice was one of the executors of his will, and was left 1000 marks. In 1524, her taxes were assessed on goods worth £1,333 6s.8d. and she paid taxes for herself and as executor of £66 13s. 4d. Only the duke of Norfolk paid more in Suffolk that year. In her will, made on April 13, 1538, Alice left her daughter Bridget a tenement in Lavenham and all the money due to Bridget by Thomas Spring’s will. To her daughter Alice and Alice’s second husband, Sir Richard Fulmerston, Alice left £100. She left the residue of her estate to her daughter Margaret and Margaret’s husband, William Rysby or Risby. On August 15, 1538, her daughter Bridget was espoused to William Erneley of Cakeham, Sussex (1501-January 20, 1546). On August 31, 1538, Alice added a codicil to her will to specify that the amount left to Bridget was 500 marks, a considerable dowry. Alice was buried in Lavenham where, as executor for her husband, she had spend over £1000 on improvements to the church. Her will can be found at www.oxford-shakespeare.com.
JANE APPLETON (c.1500-March 28, 1579+)
Jane Appleton was the daughter of Roger Appleton. Magna Carta Ancestryidentifies her father as the Roger Appleton who made his will on April 12, 1529 (probated July 2, 1529) and her mother as Anne Sulyard (c.1463-before November 24, 1525). The History of Parliament entry for Sir Thomas Gargrave says her father was Roger Appleton of Dartford, Kent and South Benfleet, Essex (d. June 1558), which would make Agnes Clerke her mother. The first pedigree seems more likely. In 1520, Jane married John Wentworth of North Elmsall, Yorkshire (1481-c.August 1544) as his second wife. There is some debate over which children belong to which wife. One genealogy assigns Thomas, Frances, Elizabeth (d.1562), Bridget, Christopher (d. November 25, 1561+), and Hector (d. December 1585) to Jane. Another gives all of them, along with Joan, to Anne Creyke and says Jane’s children were Philip, Robert, Dorothy, and Anne. In 1545, Jane married Sir Thomas Gargraveof North Elmsall, Kinsley, and NostellPriory, Yorkshire (c.1495-March 28, 1579). They had no children together. When Gargrave made his will on March 27, 1579, he made special provisions for his wife. Because she was “decayed in sight and hearing” he charged his son, Cotton Gargrave (c.1540-1588), to be “gentle and good unto her” and arranged for two maids and a manservant to look after her for the rest of her life.
MARGARET APPLETON (c.1433-1508+)
Margaret Appleton was the daughter of John Appleton of Waldingfield, Suffolk (1412-April 9, 1481) and Margaret Welling (1416-July 1468). She married Thomas Spring of Lavenham, Suffolk (c.1430-September 7, 1486). Their children were Thomas (1454-1510), James (who died in a brawl on August 31, 1493), William (1460-November 1510), Marian (1463-1491), Cecily, another son, and four more daughters. Although the partial date 148_ appears as a death date on the “resurrection brass” portraying the entire family in the Church of St. Peter and Paul, Lavenham, the Oxford DNB article on the Spring family cites records of her attempts to collect a debt of £16 in 1492 and as executor of her brother Thomas’s will in 1508. Portrait: brass in Lavenham.
ALICE APPLEYARD (c.1493-1549+)
Alice Appleyard was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Appleyard of Bracon Ash, Norfolk (c.1470-September 9, 1513) and Agnes Rokewood or Rockwood. By 1519, she had married Robert Kett of Wymondham, Norfolk (c.1492-December 7, 1549), a wealthy tanner. They had five sons, William (d. December 7, 1549), James (d.1553), George (d.1592), Richard (d. September 28, 1601), and Loye (d.1614). Some genealogies also list a Thomas. Robert Kett was one of the ringleaders of what became known as Kett’s Rebellion and he was attainted and hanged for treason from the walls of Norwich Castle. His lands were forfeit and were granted to Thomas Audley, but Alice still had the evidences that guaranteed her property rights. When she refused to hand them over, Audley brought suit against her in Chancery. The outcome of the case is not recorded.
see ELIZABETH SCOTT
see MARY SHELTON
JENET AP THOMAS
see JENET MATHEW
SARAH ARCHDELL (1579-1599+)
In 1599, when she was twenty, Sarah Archdell lived in Budge Row near St. Antholin’s Church, right against the Rose at the standing steps for marketing wares. She exists vividly, if briefly, in the diary of Dr. Simon Forman, who saw her as a potential bride. He met her at six o’clock on April 17, 1599. On April 19, he saw her again at the Curtain in Shoreditch with her uncle and some friends. They were sitting in front of him and he talked to her after the play and found her kind and courteous. He met her uncle, again at the Curtain, on April 22 and that evening, while supping with John and Anne Condwell, who lived in the Old Jewry, he looked out the window and saw Sarah and her uncle passing by. He overtook them in the fields beyond Moorgate and talked with them there until ten o’clock. Two days later, he met her uncle again, this time in Coleman Street. After that, Sarah disappears from his writings. A. L. Rowse’s biography of Forman provides the most detail. The biography by Judith Cook includes less but specifies that Sarah was pretty and wealthy.
JOAN ARCHES (d. 1496)
Joan Arches was the daughter of Sir Richard Arches of Eythrope, Buckinghamshire (d.1417) and Lucy de Adderbury. She was the sister and heir of John Arches. She married John Dynham of Nutwell, Devon (1406-January 25, 1457/8) by whom she had John, 1st baron Dynham (c.1434-January 28, 1501), Charles, Margery, Joan, Roger (d.October 22, 1490), Oliver, Catherine (d. September 25, 1501), Margaret (d. December 13, 1470), Elizabeth (d. October 19, 1516) and Edith. She lived out her widowhood at Nutwell. There is a record in the Nottinghamshire archives of a marriage settlement for Eleanor Arundell, her granddaughter, to Nicholas St.Loe of Sutton, Somerset. She agreed to provide garments for the bride. She and the others named also agreed to pay £200 and 100 marks to the bridegroom. Among other provisions, 200 marks was to be paid to them if Eleanor died before she was seventeen and without issue. Joan (called Jane, Lady Dynham) made her will on June 26, 1496 and it was proved November 3, 1496. She asked to be buried in Black Friars Church, Exeter and left bequests to her sons Oliver and Charles, her grandchildren John, Jane and Edmund Carew and Jane, Katherine, Margaret, Cecily and William Zouche, and two of her daughters. Elizabeth, Lady Fitzwarine, received a cup of gold and Joan, Lady Zouche, received a salt of gold.
see AGNES WEBBE
see ALICE BRIGANDINE
KATHERINE ARDEN (d. 1602+)
Katherine Arden was a prostitute. Her story is told by Gustav Ungerer in “Prostitution in Late Elizabethan England: The Case of Mary Newborough,” in Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, Vol. 15, edited by John Pitcher, Robert Lindsey, and Susan Cerasano. Unmarried and pregnant in mid-April 1599, Katherine Arden was facing childbirth with no midwife present in the house of one Pugsby in St. Peter’s Lane, Clerkenwell, notorious as a red light district. At the christening of another prostitute’s child, some of those attending were concerned that Katherine, who used to lie in brothels run by male keepers, would not be property attended during her confinement. Elizabeth Reignoldes was asked to look after her and may have been the only woman present when Katherine delivered her child. Ungererspeculates that she abandoned the infant. A few months later, in August 1599, another prostitute, Mary Newborough, took Katherine with her to see the muster of soldiers in St. James’s Park, a effort to drum up new business. Both women ended up in Bridewell, where Katherine was examined on November 10, 1599. She made up a story about having come with her husband from beyond the Seas and lodging in Fetter Lane. Examined again on December 14, she confessed the truth. By then she was in poor health and was put with Mary Newborough and Mary Digby so they could look after her. She was soon after released, but not for long. She was back in Bridewell in 1602 and entertaining the governor of that institution, Nicholas Bywater, in her bed. In payment, he left the door open so that she could escape. Kate Arden was immortalized by Ben Jonson in his “Epigram 133,” her case of “burning clap” said to be so virulent that it “kindled the fire” that burned the Globe Theatre in June 1613.
MARGARET ARDEN (d.1583+)
Margaret Arden was the daughter of Edward Arden of Park Hall, Warwickshire (1533-x.December 20, 1583) and Mary Throckmorton (c.1542-1603). In 1580, she married John Somerville of Edstone, Warwickshire (1560-December 19, 1583). In 1583, convinced that it was his duty as a Catholic to kill Queen Elizabeth, Somerville set out to do so, telling anyone who would listen of his plans. When arrested, he implicated Margaret, her parents, and the family priest, Hugh Hall, who lived with the Ardens in the guise of their gardener. Margaret’s father’s entry in the Oxford DNB says she was arrested along with her parents. Her husband’s entry says only her parents were taken into custody, but Cecily Hopton testified that she visited Mrs. Somerville’s chamber in the Tower on December 8th or 9th after she let a visitor in to speak with another prisoner. Edward Arden and Somerville were condemned to die. Somerville hanged himself in his cell the night before the execution. Arden was executed. Margaret’s mother was released from the Tower of London after her husband’s death. According to another account, the priest, Margaret, and her mother were pardoned. Margaret had two daughters by Somerville, Elizabeth (who married Thomas Warwick) and Alice.
MARY ARDEN (c.1537-1608)
Mary Arden was the youngest daughter of Robert Arden (d.1556/7) of Wilmcote, Warwickshire by his first wife, whose name is unknown. She died before 1546. Shortly after inheriting ten marks and a property called Asbyes upon her father’s death, Mary married John Shakespeare (d. 1601). Although she was the mother of William Shakespeare (1564-1616), little is known of Mary’s life in Stratford. Her inheritance was sold during the 1570s to keep the family out of debt. She had seven children besides William: Joan (b.1558), Margaret (1562-3), Gilbert (1566-1612), Joan (b.1569), Anne (1571-9), Richard (1574-1613), and Edmund (1580-1607). Mary Arden Shakespeare was buried on September 9, 1608.
see MARY THROCKMORTON
see JANE BERINGTON
see KATHERINE INGLEBY
see MARGARET TALKERNE
MARY ARMYNE or ARMINE
see MARY TALBOT
JULIANA ARTHUR (d. November 14, 1592)
Juliana or Julian Arthur was the daughter of William Arthur, Esq. of Clapham, Somerset. She married Robert Hicks or Hickes (c.1524-1557/8), an ironmonger who also operated a retail mercery at the sign of the White Bear at Soper Lane End in Cheapside near the Great Conduit. On his death, Juliana inherited her widow’s third, including a life interest in the White Bear as well as in land in London, Bristol, and Gloucestershire. His will, written November 21, 1557 and proved February 22, 1558, also left “my well loved wife” all his land and property in Bristol, with the provision that she pay his mother £10 a year while she lived. Juliana’s second husband was Anthony Penn or Penne (d.1572), to whom she was married c.1558. Penn’s will, written December 12, 1570 and proved July 17, 1572 again calls Juliana “well beloved wife” and she is his principal beneficiary and executrix. He leaves his son, Anthony Penne, who appears to be from an earlier marriage, only a black gown. It was as Mrs. Penn that Juliana was well known as a London moneylender, although she also carried on the mercerybusiness. She loaned money to such luminaries as Lord Burghley and the earls of Oxford and Kildare and in 1577 the debts owed her totaled £1800. In 1579 she bought a house on St. Peter’s Hill where she lived for the remainder of her life. In 1590, she may have rented rooms at £25 a quarter to Thomas Churchyard and other writers. The Oxford-Shakespeare site includes the 17th earl of Oxford among them. She had six sons by Hicks, Sir Michael (October 21, 1543-1612), Francis (January 1545-before 1557), Hilary (January 1546-July 1548), John (March 1548-March 1548), Clement (d.1627), and Sir Baptist (1551-October 18, 1629). The latter was created viscount Campdenunder the Stuarts. Juliana may be the Mrs. Penne, a gentlewoman, who gave Queen Elizabeth silk knit hose at New Year’s in 1561/2 (or that may have been Sybil Hampden). Dunning letters written by her show, according to her son’s biographer, “uneducated but vigorous and distinctive handwriting.” The 1582 subsidy roll for Bread Street ward (St. Peter and St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street) lists “Baptyst Hixe and Mistress Penne his mother” as assessed at £50 and she was assessed another £10 in Castle Baynard ward. For more information see Alan G. R. Smith’s Servant of the Cecils: The Life of Sir Michael Hicks and R. G. Lang, “Social Origins and Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants,” Economic History Review, February 1974.
see ANNE JERNINGHAM; ANNE STANLEY
see BLANCHE SOMERSET
CECILY ARUNDELL (1526-1578)
Cecily Arundell was the daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall (c.1500-November 7, 1557) and his second wife, Elizabeth Danet (c.1500-1564). She was probably named for her great-grandmother, Cecily Bonville, marchioness of Dorset (d.1529). She was in the service of Queen Mary Tudor in 1557 and is probably the Arundellreferred to in a poem about eight of Mary’s ladies written by “RE” c.1553. “Arundell is ancient in these her tender years/In heart in face in talk in deed a matron’s wit appears.” She was one of the executors of her mother’s will in 1564 and was named in the will of her aunt, Jane Arundell (d.1577), maid of honor to Queen Jane Seymour and also a gentlewoman in the household of Queen Mary. Cecily never married. She was buried in the church of St. Mawgan in Pydar, Cornwall with other members of her family. Her epitaph states that she “served Queen Mary’s grace/ Whose life in Court and country eke, let high and low degree/Make true report what it deserved, and then no doubt but she/A faithful servant to her queen, a friend to poor and rich/One wholly bent to virtuous life, who known was to be such.” Portrait: memorial brass on which her name is spelled Cyssel Arundell.
DOROTHY ARUNDELL (c.1540-1575+)
Dorothy Arundell was the daughter of Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour(c.1500-x. February 26, 1552) and Margaret Howard (c.1515-October 10, 1572). In 1559, she married Sir Henry Weston (1535-April 11, 1592) and frequently entertained her distant cousin, Queen Elizabeth, at Sutton Place, Guildford. She and Weston had three children, a son who died young, Richard (1564-1613) and Jane. Portrait: a full length likeness measuring 71×40″ and said to be by Federigo Zuccaro.
DOROTHY ARUNDELL (c.1560-1613)
Dorothy Arundell was the daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall (c.1530-November 17, 1590) and Anne Stanley (d. September 22, 1602). From 1583-1594, when he was executed, the priest John Cornelius was the Arundellfamily chaplain. Although Roland Connelly, in Women of the Catholic Resistance in England 1540-1680, confuses Dorothy with her mother, she is probably the one who spoke out at the 1594 trial in an attempt to save Cornelius and the men arrested with him. In her statement, she refers to her mother, and also to Cornelius’s mother, who was apparently also living at Chideock Castle at the time of the raid. No women were indicted, but the men were executed. Dorothy left England in 1597 and she and her sister, Gertrude (b.1574), together with Mary Percy, founded the English Bridgettine convent in Brussels, which they then entered. They were professed as nuns on November 21, 1600. At some point prior to this, Dorothy wrote a biography of John Cornelius. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Arundell, Dorothy.”
ELIZABETH ARUNDELL (1465-1513+)
Elizabeth Arundell was the daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne(January7, 1421-November 12, 1473) and Catherine Chideock (1423-April 10, 1479). She married Giles Daubeney, later baron Daubeney (January 6, 1451/2-May 21, 1508), before September 17, 1483 and was the mother of Henry (1493-1548), Cecily, and possibly Anne. Although the transcript of her tomb inscription, made in 1600, says she died in 1500, there are records of her after that. In November 1510, she was paid £100 by King Henry. Portrait: effigy on her husband’s tomb in Westminster Abbey.
see ELIZABETH DANET
JANE ARUNDELL (1505-1577)
Jane Arundell was the daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall (c.1474-February 8, 1545) and his first wife, Eleanor Grey (d. before 1507). She was at least thirty when she went to court as one of Queen Jane Seymour’s maids of honor in 1536. Although there was talk of a marriage with Thomas Cromwell’s son Gregory in October 1536, with a jointure of 700 marks, Jane never wed. Her younger half sister, Mary Arundell, was also one of Queen Jane’s maids of honor until she wed the earl of Sussex. After the queen’s death, Jane became part of their household. Later she was a gentlewoman in Queen Mary’s household before retiring to Lanherne. Her will is dated September 2, 1575 at Mawgan in Pydar and leaves bequests to her nieces and nephews. It can be found online. It was proved October 3, 1577. Her niece and goddaughter, MaryArundell, was named executrix. Jane was buried in St. Mawgan church in Pydar, Cornwall, where her epitaph states that she served five queens, lived three score years and twelve, and was esteemed in life and bewailed in death. Portrait: memorial brass.
see JULIAN ERISEY
KATHERINE ARUNDELL (d.1586+)
Katherine Arundell was the daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, St. Mawgan-in-Pyder, Cornwall (1500-November 7, 1557) and his second wife, Elizabeth Danet (d.1564), whose marriage intentions with Arundell are dated July 10, 1525. Katherine married Thomas Tregian of Golden Manor, near Probus, Cornwall (d. January 20, 1578). Their children were Francis (1548-September 25, 1608), Jane, and Elizabeth (1554-1573). In 1564, Lady Arundell left her daughter a tablet of gold. At some point during the imprisonment of Katherine’s son Francis in London (1578-1601) and after his estates had been claimed by Sir George Carey, Katherine defended her own interests with the help of her steward, Humphrey Powell. In the end, she was awarded an annuity of £60 out of the lands Carey occupied in Cornwall. Her brother, Edward Arundell, left bequests to Katherine in 1586. I have seen a death date of 1610 (at age 85) for Katherine at a genealogy site but cannot verify this. Her grandson, Francis Tregian the Younger, a musician, is said to have written a pavane on the death of his grandmother.
MARGARET ARUNDELL (d. December 8, 1519)
Margaret Arundell was one of the six daughters of John Arundell of Lanherine, Cornwall (June 9, 1421-November 12, 1473) and his second wife, Katherine Chidiock (c.1428-April 9, 1479), who married as her third husband Sir Roger Lewknor of Trotton, Sussex (d.1478). Before 1485, Margaret married William Capell of Stoke Nayland, Suffolk (d. September 7, 1515), a draper who was an MP and was also Lord Mayor of London in 1503-4 and 1510. Their children were Sir Giles (d. May 29, 1556), Dorothy, Cecily, and Elizabeth (1485-December 24, 1558). In 1486, they purchased the manor of Little Raynes, Essex. Capell, who was frequently in trouble with the law over his business practices, left a will dated September 1, 1515 and proved March 17, 1516. He was buried in the chapel he founded in St. Bartholomew-the-Less, London. As a wealthy widow owning rental properties in London—shops, houses, and tenements—among other assets, Margaret left a detailed will written in 1516. She appears to have been a clever businesswoman. At one point she purchased several parcels of land from her son in order that he would have ready money. To safeguard the land and its income against future difficulties she then enfeoffed them to the use of her grandsons, Henry and Edward Capell. When her husband died, she appropriated fully one half of his estate, even though that kept the same two grandsons from inheriting goods worth over £1000. She made good the debt, however, through provisions in her own will. To her daughter Elizabeth, who had married William Paulet, Margaret left a bequest with the condition that Paulet have no claim on the inheritance. Apparently, she did not consider him a good husband. Details on other bequests can be found in Susan E. James, Women’s Voices in Tudor Wills, 1485-1603.
MARGARET ARUNDELL (1540-1612)
Margaret Arundell was the daughter of Sir John Arundell of Trerice in Newlyn, Cornwall (c.1494-November 26, 1561) and his second wife, Julian Erisey(c.1505-March 12, 1567). By September 1566, she had become the second wife of Robert Becket of Cartuther, Cornwall (c.1525-1604). By 1576, he was being persecuted for his religion and had to put up a bond for £400. On November 1, 1578, he was imprisoned in the Marshalsea in London “for papistry.” According to John Chynoweth in Tudor Cornwall, Margaret shared his imprisonment, which lasted until 1583. In 1585, Becket declared his income as £40/year but a neighbor, Humphrey Kent, informed authorities that the actual worth of his estate was £200/year. After 1587, the Crown seized two thirds of the land and all the possessions of recusants whose fines were in arrears. Becket transferred what remained, lands in Lewannick, Quethiock, and South Peterwith, to friends in 1600, leaving them to Margaret in the will he wrote on February 10, 1604. It was proved on February 28, 1604. She was his sole executrix and heir.
see MARGARET HOWARD; MARGARET WILLOUGHBY
MARY ARUNDELL (d.1552+)
Mary Arundell was the daughter of John Arundell of Tolverne, Cornwall (c.1489-March 2,1544) and Matilda St. Aubyn(1493-1555). She had been left 100 marks by her father and fifty marks by her brother Thomas (c.1524-May 26, 1552), but her widowed sister-in-law, Margaret Chamond, who was his executrix, refused to pay her. The sister-in-law had remarried (to Richard Trevanion) by the time Mary sued her in the court of Requests. No outcome is recorded, nor do we know what happened to Mary.
MARY ARUNDELL(c.1517-October 20, 1557)
The daughter of Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall (c.1474-February 8, 1545) and his second wife, Catherine Grenville (d.1545+), Mary Arundell was a maid of honor to Queen Jane Seymour before she married Robert Radcliffe, earl of Sussex (1483-November 27, 1542), on January 14, 1537, as his third wife. According to a letter written by her brother, Thomas Arundell, to their father in October 1536, Sussex had offered a jointure of 500 marks in the marriage settlement and Sir John Arundell had promised that Mary would have clothes and £200. Thomas wrote to say that if his father would add lands worth £40 a year, Sussex would give Mary lands worth £50 a year. Mary remained at court as one of Queen Jane’s ladies after her marriage until the queen’s death and returned as one of the Great Ladies of the Household to Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard. She had two sons by Sussex, the king’s godson, probably named Henry (March, 1538-d.yng) and John (bp. December 31, 1539-November 9, 1568). After the earl’s death, Mary married (on December 19, 1545), Henry Fitzalan, earl of Arundel (1512-February 24, 1579/80), as his second wife. Mary is said by some to have been famous as a translator of Greek and Latin epigrams and the writings of Emperor Severus, but these sources appear to have confused her with her stepdaughter, Mary Fitzalan. A glimpse of her domestic life and some of her correspondence can be found in M. St. Clare Byrne’s edition of The Lisle Letters. She died at Arundel House (aka Bath Place) on the Strand and was buried in St. Clement Danes on October 30, 1557, but she was later removed to Boreham for reburial. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Arundell, Mary.”
see MARY WRIOTHESLEY
MILLICENT ARUNDELL (d.1543+) (maiden name unknown)
Mistress Millicent Arundell owned a house in St. Lawrence Lane in the parish of St. Lawrence Jewry, London. In some accounts it is called an inn, but she may simply have let rooms to some of the earl of Surrey’s faction. Surrey himself had a bed there, with armorial bearings hung above it. On numerous occasions, including Friday, January 19, 1543 and during Lent, Millicent provided them meat in violation of the fasting laws. The earl, Thomas Clere (his squire), Sir John Clere (Thomas Clere’s brother), William Pickering, and John Hussey (the duke of Norfolk’s treasurer), all ate meat on January 19th. On the 21st, Surrey, Thomas Clere, Thomas Wyatt (son of the poet), Pickering, and their servants, including William Stafford (husband of Mary Boleyn), Davy Seymour, Thomas Wyndham, and a man named Shelley, who was Surrey’s servant, left Mistress Arundell’s house with their servants, armed with stonebows (crossbows that shot stones) and cudgels and spent the next five hours rioting and breaking windows. In the testimony that came out of charges made after this spree, it was revealed that Mistress Millicent Arundelland her maidservants, Joan Whetnall and Alys Flaner by name, discussed the possibility that the Howards, Surrey and his father the duke of Norfolk, had a claim to the throne after King Henry and his son, Prince Edward. This was treasonous talk, but it was apparently only used against Surrey and not Mistress Arundell and her maids. Millicent also testified to what she overheard of a conversation on the 22ndbetween the earl and his friend George Blagge, who does not seem to have taken part in the rioting. The first of the women to be examined was Alys Flaner, on March 24. On March 28, Millicent was questioned by the Privy Council. She was recalled on April 2, along with Joan Whetnall. Millicent swore that all she’d said was that if the king died while his son was still a minor, the duke of Norfolk deserved to be regent. Her maids had made more of her words than had been meant. Still, even to speculate on the succession could lead to a charge of treason, since it involved contemplating the death of the king. Most accounts of the incident mention only Millicent, but Jessie Childs, in Henry VIII’s Last Victim: The Life and Times of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, states that Millicent and her husband were guilty of breaking the Lenten laws themselves and had no difficulty buying black market meat from their evangelical butcher, Andrew Castle. Castle’s wife had been arrested in 1540 as a radical reformer. There may be no connection, but in 1555 a favorite place for malcontents to meet and where early plans were made for what came to be known as the Dudley Conspiracy, was a tavern known as Arundel’s.
see MARGARET HARLESTONE
see ELIZABETH KENN
ANNE ASHBY (c.1497-1526+)
The daughter of George Ashby of Harefield, Middlesex (d. March 14, 1515), clerk of the signet for the king and master of the swans in the Thames, and Rose Eden, Anne Ashby became the second wife of Francis Lovell (d.1552) in about 1525. Anne is probably the subject of the painting by Hans Holbein the Younger of a woman with a squirrel and a starling. A red squirrel eating a nut is the badge of the Lovell family. She and Lovell had one child, Thomas (April 9, 1526-March 23, 1567). For more details see David J. King’s article, “Who was Holbein’s Lady with a squirrel and starling?” (Apollo, May 2004)
AVICE ASHFIELD (d. August 1599)
Avice Ashfield was the daughter of Sir Edmund Ashfield of Ewelme, Oxfordshire and Shenley, Buckinghamshire (d. January 24, 1577/8) and Eleanor Barton. She married Edmund Lee of Pitstone and Ivinghoe, Buckinghamshire (d. before 1578). Their children were Edmund (d. March 20, 1599), Henry, John, Roger (a Catholic priest), Eleanor, Anne, and Frances. In 1585 and 1587 she was presented as a Catholic recusant.
see JANE MOORE
see CATHERINE BASSETT
see CECILY SUTTON
see DOROTHY LYTE
EDITH ASHLEY (d. October 8, 1553)
Edith Ashley was the daughter of Sir Henry Ashley of Wimborne St. Giles, Dorset (d. March 1, 1549) and RadeganGilbert (c.1495-1538). She was an “old playfellow” of Paul Bushe (1489/90-October 11, 1558), who became first bishop of Bristol in 1542. As soon as it became legal for clergy to take wives, in 1549, Bushe married her, but only a few years later, when Queen Mary took the throne, he was arrested and required to recant and repudiate his wife if he wished to keep his life. He did recant, but he never had to repudiate Edith. She died while he was held in the Tower of London, possibly in childbirth. They did have a son, Paul, who was raised by his maternal uncle, Sir Henry Ashley (1519-1588). Ashley was married to Catherine Bassett, whose mother, Lady Lisle, was a devout Catholic (see HONOR GRENVILLE; CATHERINE BASSETT). Edith was buried at the east end of the north choir in Bristol Cathedral.
JANE OR JOAN ASHLEY, ASTLEY, OR ASTELEY (c.1517-c.1551?)
Jane’s parentage is unknown but she had a brother named John Asteley who was a mercer in London. She may be the Mrs. Assheley listed as a maid of honor to Anne Boleyn in January 1534. She was definitely a maid of honor to Queen Jane Seymour, and then married Peter Mewtas (Meautas, Meautys, de Meautis) (d.1562) in 1537 (before October 9). In 1540 and 1541, Jane Mewtas was apparently in the household of Prince Edward. Henry VIII’s household accounts list the expense of 10s for “a dozen handkerchiefs garnished with gold” in each of those years. Peter Mewtas was knighted in 1544. Their children were Cecily (a maid of honor), Frances, Henry, Thomas, and Hercules (d.1587). Sir Peter Mewtas married his second wife, also named Jane, by 1552. The will of Jane, Lady Mewtas in 1577, leaves items to Hercules Mewtas, identified as her son, but it was common in the sixteenth century to refer to a stepson as a son. Hercules is generally believed to have been Jane Ashley’s son, born around 1548. Portrait: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger (c.1536) labeled “Lady Meutas.”
JANE ASHLEY (d.1610+)
Jane Ashley was the daughter of Anthony Ashley (Astley) of Damerham, Wiltshire and Dorothy Lyte. She had three brothers deemed worthy of entries in the Oxford DNB, Sir Anthony (1551-1627), Robert (1565-1641), and Francis (1569-1635). She married Sir Francis Langley (1548-1602), builder of the Swan theater, who is also the subject of a DNB entry, as well as a full-length biography (A London Life in the Brazen Age: Francis Langley, 1548-1602 by William Ingram). Jane had at least seven children by Langley, including Jane (b.1586) and Francis (1590-1592). They lived in Cheapside until about 1591, when they took up residence the manor of Paris Garden in the Bankside (Southwark). Soon after, Langley erected the Swan. His biographer suggests that either Jane or one of her children came up with the name. In 1599, according to the account given several years later by Alice Pattenson, a widow who lived in the Langley household, Jane told her “that her husband Francis Langley had caused her to go to her brother Sir Anthony Ashley, knight, and to offer the sale of the said manor unto him” for £2,000. Ashley, Pattenson said, told Jane “to make the best of her land and to sell it to whom they would” but “the price was too much . . . he would not buy it nor any more land till he was out of debt.” Mrs. Pattenson suggested that Hugh Browker might buy the manor and offered to talk to him, which she did. When Langley died, he left behind many unresolved lawsuits, numerous debts, and no will. Jane was granted the administration of his goods in lieu of a will on July 24, 1602. She continued to live in the manor house and when she discovered that Hugh Browker had no intention of buying Paris Garden, she brought suit against him for fraud. At the same time, her brother sued the estate for a judgment he had earlier won against Langley in the Queen’s Bench for £600. Other claims against the estate followed, which Jane made an attempt to settle. She was still living in the manor house in 1605 and on June 4, 1606 she remarried, taking as her second husband George Delahaye of Reigate, Surrey (d.1608). When he died, leaving a will that distributed most of his estate elsewhere, Jane appears to have returned to Paris Garden, where she was still living in 1610.
KAT ASHLEY or ASTLEY
see KATHERINE CHAMPERNOWNE
see CATHERINE GORDON
see KATHERINE WARNEFORD
CATHERINE ASKE (d.1507)
Catherine Aske was the daughter of Sir John Aske of Aughton, Yorkshire (1442-June 1497) and Elizabeth Bigod (1443-1507+). She married Sir John Hastings of Fenwick, Yorkshire (1466-July 12, 1504) in about 1496 as his second wife. They had a daughter, Elizabeth, who died before her mother and was buried in Hymmyngburgh Church. In her will, made on February 25, 1506/7, Dame Catherine left clothing and jewelry to a variety of churches and also to family members, including her best beads to her mother. Her servant and gentlewoman, Elizabeth Leners received three black gowns, two plain velvet bonnets, a frontlet of tawny satin, and a kirtle of crimson cloth. Dame Catherine asked that a stone be laid over her late husband at Norton Priory and another over her grave in the parish church of Askton(Aughton?).
ELIZABETH ASKE (c.1506-1568)
There are significant differences between the details given in the Oxford DNB entry for Elizabeth Aske and the information in online genealogies. In this case, I find the genealogies more convincing. The DNB version appears in brackets. Elizabeth Aske was the daughter of Roger Aske of Aske Hall, Yorkshire (1483-1510)[d. before 1510] and Margery or Margaret Sedgwick, who married Aske in 1502 [Margery Wycliffe (d. before 1510)]. After her father’s death, Elizabeth’s guardian was Ralph Bowes. Elizabeth married his son, Richard Bowes (1488-November 10, 1558) [b.c.1497] in 1521 and bore him fifteen Children, including Ralph, George (1527-1580), Christopher, Francis, Margery (1533-December 1560), Robert (1535-1597), Bridget, Anne, Jane, Elizabeth, and Muriel. Margery married reformer John Knox in July 1553. In June 1556, Elizabeth left her husband and accompanied her daughter into exile on the Continent, then to Scotland, where Margery died. There were some who accused Elizabeth of having more than a “spiritual” relationship with her son-in-law. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Bowes [née Aske], Elizabeth.”
ANNE ASKEW (c.1521-July 16, 1546)
Anne Askew was the daughter of Sir William Askew of Stallingborough, Lincolnshire (d.1541) and Elizabeth Wrottesley. She is unlikely ever to have been a maid of honor to Queen Katherine Parr, as some accounts claim. Anne married in 1536. Katherine did not become queen until 1543. Anne’s husband, Thomas Kyme of Friskney, had been betrothed to Anne’s sister, Martha. After Martha’s death, the younger sister was substituted for the older one. After giving birth to two children, Anne’s Zwinglian convictions led to disputes with the clergymen of Lincoln and eventually to her eviction from Kyme’s house in December 1544. Anne borrowed money from one of her brothers and set out for London with a maidservant. She was arrested there for heresy but acquitted in June 1545. Arrested a second time in 1546, she was tortured and finally burnt at the stake. Biography: see portions of Derek Wilson’s Tudor Tapestry; Oxford DNB entry under “Askew [married name Kyme], Anne.” Portraits: the portrait by Hans Eworth labeled “Anne Ayscough” was not painted until 1560 and is probably Anne Clinton Askew.
ELIZABETH ASKEW or AYSCOUGH
see ELIZABETH HUTTON
see ANNE WOOD
JOAN ASTLEY or ASLEY (d. 1554+)
Joan Astley or Asley, former nun at Sempringham, married Christopher Hudson (d.1559), previously a canon at Catley, probably after the spring of 1549, which was when the marriage of ex-religious was first allowed in England. In 1554, they were living at Dorrington, Lincolnshire, near Sleaford, where Christopher was vicar. His pension was £2 and hers was £2 6s. 8d. and he earned £6 a year as vicar. It is likely they were forced to separate soon after, since during the reign of Mary Tudor clerical marriage once again became illegal.
see MARGARET GREY
JANE ASTON (d. 1501)
Jane Aston was the daughter of Sir Richard Aston of Aston, Cheshire (d.1492) and Maud Massy. She married first Roger Dutton of Cheshire (1431-1499), by whom she had a son, Lawrence (d.1526). Her second husband was Sir Richard Strangeways of Yorkshire (d.c.1500). On October 28, 1500, when she made her will, she was a lodger in the house of the Friars Preachers at York. Most of this document deals with instructions for her burial and the prayers to be said for her soul and the souls of her two husbands, but she did leave small bequests to her five goddaughters, her waiting gentlewoman, Elizabeth Eland, another woman servant, Agnes Nottyngham, on the condition that they remained in her service until her death. Jane added a codicil on March 21, 1500/1 to leave her “syster Warwycke” her best girdle and her daughter-in-law, Margaret Dutton, a red velvet bonnet. The will was proved on February 3, 1501/2.
see MARGERY HILL
ANNE ATKINSON or ATKINS (d.1611)
Anne Atkinson was the daughter of Sir Robert Atkinson of Stowell, Gloucestershire (d.1607) and Joyce Ashfield. Her father was a barrister of the Inner Temple with a house in Chancery Lane. She married Sir William Wentworth of Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire (1562-1614). Their children were Anne (1591-July 30, 1633), Thomas (April 13, 1593-May 12, 1641), William (d.1644), Michael (b.1600), Margaret (1602-1626), Elizabeth (1603-1661+), John (d.1625), Robert, Matthew (1605-1635), Philip (1608-1634), and George (1609-1645+). Portrait: effigy in Holy Trinity Church, Wentworth Rotherham, Yorkshire.
see MARY WATERS
MARGARET ATWELL (d.1529+)
On April 30, 1529, Margaret Atwell and two (other?) chamberers were given gowns of tawny damask lined with tawny velvet. All three together were valued at £22 19s.
see MARIE de la CHATRE
ANNE AUCHER (d.1631)
Anne Aucher (Archer/Ager) was the daughter of John Aucher of Otterden/Ottrington, Kent (1531-1568) and Anne Kelloway/Calloway (1530-1600). Anne was an heiress and brought a fortune to her 1570 marriage to Humphrey Gilbert of Compton, Devon (c.1537-September 9, 1583). He managed to squander most of it on his voyages. In 1578, he named his flagship the Anne Aucher. He left England for Newfoundland, on June 11, 1583 and died at sea. His will, dated August 38, 1582, was proved October 20, 1584. He left his widow and executrix £1000 and his children £2000. This money was to come from what was owed Gilbert by Sir Edward Hoby for his purchase of the manor of Minster. By Gilbert, Anne had Elizabeth, John (d. July 5, 1608), Humphrey, Otho, Arthur, Anthony, Raleigh (c.1581-1634) and Adrian. Her second husband was John Mitchell. She was buried May 11, 1631 at ChurstonFerrers, Devonshire.
MARY AUCHER (d.1536+)
The name Mary Orchard is given for Anne Boleyn’s “old nurse,” later a chamberer in her household and with her in the Tower of London at the end of her life. The identity of this woman is unknown, as is her marital status, but it seems likely that she was a connection of the Boleyn family through the marriage of Isabel Boleyn (d. April 23, 1485), Anne’s father’s paternal aunt, to Henry Aucher of Otterden, Kent. The name is also spelled Orcher. According to Alison Weir’s The Lady in the Tower, Mrs. Orchard was in the gallery at the trial of Anne Boleyn when the Duke of Norfolk condemned Anne to be burned or beheaded at King Henry’s pleasure. At those words, she “shrieked out dreadfully.”
JANE AUDER, ALDER or AWDER (c.1524-1613)
Jane Auder was the daughter of George Auder (1490-1560), alderman of Cambridge, and his wife Agnes (d. April 1576). On November 13, 1540, she married William Turner, botanist, physician, and Dean of Wells (c.1510-July 7, 1568). They were wed in secret because Turner was a clergyman who had taken a vow of chastity. It was against the law for such persons to marry. The penalty was death. Soon after the wedding, the newlyweds fled religious persecution in England. They spent time in Ferrara and Bologna, where Turner studied medicine, and then lived in various Rhineland cities. All three of their children, Peter (1542-May 27, 1614), Winifred, and Elizabeth, were born during this exile. Returning to England after the death of Henry VIII, Turner became the personal physician and auxiliary chaplain of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset and Lord Protector, a position that ended abruptly when Somerset was arrested in 1549. From 1549 until Turner’s appointment as Dean of Wells in March 1551, the family lived in considerable poverty. The first part of Turner’s Herball was published before the death of Edward VI. The family was forced back into exile during Mary Tudor’s reign. Once again they lived in several different cities, including Cologne, Worms, and Weissenburg. Under Elizabeth, Jane and her husband had a home in Crutched Friars, London. Turner was buried at St. Olave in Hart Street. His will, proved July 15,1568, left Jane silver and equal shares with his children of the bulk of his estate. Should she remarry, his minor children’s goods were to be kept by other named individuals, even though Jane was his executor. By March of 1570, Jane had remarried. An extant letter dated 8 March 1571 refers to this event as having taken place “a year ago.” Once again her marriage was controversial in religious circles. Her second husband was Richard Cox (c.1500-July 22, 1581), whose first marriage c.1547 had raised eyebrows because his wife publicly resided with him in Christ Church. Cox, who eventually became Bishop of Ely, openly defended the right of priests to marry and remarried quickly when he became a widower. This displeased the queen. By the end of 1575, there were a number of complaints against both Cox and Jane. Lord North accused them of corruption and one of their tenants called Jane “Jezebel.” These matters appear to have been settled by Cox relinquishing property, in particular to Lord North. In 1579, Cox asked to retire and had negotiated the grant of DoddingtonManor for life and an annuity of £200, but the arrangements were never finalized and he died while still serving as bishop. He left goods valued at £1334 to his widow and seven children. It is unclear how many, if any, of the children were Jane’s. She established a scholarship at Pembroke Hall in memory of her first husband and also erected a monument to him in St. Olave’s.
see CECILY MORE
see ELEANOR PERCY
see ELIZABETH CHEDWORTH; ELIZABETH GREY; ELIZABETH TOUCHET
MARGARET AUDLEY (1539-January 10, 1564)
Margaret Audley was one of the wealthiest young women in England when she was married at thirteen to Lord Henry Dudley (1531-August 27,1557), younger son of the duke of Northumberland. The only child of Thomas Audley, 1st baron Audley (1488-April 30, 1544) and Elizabeth Grey (c.1510-c.1564), she had inherited lands worth £1000 per annum, including Cree Church Place in London and Audley End on the outskirts of Saffron Walden. These were confiscated when the duke was found guilty of treason and executed. Henry Dudley was restored in blood on July 5, 1556 and his wife’s lands were returned, but he died in France after the Battle of Saint Quentin the following year. Early in 1558, Margaret was betrothed to Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk (March 10, 1538-June 2, 1572), but they were obliged to wait for a papal dispensation to wed since his first wife had been Margaret’s first cousin. They were still waiting when Queen Mary died and Queen Elizabeth succeeded, restoring Protestantism to England. They wed quietly, without the dispensation, during the first days of the new reign and Parliament ratified the marriage in March 1559. After participating in the coronation, Margaret and her new husband retired to Kenninghall and did not return to London until the following autumn. The marriage appears to have been a love match and produced four children, Elizabeth (1560-d.yng), Thomas (1561-1626), Margaret (1562-1591), and William (December 1563-1640). So great was Margaret’s desire to rejoin her husband for Christmas in 1563 that she left Audley End when she was still weak from childbirth. She caught a chill on the journey and died at Norwich on January 10, 1564. Portrait: by Hans Eworth, 1562, a companion piece to one of her husband.
see FRANÇOISE de MAILLÉ
JUDITH AUSTIN (1566-August 28, 1640)
Judith Austin (or Ostern) was the daughter of Thomas Austin of Oxley, Staffordshire (1538-April 9, 1601) and Mary Cresswell (1540-1574). Her first husband was William Boothby of Old Jewry, London (1564-1597), by whom she had two sons, Henry (b. June 24, 1594) and Richard (b.1596). She married second William Bassett of Blore, Staffordshire and Langley Meynell, Derbyshire (August 18, 1551-December 9, 1601), by whom she had one daughter, Elizabeth (1599-April 17, 1643). Bassett, although he served as sheriff of Derbyshire, was examined on allegations of Catholicism, treason, necromancy, and cowardice in the early 1590s but nothing was proven. Upon his death, Judith attempted to keep custody of her two-year-old daughter but the child became a ward of the Crown. Her wardship was sold to Henry, Lord Cobham, who in turn sold it to Sir Walter Raleigh. At age four, Elizabeth was betrothed to Walter Raleigh, age ten. At the same time, an agreement was reached to return her custody to her mother until she was sixteen years old. This cost Judith an annual payment of £40 until Elizabeth was ten and after that 100 marks per annum. In 1603, however, both Cobham and Raleigh were attainted for treason and the wardship reverted to the Crown. In 1605, Judith was still trying unsuccessfully to acquire it for herself. Judith commissioned a monument in the Bassett Chapel in St. Bartholomew’s Church in Blore that features alabaster effigies of herself and her husband, her daughter and her husband, Henry Howard, and Elizabeth’s daughter, Catherine. Elizabeth’s two sons, who died young, are represented by two caskets. Judith married third Roger Corbet of Moreton Corbet, Shropshire (c.1545-1606). They had no children.
see ALICE HUCTHEN
ALICE AVERY (d.1553+)
The case of Alice Avery is discussed in Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams’s unpublished PhD dissertation, Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England. Alice was a victualler in Boulogne during its occupation by English forces and there met a soldier named Thomas Kemys. In London, they ran a victualling and lodging house and set up housekeeping together. At one point, when they were accused of living in sin, they swore in court that they had been married in St. Margaret’s Westminster. Thomas admitted that he’d had a wife in Wales, but claimed to have divorced her. Divorce did not grant the parties the right to remarry, but apparently no charges of bigamy were ever brought against Thomas and Alice. Some time later, Thomas was found guilty of a felony and executed and all his goods and chattels were seized. Alice was unable to stop the sheriff, one John Mershe, from confiscating them because she had also been arrested and imprisoned. After she was cleared of involvement in Thomas’s crime and released, she brought suit against Mershein Star Chamber, claiming that since she and Thomas had never been married, the goods he had seized rightfully belonged to her. A married woman, of course, owned nothing in her own right, and would have been entitled to none of the confiscated property. Two lists of the disputed items survive, one drawn up by Alice and the other by Mershe. Both include numerous beds, carpets, tables, and chests, indicating a fairly well-to-do household. Records of the lawsuit in the National Archives cover the period from January 1547 until July 1553 but do not seem to include a judgment.
see MARY DALE
JOHANNE AWDY (d.1543) (maiden name unknown)
The will of Johanne Awdy, widow, dated October 9, 1542, together with the inventory of her goods and chattels taken on November 21, 1543, can be found at http://www.british-history.ac.uk in London Consistory Court Wills 1492-1547. Johanne asked to be buried in St. Paul’s churchyard in London. She named her cousin, Henry Horne, a London grocer, as her executor. However, she also left 12d. in tithes negligently forgotten to the high altar in Stotfold, Bedfordshire and two of the witnesses to the will were also from Stotfold, John Bygrave, husbandman and George Gayer, yeoman. The other witnesses were John Southcot, gentleman and Richard Mortimer, tallow chandler of Baldock, a town near Stotfold. This suggests she may not have died in London. The inventory, however, was conducted by three London citizens. The total value was £6 8s. 2d. It included such things as three silver spoons and four pairs of fine sheets but the apparel listed was not impressive, once again suggesting that she was living elsewhere when she died. There were only two very old gowns, another old gown, three old kirtles, and two old petticoats.
FRANCES AYLMER (d.1540) (maiden name unknown)
Frances Aylmer (also spelled Aelmerand Elmer) was a lady of the privy chamber to Princess Mary Tudor from at least 1525 until 1533 and returned to her service in 1536. She served as Mary’s proxy when Mary was godmother to one of the children of Lord William Howard. In mid-July 1533, Thomas Cromwell wrote to Lord Hussey, Chamberlain of Mary’s household, ordering him to have Mary’s jewels and plate inventoried and placed in the custody of Frances Aylmer. This did not happen. The countess of Salisbury, who was Lady Mistress of the household, refused to comply unless she received written orders from the king himself. Frances is probably the same Frances Aelmer whose will was proved March 21, 1540, since she makes reference in it to Sir William and Lady Butts (Margaret Bacon), who were also members of Mary’s household. In a query to Notes and Queries in 1896, citing that will, the writer suggests that Frances might have been the mother of John Aylmer, Bishop of London (1520/21-June 3, 1594). This is certainly a possibility. The Oxford DNB entry for Aylmer list his parents as unknown. Online sources say he was the younger son of John Aylmer of Aylmer Hall in Tilney, Norfolk (John Aylmer had another son, Sir Robert Aylmer) but do not give life dates or a name for this senior John Aylmer’s wife.
FRANCES AYLWORTH (c.1556-July 4, 1605)
Frances Aylworth was the daughter of John Aylworth or Ayleworth of London and Polstow, Devon and Elizabeth Ashton. On March 3, 1584 she married Sir Thomas Reynell of West Ogwell, Devon (before 1555-April 8, 1618). Their children were Jane, Frances, Agnes, Lucy, Mary, Cecilia, Sir Richard (c.1584-February 10, 1647/8), Sir Thomas (1589-1665), and Walter (March 10, 1591-1627). Portrait: by Robert Peake, 1597.
see ANNE CLINTON
EMMA AYSCOUGH (1550-1600+)
Emma Ayscough or Ascough was married twice. Her first husband, married c.1570, was Thomas Estcourt of Shipton Moyne, Gloucestershire (1545-1599). They had a number of children. Those still living in 1599 were Thomas (1571-1624), Edmund (1573-1618), Elizabeth, Richard, and Anne. In 1600, Emma married Sir Henry Blomer of Hatherop. Portrait: effigy in ShiptonMoyne.