Dorothy Habington was the daughter of John Habington of Hindlip, Worcestershire (1515-1581/2) and Catherine Wykes (c.1520-c.1580). Her mother was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber to Queen Elizabeth and her father a treasurer of the queen’s household. He acquired Hindlip in 1563 and built Hindlip House, completing it in 1575, just in time to entertain the queen on one of her progresses. According to one account, the queen was so fond of Catherine Habington that she paid the expenses of her burial. Unlike her brothers, Dorothy was a staunch Protestant. When her eldest brother, Edward (c.1553-September 20, 1586) was executed for his part in the Babington conspiracy and their next brother, Thomas (August 23, 1560-October 8, 1647), was placed under arrest on suspicion of involvement, Dorothy was left in possession of Hindlip. Several priests, including Father Henry Garnet, tried and failed to convince her to change her faith but in 1590 she was converted to Catholicism by Edward Oldcorne, a Jesuit. For the next sixteen years, Hindlip was Oldcorne’s base in Worcestershire. After Thomas Habington was released from prison in 1592 and married in 1593, he and his wife settled at Hindlip. It was raided on January 18, 1606. It took seven days for Garnet and Oldcorne to be found and arrested. At the same time, in London, the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot were on trial. At some point after the execution of Sir Everard Digby on January 30, 1606, Dorothy went to live at Gayhurst House, Buckinghamshire, as companion to his widow.


Agnes Hackett was the daughter of John Hackett of Wolverton. Her first husband was the last member of the Fry family to own Appuldurcombe Manor and the Priory of Carisbrooke on the Isle of Wight. By 1505, Agnes married Sir John Leigh of More, Dorsetshire (d.1529). Records from 1505, assigning Appuldurcombe to him, state that his wife’s name was Agnes and that she had a daughter named Joan Fry. For some reason, however, other records call Agnes Mary Hackett and still others confuse Joan Fry with Anne (d.1567), Agnes’s daughter with Leigh. One daughter was in service to Lady Margaret Beaufort (d.1509), the mother of King Henry VII. Agnes survived her second husband and is said to have died a very old woman. Portrait: alabaster effigy on her husband’s tomb in All Saints, Godshill, Isle of Wight. She is buried under a stone a little below it.



Margaret Hadley was the daughter of Sir Christopher Hadley of Withycombe, Somersetshire. On the death of Margaret’s brother Arthur in 1558, she inherited her father’s property, including the manors of Heathfield, Williton Hadley, and Withycombe Hadley, all adjacent to Dunster, the family seat of the Luttrells. Margaret married Thomas Luttrell of Marshwood, Somersetshire (c.1524-January 16,1571). At some point before 1558, their marriage was declared invalid because of consanguinity. Margaret’s great-great-grandmother’s first husband had been a Luttrell andThomas’s mother was Margaret’s godmother. By a bull issued November 28, 1558,  Pope Paul IV validated the marriage on the condition it be solemnized in church. Given that Queen Elizabeth had succeeded Queen Mary and restored the Anglican church, this ceremony did not take place until August 27, 1560, shortly before the birth of their first child, George (September 1560-1629). Their other children were John (1566-1620) and four daughters, including Margaret. By 1573, when Margaret was given administration of her first husband’s estate, she had married John Strode of Parnham, Dorset (1524-September 2, 1581) as his second wife. Their children were Hugh (d.1619+), Ann (d.1581+), Margaret (d.1581+), Dorothy (d.1581+), Bridget (d. January 13, 1619/20), and Alice (d.1581+). Her daughter, Margaret Luttrell, later married Strode’s son Robert as his second wife. On November 17, 1586, at Cattistock, Dorset, Margaret Hadley married her third husband, Richard Hill, as his second wife.




JANE HALES (c.1520-1569+)
Jane (sometimes called Mary) Hales was the daughter of Sir James Hales of the Dungeon, Canterbury, Kent (c.1495-August 14, 1554), a judge, and his first wife, Margaret. His second wife, also named Margaret, was Margaret Wood, widow of Sir Walter Mantell of Horton Priory, Kent and of Sir William Hawte or Haute of Bishopsbourne, Kent. In 1547, Jane married her stepbrother, another Walter Mantell (1518-x. February 27, 1554). She brought Shelving Manor in Barham, near Canterbury, to the marriage. Their children were Matthew (c.1548-1589), Mark (c.1549-1581), Luke, and Johannes. Mantell was executed for his part in the rebellion led by Thomas Wyatt, who had married the stepsister Mantell acquired through his mother’s second marriage. At about the same time, Jane’s father was imprisoned over a matter of religion. He recanted, but then tried to kill himself by slitting his veins with a penknife. After he recovered, he was released by royal command (in April 1554) but he later committed suicide by drowning himself. Since suicide was a felony, his goods, chattels, and leases were forfeit to the Crown. By 1560, Jane had married Christopher Carleill (c.1519-August 2, 1588), not to be confused with the Christopher Carleill whose mother married Sir Francis Walsingham. Their children were James, Jonathan (c.1561-1599), Anne, and Jane. In the thirteenth year of her reign, Queen Elizabeth returned Horton Priory to Jane’s eldest son, Matthew Mantell.




JANE HALL (November 1536-May 11, 1598)
Jane Hall was the daughter of Francis Hall of Grantham, Lincolnshire (d. June 10, 1552), controller of Calais, and Ursula Sharington (d.1569). She married Francis Nele of Prestwold and Cotes, Leicestershire (d.1559). According to “The Two Unknown Ladies of Prestwold” by Philip White at the Wolds Historical Organization website (www.hoap.co.uk/who/prestwold01.htm), they had two children, Mary (1559-1632) and a posthumous son, Thomas (1560-1576). Jane’s second husband was Henry Skipwith (d. August 14, 1588), keeper of Ampthill great park. They had four sons and nine daughters: William (c.1564-May 3, 1610), Francis, Henry, George, Ursula, Katherine, Anne, Alice, Jane, Bridget, Dorothy, Elizabeth, and Margaret. Skipwith purchased various lands surrounding those Jane held in dower from her first marriage. When he died, her administration of his goods and chattels was disputed and she had difficulty obtaining an account of his lands, but eventually the matter was settled in her favor.


MARY HALL (by 1532-1557+)
Mary Hall was the daughter of Francis Hall of Grantham, Lincolnshire (d. June 10, 1552), controller of Calais, and Ursula Sherrington (d.1569). By 1557, she was in the service of Anne of Cleves and was left £40 when Anne died. Also in Anne’s household was Catherine Bassett, whose mother was held under house arrest in the Hall home in Calais when Mary was a girl.




JANE HALLIGHWELL (c.1486-October 24, 1558)
Jane Hallighwell was the daughter of Sir Richard Hallighwell, Halliwell, Halwell, or Holywell of Harberton and South Pool, Devon (c.1462-July 24, 1506) and Anne Norbury (d. between 1500 and 1504). She married Edmund, 1st baron Bray (1484-October 18, 1539) by a settlement dated February 21, 1497. Their children were Anne (1500-November 1, 1558), Elizabeth (c.1513-1573), Frideswide (b.c.1516), Mary (c.1518-1569), Frances (c.1522-May 27, 1592), Ellen, Dorothy (c.1524-October 31, 1605), John (c.1527-November 18, 1557), and three more daughters. By November 30, 1545, Lady Bray had married Sir Urian Brereton of Handforth, Cheshire (c.1510-March 19, 1578). From 1553-1557, various members of Jane’s immediate family, including several grandchildren, were in and out of prison on charges of treason for their participation in Wyatt’s Rebellion, and/or in the Dudley Conspiracy. In May, 1556, when Jane’s only son was arrested on suspicion of treason in connection with the latter, she immediately went to London to petition for his release. He was held for nearly a year but was never tried and was eventually pardoned. Soon after that, he left with King Philip’s army to fight in France and was wounded at Saint Quentin on August 10, 1557. He died of his injuries in his house in Blackfriars. Jane was with him and was named his executrix. The will was proved two days after his death. She made all the arrangements for his funeral, which was conducted according to Catholic ritual, and for his burial at Chelsea, where his father and grandfather were buried. No one from his wife’s family attended the funeral, nor did the husbands of three of his sisters. The chief mourner was Lord Cobham, who was married to Jane’s eldest daughter. Jane died during the influenza epidemic of 1558. Portrait: memorial brass in the Church of St. Mary the Virgin in Eaton Bray, Bedfordshire.

Dorothy Halsall was one of the four natural children of Henry Stanley, 4th earl of Derby (1531-September 25, 1593) and Jane Halsall of Knowsley, Lancashire (d.1591?), who entered into a common law marriage c.1570, despite the fact that Derby was already married to Margaret Clifford, the queen’s cousin. Dorothy married Cuthbert Halsall of Halsall and Selwich, Lancashire (c.1573-1632), natural son of Richard Halsall. Cuthbert had been adopted by his father’s family and inherited the bulk of the estate of his paternal grandmother, Ann Molyneux Halsall, in 1587. He ran through almost the entire fortune during his lifetime. Dorothy and Cuthbert had two daughters, Ann (d.1675) and Bridget. Dorothy was friends with Margaret Gerard, Lady Legh and a letter is extant, dated March 12, 1596, when both their husbands were in military service with the earl of Essex, in which she asks that gentlewoman to give the messenger who brought it the oil of almonds Lady Legh had promised to send to Dorothy. Described by one historian as “a lady of a petulant and vivid temperament,” Dorothy apparently fascinated her brother-in-law, the poet John Salusbury, who had married her half sister Ursula in 1586. (see URSULA STANLEY) Ursula was the mother of his ten children but Dorothy’s name turns up in anagrams in his poems. In the 1620s and 30s, Cuthbert was frequently in the Fleet for debt and died there in February 1632. Dorothy petitioned the king and managed to salvage part of the Halsall estate. She lived at Selwich in her widowhood.


AGNES HAMMOND (d. 1573+)
Agnes Hammond was the daughter of Reginald Hammond of Ramsden, Bellhouse, Essex (d. 1513/14) and Elizabeth Towe (d. November 27, 1527). She is called Emme (Anne?) in her father’s will, dated September 26, 1513 and proved April 24, 1514, but appears to be identical with the Agnes Hammond, daughter of Reginald. He died in the parish of St. Andrews in Eastcheap, London and left her 40s. toward her marriage. She married John Mountney (d.1528). As a widow, she inherited the use of the manor of Mountnessing, otherwise called Gyng Mountney, for life. She married Henry Wentworth (d.c.1545). Their children were John (1540-1588), Thomas (1545-1565), Peter (d.1599), Henry, Agnes or Anne (d. September 2, 1571), and Mary. In about January 1546, she married William Wilford. Agnes’s daughter, Agnes Wentworth, who had married Thomas, Lord Wentworth, was imprisoned in the Fleet on August 16, 1558 for religious offenses. On August 30 she was released and sent to her mother’s house in Essex. In 1572, Agnes and her third husband were living in Stepney, Middlesex when they were fined 40s. for being in arrears for rent on Hammond’s former manor of Stow Maries. In 1573, they were required to pay 160 marks for a quitclaim on “whatever they had for the life of Agnes” in Mountnessing. There is some confusion whether it was Agnes or her daughter who was buried in Stepney Church on September 3, 1576 as “the right honorable Lady Agnes Wentworth.”



ANNE HAMPDEN (March 5, 1597-1663)
Anne Hampden was the daughter of Edmund Hampden of Wendover, Buckinghamshire (d.1605) and his second wife, Margaret (d.1603). According to the Chamberlain Letters, Anne’s wealthy but childless uncle, Alexander Hampden (1546-March 19,1618) arranged a marriage for her in July 1617 with a son of Sir John Pakington. Earlier that year he had arranged marriages for her two younger sisters, Margaret (February 1598-May 1, 1658) to Thomas Wenman or Wayman and Mary (July 1601-1641) to Alexander Denton. Anne was to have £1,200/year in land as her dowry but at the last moment, after the bridal clothes were made, she balked at being tied to this particular groom for life. Her uncle was furious. According to Chamberlain, her decision cost her £10,000. This may have been an exaggeration, but Alexander Hampden did afterward settle much of his property elsewhere. By a will dated November 1, 1617, however, he left Anne the manor of Owleswick and £3000 upon her marriage, provided she wed someone approved by her two brothers-in-law. In 1619, she made a love match with John Trevor (1596-1673). Their children were John (1626-1672), Richard (c.1630-1676), Ralph, Mary, Anne, Jane, and possibly Elizabeth, Susanna, and Margaret. Portrait: a family portrait, unknown date.



SYBIL HAMPDEN (d. November 6, 1562)
Better known as Mrs. Penne, Sybil or Sibell Hampden was the daughter of William Hampden of Dunton and Wingrave, Buckinghamshire and Audrey Hampden (daughter of Richard Hampden of Kimbell). She married David Penne (d.c.1570) and had two sons, John (d.1596) and William. In October 1538, she became the chief nurse in the household of the future Edward VI and remained in that post until 1544. The prince was very fond of her. When he became king, gave her the manor of Beaumond and the rectory of Little Missenden in Buckinghamshire. In 1553, she reappears in the household of Queen Mary, Edward’s sister, and she continued to live in rooms at Hampton Court during the reign of Elizabeth Tudor, although she had a house, called Penn’s Place, nearby. She was stricken with smallpox at the same time Queen Elizabeth caught the disease, but Sybil Penne died of it. She was buried on the north side of the chancel at St. Mary in the village of Hampton, Middlesex, just upstream from Hampton Court Palace. The inscription reads:

Pen here is brought to home, the place of longe abode
Whose vertu guided hathe her shippe into the quyet rode.
A myrror of her tyme for vertues of the mynde
A matrone such as in her dayes the like was herd to find
No plant of servile stocke a Hampden by discent
Unto whose race 300 yeres hathe frendly fortune lent
To cowrte she called was to foster up a kinge
Whose helping had long lingring, sutes, to spedie end did bring
Twoo quennes that scepter bare gave credyt to the dame.
Full manye yeres in cowrt she dwelt without disgrace or blame.
No howse ne worldly wealthe on earthe she did regarde
Before eche love yea and her life her princes health prefard
Whose long and loyal love, with skilfull care to serve
Was such as did through heavenly help her princes thankes deserve
Woolde God the ground were grafte with trees of such delight
That idell braines of fructfull plantes might find just caws to writ[e]
As I have plyed my pen to praise this Pen with all
Who lyeth entombed in this grave untill the trompe her call
This restinge place beholde no subject place to bale
To which perforce ye lokers on, your fletinge bodyes shall.

According to Ernest Philip Alphonse Law’s The History of Hampton Court, the arms on the monument make it clear that Sybil Penne was a Hampden rather than a Pagenham, and yet generations of biographers have repeated the story that she was the daughter of Hugh Pagenham or Pakenham and the sister-in-law of Sir William Sidney. Sidney was responsible for Sybil obtaining her position in Edward’s household and he refers to Sybil as his sister-in-law in a letter. However, in sixteenth-century usage, sister-in-law could mean any connection that was “by law” rather than by blood. Sir William’s son, Sir Henry Sidney, added to the confusion in a letter to Frances Walsingham, dated March 1, 1583. He writes: “my near kinswoman being his only nurse my father being his chamberlain my mother his governess my aunt in such a place as among meaner personages is called a dry nurse.” A partial explanation may be found in the fact than an Elizabeth Sydney married Sir John Hampden of Great Hampden, Buckinghamshire (d.1496) before 1477 and had a son named William, who was probably Sybil’s father. The ghost of Sybil Penne supposedly haunts Hampton Court Palace. Portraits: life size recumbent effigy in Hampton Church (http://www.hampton-church.org.uk); illustration said to be Sybil Penne’s ghost in Law’s book.

Elizabeth Hampson was the daughter of Sir Robert Hampson of Taplow, Buckinghamshire (1537-1607), sheriff of London in 1598, and Katherine Goode (1553-1624/5). In 1597, she married John Hewett of Headly Hall, Yorkshire (1553-1602). Their children were John (d.1657), Katherine (d.1648+), an unnamed child who was buried June 1, 1600, and Margaret (December 1601-d.yng). Her second husband was Sir Gilbert Wakering of Bloxwich, Staffordshire (d.1617). After his death, she married Sir Robert Beville (Bevill/Bevile/Buell) of Chesterton, Huntingdonshire (September 28, 1572-1635). Her son married his daughter, Katherine. At some point, there was a quarrel between Beville and his son-in-law/stepson, in which Elizabeth sided with her son. It appears to have been after this that Elizabeth and Robert Beville separated. She took away “all her own goods into her own possession” and “disposed of them at her pleasure.” Under the law, this was not something she could do without her husband’s permission and Sir Robert apparently never forgave her. He refers to the incident in his will, in which he left her only ten shillings “in respect she took her son’s part against me, and did animate and comfort him afterwards. These will not be forgotten.” To John Hewett he left “ten shillings, and no more, in respect he struck and causelessly fought with me.” To Katherine Byng (née Hewitt), he left “all such monies as is due unto me by Sir John Hewitt by virtue of an order or decree in the Chancery.” After she left her husband, Elizabeth lived at the manor of Haddon and later had a house in Hackney, Middlesex. When she made her will, on May 14, 1646 (proved February 24, 1647/8), she left money and diamonds to her children and grandchildren but specified that her son-in-law, George Binge (Byng) was not to “intermeddle or have anything to do with my estate, nor receive any benefit thereby.” Curiously, George Binge is one of the witnesses. As executor, she chose her brother, Sir Thomas Hampson.

ALICE HAMPTON (d. September 27, 1516)
Alice Hampton was the daughter and heir of John Hampton of Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire (d. before 1471) and his wife Ellen. Due to the deaths of other siblings and the decision of the remaining brother to become a monk, Alice also inherited the estate of her uncle, William Hampton (d.1482/3), a prosperous fishmonger who was Lord Mayor of London in 1472-3. It has been speculated that she intended to become a nun at Dartford Priory in Kent until she inherited all the family’s Gloucestershire estates. Instead, she became a vowess. As far as is known, she was unique in that, unlike other vowesses, she had never been married. After living for a time as a vowess at Dartford, Alice took up residence just outside London at Haliwell Priory. She paid the prioress eight pounds of pepper a year for two rooms above a storehouse and two parcels of empty ground. She could also use the prioress’s well and washing house and had her own locked door and key to enter the garden beside the convent’s entrance. In 1507-8, Alice gave much of her estate to Syon Abbey. Her will, dated May 13, 1514 and proved October 4, 1516, made provision for Haliwell. Biography: entry in the Oxford DNB under “Hampton, Alice.” Portrait: included in memorial brass c.1510, Holy Trinity, Minchinhampton, Gloucestershire.

ELIZABETH HANCHET (c.1545-September 26, 1584)
Elizabeth Hanchet was the daughter of Thomas Hanchet of Hamels in Braughing, Hertfordshire. She married Sir Thomas Barnardison of Kedington, Suffolk (c.1543-December 28, 1619). Their children were Thomas (d. July 29, 1610), Edmund, William, Mary, and Elizabeth. In 1578, she entertained Queen Elizabeth at Kedington. The earl of Leicester stayed at another Barnardiston property (Blunts Hall) a mile away. Portrait: effigy in St. Peter and Paul, Kedington.


MAUD HANMER (d. 1577+)
Maud (or Magdalen) Hanmer was the daughter of Thomas Hanmer, but it is unclear which Thomas Hanmer. Sir Thomas Hanmer of Hanmer, Flintshire, Wales (1483-February 10, 1545), who was married twice, first to Jane Brereton and second to Maud (or Matilda) Cholmondeley, seems most likely. Maud Hanmer married Roger Puleston of Emval, Worthenbury, Flintshire (d. April 28, 1587). Their children were Roger (January 9, 1566-December 17, 1618), George, and Dorothy. On September 18, 1562, Dorothy filed an appeal claiming she had suffered the threat of excommunication and other injustices as a result of proceedings taken against her by her husband before the bishop of Chester. After 1575, Puleston was in the service of the earl of Hertford. His will, drafted in 1577, refers to his affection for Maud, but by June 1582 he had a newly wife named Margaret.



ELEANOR HARBOTTLE (1504-May 18, 1566)
Eleanor Harbottle was the daughter of Sir Guischard Harabottle of Horton, Northumberland (January 6, 1485-September 9, 1513) and Joan or Jane Willoughby. She was the sister and coheiress of George Harbottle of Beamish, Durham. Their father died at Floddon Field. Eleanor married Sir Thomas Percy of Prudhoe (c.1504-x. June 2, 1537) and was the mother of two sons who eventually became earls of Northumberland, Thomas (June 10, 1528-August 22, 1572) and Henry (1532-June 20, 1585).  Her other children were Joan (c.1521-August 22, 1572), Guiscard (c.1526-d.yng), Richard, Mary (buried February 7, 1597/8), Catherine, and Jane. After November 10, 1540, Eleanor married Sir Richard Holland of Denton, Lancashire (March 25, 1493-1548). Their children were another Mary (d. before 1570) and Richard (d.1548+).

MARY HARBOTTLE (c.1506-December 12, 1556)
Mary Harbottle was the daughter of Sir Guiscard Harbottle of Horton, Northumberland (January 6, 1485-September 9, 1513) and Joan or Jane Willoughby. She was the sister and coheiress of George Harbottle of Beamish, Durham. Their father died at Flodden Field. In 1525, Mary married Sir Edward Fitton of Gawsworth, Cheshire (d. February 17, 1548). Their children were Susan, Edward (March 31, 1527-1579), Margaret (c.1529-August 29, 1612), Mary (d. July 27, 1591), Ellen, Anne, Katherine, Jane, Thomas, Francis (1540-June 17, 1608), Anthony, George, and John. She wrote a will that was proved October 30, 1557.

ALICE HARCOURT (c.1450-c.1526)
Alice Harcourt was the daughter of Sir Richard Harcourt of Wytham, Berkshire (1416-October 1, 1486) and Edith St. Clare (d. before November 8, 1472). She married William Beselles or Bessiles of Besselsleigh, Berkshire and they had one child, Elizabeth. After his death, Alice took a vow of chastity. In 1520-21 and again in 1523-26, she and two servants lived at the nunnery of Syon, where her granddaughter, Susan Fettiplace, was also a vowess and two other granddaughters, Eleanor Fettiplace and Dorothy Coddington or Goddrington (née Fettiplace), were nuns. In her will, she asked to be buried at Syon or Besselsleigh, whichever place she was living at the time of her death.




Elizabeth Harding or Harden was the daughter of a court musician named James Harding. In February 1606 she became the third wife of artist Isaac Oliver (d.1617). Elizabeth’s sister, Anne (1593-1672), married Oliver’s son by his first marriage, Peter Oliver (1589-1647). Peter’s mother, possibly another Elizabeth, died in 1599. Oliver’s second wife, Sara Gheeraerts, is discussed in a separate entry. With Elizabeth, Oliver had six more children. After his death, Elizabeth married Pierce Morgan, a mercer. She died sometime before 1640. Portraits: both by her husband, one dated c.1615 because of the clothing; a second, in which she wears a ruff, is now lost.

HELEN or ELLEN HARDING (1535-September 1601)
Helen or Ellen Harding was the daughter of William Harding of London and Knowle Park, Cranleigh, Surrey (d. September 7, 1549), a goldsmith, and Cecily Marshe. Her mother’s second husband was Robert Warner (1510-1575). He purchased Helen’s wardship and that of her sister Katherine (d.1599). In 1556, Helen married Richard Knyvett of Buckenden, Norfolk (1511-November 1, 1559). Their children were Mary (b. February 27, 1557) and Henry (April 3, 1559-June 1603). By 1577, she married Thomas Browne of Blackfriars, London and Betchworth Castle, Surrey (d. February 9, 1597) as his second wife. He was knighted in 1576. She was his second wife and they had married by 1577. His children all appear to have been the offspring of his first wife, Mabel FitzWilliam. In the Lay Subsidy Rolls of 1582, his lands were valued at £70 and his taxes were just over £4. Browne was a commissioner for the Privy Council, charged with uncovering Catholic recusants in Surrey in the early 1590s. His widow inherited his property in Blackfriars and is listed in the London Subsidy Rolls of 1599 as a neighbor of Dr. William Paddy and Cuthbert Burbage. Her will, dated August 18, 1601, was proved October 3, 1601.

ELIZABETH HARDWICK (1527-February 13, 1608)
Elizabeth Hardwick, better known as Bess of Hardwick, was the daughter of John Hardwick (1495-January 29, 1528) and Elizabeth Leake (1499-c.1570). She was said to be the richest woman in England. In 1543, she married Robert Barlow (1529-December 24, 1544). In 1547, she married Sir William Cavendish (c.1505-October 25, 1557). Their children were Frances (June 18, 1548-1632), Temperance (June 10, 1549-1550), Henry (December 17, 1550-1616), William (December 27, 1551-1625), Charles (November 1553-1617), Elizabeth (March 31, 1555-January 21, 1582), Mary (January 1556-April 1632), and Lucrece (1557-1557). In 1559, she married Sir William St.Loe (1518-February 1565). In January 1566, she was suggested as a bride for Sir John Thynne of Longleat, but he married someone else later that year. On February 9, 1568, she married George Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury (1528-November 18, 1590). She is best known as the builder of Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire, but she alsohad a long and eventful career at court. With her fourth husband, she was for many years responsible for keeping Mary, Queen of Scots prisoner in England. Bess raised her granddaughter, Arbella Stuart, who had a claim to the throne. Biographies: Bess of Hardwick, Empire Builder by Mary S. Lovell; older ones by David Durant, Maud Stepney Rawson, and Ethel Carleton Williams; Oxford DNB entry under “Talbot [née Hardwick], Elizabeth.” Portraits: three at Hardwick Hall, are c.1550-55, c.1580, and c.1590 (attributed to Rowland Lockey); British Library; effigy in Derby Cathedral.


ANNE HARDY (d.1608+)
Anne Dighton, alias Hardy, a young gentlewoman, was the wife of Thomas Dighton, a man of “uncivil and rude disposition.” Among other things, Anne’s husband threatened to chain her to his bed. While the couple was staying at the earl of Lincoln’s house in Chelsea in 1608, Anne fled her own bedchamber for that of Mary Morrant, age 36, who had apparently played the role of matchmaker in bringing Anne and Thomas together. Anne’s face was “awashed with tears” and she claimed she could not endure living with her husband any longer. Mary attempted to help, but when she sent her maidservant for night clothes for the refugee, Thomas threatened the maid and demanded his wife back. When Anne returned with the servant, Thomas took them both prisoner and beat Anne for her effrontery. He refused to let either woman leave his chamber. After repeated efforts to reason with him, Henry Clinton, 2nd earl of Lincoln, intervened and the two men fought. Anne took Thomas to court on charges of cruelty. I have not been able to discover the final outcome of the case, but numerous depositions were taken during the period from May 28, 1608 through February 9, 1608/9. The witnesses included Mary Morrant, her husband Thomas, John Beverly (a servant of the earl of Lincoln), and Anne Hill, age 24, of Harefield, a servant of the countess of Derby. The identities of Anne and Thomas Dighton are not entirely clear, but the use of “alias” in connection with a female name usually indicated that it was a previous surname, in this case probably Anne’s maiden name. As for Thomas Dighton, the most logical candidate to have been a guest in the earl of Lincoln’s house is Thomas Dighton of Stourton Parva, Lincolnshire, father of Mary Dighton, who married the earl’s younger son, Sir Edward Clinton, in about1596. This Thomas Dighton (b.c.1556) was married in August 1569 to Margaret Jermyn, but she had died by 1606. Anne Hardy may have been his second wife.



Elizabeth Harington was the daughter of Sir James Harington of Exton, Rutland (1511-January 24, 1592) and Lucy Sidney (c.1520-c.1591). In about 1561, she married Sir Edward Montagu of Boughton House, Northamptonshire (d. January 16, 1601/2). Their children were Edward (1562-1644), Henry (1563-1642), Charles (c.1564-September 11, 1625), Walter (d. May 22, 1615), James (c.1568-July 20, 1618), Thomas, Lucy, Susanna, Elizabeth, Theodosia (1579-January 19, 1618) and Sydney (1581-September 25, 1644). Although the Montagus were staunchly Protestant, they were on good terms with their recusant neighbor, Lord Vaux of Harrowden. In addition to visits to Boughton House, six miles from Harrowden, Vaux also wrote letters to Lady Montagu. In 1581, after being examined for recusancy, he was confined at Boughton House for about ten days. During that time, Elizabeth tried to convert him, but he did not take her lectures well. Later, writing to defend himself against charges that he had defamed her, he took her to task for her overzealous behavior, reminding her that St. Paul said women should learn in silence. It is not known if she ever received this letter. In her widowhood, “the blind Lady Montagu” lived at Hemington, Northamptonshire.


Hester Harington was the daughter of John Harington of Stepney (1525-July 1, 1582) and Audrey Malte (d.c.1556). See the entry under ETHELREDA, AUDREY or ESTHER MALTE for more details on Hester’s mother. The date of her birth is uncertain. 1554 has been suggested, but as her mother was in service to Princess Elizabeth in that year, it seems less likely to me than an earlier date. Most records also suggest that no one knows what happened to Hester after about 1568. Recent research by a descendant of the Stubbs family, however, has turned up evidence that a Hester Heringtonn married William Stubbs (d.1630) in St. Clement Danes, London, on January 17, 1574. Anne Stubbs was baptized there on January 9, 1575 and Harrington Stubbs on June 14, 1578. They also had a daughter named Susan. A connection between the Maltes, the Haringtons, and Hester Stubbs comes through property records for the manor of Watchfield in Shrivenham, Berkshire (now Oxfordshire). It was granted to John Malte in 1541, belonged to Audrey Malte in 1546, was in the possession of John and Audrey Harington in 1556, and of John and Hester Harington in 1568. In 1593, it was owned by William and Hester Stubbs and in 1631 belonged to Hester Stubbs, widow. Hester lived at Watchfield until her death in 1639. Further evidence of this identification comes from the tomb of Anne Stubbs Codrington in Bristol Cathedral, where the arms of the Stubbs family are quartered with those of the Harington family, and from a court case in which Sir John Harington, son of John Harington by his second wife, is identified as the brother-in-law of William Stubbs. Hester left a will, probated in 1639, in which she describes herself as of Watchfield in the County of Berks, widowe, being very aged and weake in body. Possible portrait: now lost but described as a child holding a book.


LUCY HARINGTON (January 1581-May 26, 1627)
Lucy Harington was the daughter of John Harington, 1st baron Harington of Exton (1539/40-August 23, 1613) and Anne Kelway (1549-May 25, 1620). At the age of thirteen, on December 12, 1594, she married Edward Russell, 3rd earl of Bedford (December 20, 1572-May 3, 1627). Their children were Francis (1602-1602) and a daughter who lived only a few hours in 1610. As her husband was an invalid, Lucy had considerable independence. She was a patron of the arts, supporting John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Inigo Jones, among others. She was also a subscriber to the Virginia Company, a poet, and a possible conspirator in the Essex Rebellion of 1601. She was restored to royal favor in 1603 and was a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Anne until 1620. She was a frequent participant in masques at court, including Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones’s Hymenaei on January 5, 1606. In 1608, she bought Twickenham Park and made it her principal residence, possibly hiring architect Robert Smythson to design a new house and gardens. In 1617, she moved to Moor Park in Hertfordshire. As early as 1619, Lucy was reportedly £50,000 in debt. She and her husband are said to have died within a few days of each other, having spent their entire fortune.Biographies: Margaret Byard’s “The Trade of Courtiership,”History Today 1979; Oxford DNB entry under “Russell [née Harington], Lucy.” Portraits: There are many, some certain and others speculative, including paintings by John de Critz (1606, in masque costume), Isaac Oliver (c.1615), and William Larkin (c.1615).


Margaret Harington was the daughter of Sir James Harington of Exton, Rutland (1511-January 1592) and Lucy Sidney (c.1520-c.1591). In July 1559, she was one of six gentlewomen who accompanied her cousin, Jane Dormer, countess of Feria, to the Low Countries. Margaret later went with Jane to Spain and remained in her household until she married Don Benito de Cisneros in 1588. By then, Jane was duchess of Feria. She gave Margaret a dowry of 20,000 ducats. In the summer of 1593, Jane wrote in a letter that Margaret was “out of her wits all these days with grief” because her daughter had been seriously injured in a fall. At the time of the letter, the child was expected to recover. Shortly before her death, Margaret founded a monastery in Zafra for Franciscan nuns. Both her children and her husband predeceased her. Her tomb is in the Convento de Santa Maria.


SARAH HARINGTON (1566-September 1629)
Sarah Harington was the daughter of Sir James Harington of Exton, Rutland (1511-January 1592) and Lucy Sidney (c.1520-c.1591). By 1586, she married Francis, Lord Hastings (d.1595/6). Their children were Henry, 5th earl of Huntingdon (April 24, 1586-November 14, 1643), George (d. July 5, 1611), Edward (d.c.1617), Catherine (d. August 28, 1636), Theodosia (d.1606+), and Francis. Sarah married Sir George Kingsmill of Burghclere, Hampshire and London (c.1539-April 1606), a wealthy lawyer and judge. He left lands in London, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Somerset, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex to Sarah and her daughter Theodosia. In October 1611, Sarah married Edward de la Zouche, 11th baron Zouche of Haringworth (June 6, 1556-August 18, 1625). On September 11, 1626, at sixty, she married diplomat Sir Thomas Edmondes of Albyns, Romford, Essex and Holborn, London (c.1563-September 28, 1639) as his second wife. Edmondes was called “the little man” for his small stature. His house at Albyns was built by Inigo Jones. Sarah was buried October 3, 1629. Portrait: by Cornelius Johnson, 1628.

THEODOSIA HARINGTON or HARRINGTON (c.1560-January 1649/50)
Theodosia Harington was the daughter of James Harington of Exton, Rutland (1511-January 1592) and Lucy Sidney (c.1520-c.1591). On June 12, 1581, in St. Benet Fink, London, she married Edward Sutton, 5th baron Dudley (September 1567-June 23, 1643). Their children were Anne (1582-December 8, 1615), Theodosia (b.1584 d.yng.), Mary (October 2, 1586-May 24, 1645), Ferdinando (September 4, 1588-November 22, 1621), and Margaret (1597-December 13, 1621+). In the 1590s, a Star Chamber suit charged Dudley with abandoning his wife in London “without provision of sustenance” and taking into his house “a lewd and infamous woman, a base collier’s daughter.” This was Elizabeth Tomlinson of Dudley (d.1629), the mistress by whom he had eleven children. The Privy Council obtained an allowance for Theodosia, but Dudley failed to pay it. In August 1597, he spent several days in the Fleet. He was ordered to pay Theodosia £66 to cover the period since May 1st (twenty-two weeks) and to pay the bills for boarding and educating his children. In addition, he was told to pay £100 per annum from Michaelmas 1597 for his wife’s maintenance for life, “unless it shall please God to put their minds to cohabit together.” Ferdinand, Mary, and Anne were to receive £10 per annum and Margaret, an infant, was to get £10. In addition, he was also to repay a loan to Sir John Harington and appear before the council again in November. He neither honored the agreement nor appeared, although he did send his wife £32. Theodosia made her will on September 11, 1649 and it was proved on February 3, 1651. She was buried in St. Margaret’s Westminster on January 12, 1649/50.

MARGARET HARKETT (1525-February 7, 1585) (maiden name unknown)
Margaret Harkett of Stanmore, Middlesex, a widow, was executed at Tyburn as a witch. The pamphlet detailing her crimes is called The Severall Facts of Witchcraft approved and laid to the charge of Margaret Hackett. This collection of complaints against her is a sad commentary on the willingness of neighbors to turn against an unpleasant person. Most of the complaints concern people with the same ironic surname: Frynde. Margaret picked a basketful of peas from Joan Frynde’s field without her permission and when told to return them, she flung them down and cursed the ground and stamped on it. After that, no peas would grow there. William Frynde’s wife brought home a child (she was a wet nurse) and Margaret told her she did not have enough milk and the child would starve. It died three weeks later. John Frynde, aged twenty, son of Thomas Frynde, would only pay Margaret sixpence for a pair of shoes when she wanted ten pence. Soon after, he fell and hurt his cods. Margaret gave out that he was burned with a whore and that he’d desired to have his pleasure with her. When he afterward wasted away, she was blamed. There were also other charges. Master Norwood, a gentleman, searched her house. Afterward his best milch cow, worth four marks, was found dead. And then, when he told his servants not to give Margaret any buttermilk, they found themselves unable to make butter or cheese at all. William Goodwin’s servants denied Margaret yeast and his brewing stand dried up. When she asked them for oatmeal and was refused again, a lamb died. Another neighbor refused her a horse and all his horses (he had “four very good indifferent geldings”) died. She was struck by a bailiff who caught her taking wood from his master’s ground and the bailiff went mad. For the Middlesex jury that convicted her, all this added up to witchcraft and they had no hesitation about sentencing Margaret to death.

JOAN HARKEY (d.1550)
Joan Harkey’s background is unknown but she was the prioress of Ellerton in Swaledale, Yorkshire, a Cistercian convent, which was surrendered to the Crown on August 18, 1536. She was granted a pension of £3 per annum. She lived in nearby Richmond until her death. Her will, made on April 8, 1550 and proved on July 22, mentioned several former Ellerton nuns—Alice Tomson, Cecily Swale (who had given birth to a child while Joan was prioress), Agnes Aslaby, Elizabeth Parker, and Margaret Dowson. Aslaby and Parker had gone to Nun Appleton Priory when Ellerton was dissolved and Swale had transferred to the nunnery at Swine. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Harkey, Joan.”

Elizabeth Harlestone was the daughter of Clement Harlestone, Harleston, or Harlesden of South Ockendon, Essex (1493-October 24, 1544) and Margaret Tey or Teye. On June 8, 1529 (the Oxford DNB says June 8, 1530 at Windsor Castle, where she had been in service to Anne Boleyn), she married Sir John Wallop (1490-July 1551) as his second wife. Wallop was promoted to lieutenant of Calais Castle on June 23, 1530 and was resident ambassador to France from September 11, 1532 until the spring of 1537 and again from February 2, 1540 until March 1541. Elizabeth was often with her husband. According to the DNB entry on Wallop, “Lady Wallop handled aspects of their finances, including receiving wages from the exchequer.” Although she continued to be part of the Boleyn faction until at least 1532 (when she was one of Anne Boleyn’s attendants when Anne, as Marquess of Pembroke, visited France with King Henry VIII), Wallop did not support the king’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon. By December 1535, Elizabeth had apparently been won over to his way of thinking because she is described as Catherine’s “creature.” In 1537, she was in the funeral procession of Queen Jane Seymour. A letter she wrote on August 8, 1538, from Farleigh in Hampshire to Lady Lisle in Calais, still exists. She was obviously on intimate terms with the whole family and writes of Lady Lisle’s daughter, Anne Bassett, that “there is no doubt but she shall come to some great marriage.” She also makes reference to the countess of Sussex’s recent miscarriage. Anne Bassett was at that time living in the Sussex household. In March 1541, when Lady Wallop was at their house in Calais, Sir John was placed under house arrest in England on vague charges stemming from the seizure of Lord Lisle’s papers in Calais the previous year. He was pardoned and released within a few weeks. Sir John had no children by either of his wives. He named Elizabeth his executrix. After his death, she lived at South Ockendon, where she fell ill in March 1552 and died soon after.

Margaret Harlestone was the daughter of Robert Harlestone of Mattishall, Norfolk. She waited seven years to marry Matthew Parker (August 6, 1504-May 15, 1575) because he was a priest. They lived together from around 1544 and finally wed on June 24, 1547, after such unions became legal. He was Archbishop of Canterbury under Queen Elizabeth, residing in Lambeth Palace in Southwark. The queen did not approve of married clergy and is reported to have told Margaret that she did not know what to call her, saying “Madam I may not call you, mistress I am ashamed to call you.” Under the name “Thomas Martin,” Parker published a defense of married clergy. Bishop Sandys nicknamed Margaret “Parker’s Abbess” because of her gravity, chastity, discretion, and piety. The Parker children were John (May 5, 1548-1618), Matthew (d.yng), Matthew (September 1, 1551-December 1574), Joseph (d.yng.), and Martha (b. August 1550). In 1566, the Parker household included two daughters-in-law, Joanna Cox and Frances Barlow, both daughters of bishops, along with Parker’s niece, Mrs. Clark, a Mrs. Baker and her daughter, and Parker’s comptroller’s wife. Each of them had a maidservant. At the time of Margaret’s death, she owned the Bell Inn and Norfolk House, formerly the residence of the dukes of Norfolk, both located just west of the Archbishop’s palace in Lambeth.

Margaret Harlestone was the daughter of Clement Harlestone, Harleston, or Harlesden of South Okendon, Essex (1493-October 24, 1544) and Margaret Tey or Teye. She had only a small dowry and her relatives were poverty-stricken. Her first husband was named Howe but she was a widow by June 1, 1554, when she married Roger Ascham (1514/15-December 1568). According to his Oxford DNB entry, another suitor, referred to only as “J. B.”, had attempted to kidnap her, This ended in a court case which Ascham won. Their children were Giles (1560-April 1600), Sturm (1562-1567), Dudley (1564-1603), Thomas (1569-1608), and two daughters. Their last child was born posthumously. A long, rather preachy letter is extant from Ascham to his wife following the death of their newborn child, but he frequently refers to her in the text by her first name, suggesting that they enjoyed a warmer relationship than many sixteenth-century couples. On September 28, 1569, Margaret married Thomas Rampston, They had at least one child, Anne. In a 1582 letter to Queen Elizabeth, Margaret says she has seven children to care for. She and her third husband lived at Salisbury Hall. Margaret died at some point between July 30, 1590 and June 26, 1592. There is some debate over whether Roger Ascham had an earlier wife named Alice. In a letter to Lady Jane Grey in 1551, he asks to be remembered to “Alice, my wife.” Leanda de Lisle’s recent biography of Lady Jane and her sisters states that Alice Ascham was in service at Bradgate in the summer of 1550 when Ascham visited there prior to leaving England to take up a post at the court of Charles V. Lawrence V. Ryan’s biography of Ascham, however, argues that the words were meant in jest. The letter to Lady Jane was actually in Latin and says “uxor” not wife, which Ryan says would not refer to an actual wife, although it might mean someone he intended to marry. Ascham had written to his uncle for approval to marry a certain A___ B___, but (again, according to Ryan) no marriage took place, in large part because Ascham needed an exemption from the statute of celibacy in order to wed. He did not ask for this exemption until after 1551. Since the penalty for marrying without an exemption was death, this was not something to take lightly and, had he wed in secret, he would certainly not have been writing of it openly to a member of a family closely connected to the Crown.

KATHERINE HARLEY (1539-February 16, 1623)
Katherine Harley was the daughter of John Harley of Brampton (October 29, 1521-1606) and Maud Warnscombe (1522-1589+). She married John Cressit of Upton. They had at least one child, Richard. She married Thomas Cornwall of Burford, Shropshire (1537-May 21, 1615). Their children were Mary (c.1572-c.1600), Thomas (1573-1634), and Cecily. Portrait: monument in Burford.

ANNE HARLING (d. September 18, 1498)
Anne Harling was the daughter and heiress of Sir Robert Harling or Harlyng of East Harling, Norfolk (d.1435) and Jane Gunville. Her first husband was Sir William Chamberlain or Chamberlayne of Gedding, Suffolk (d. April 1462). She then married Sir Robert Wingfield (c.1432-1481; alternate date of death is February 21, 1492/3). Her third husband was John, 5th baron Scrope of Bolton (July 22, 1435-August 17, 1498). He named Anne the executor of his will. Lady Scrope is remembered for having converted a college of priests at Rushworth, Norfolk into a grammar school. This was done to secure perpetual prayers for herself and her three husbands. Rushworth and Harling manors were conveyed to the college to support this foundation. She also left bequests to ten convents in her will and was a lay sister at four of them: Bruisyard, Campsey, Redlingfield, and Syon. She was buried in the church at East Harling with her first husband. Most accounts say she had no children, but her will, dated August 28, 1498, lists a daughter, Dame Elizabeth Hengrave. Portraits: brass with Sir William Chamberlain in the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, East Harling.



Magdalen (or Maud) Harpenden was Welsh by birth. She married Sir John Tate (d.1515), a mercer, alderman, Lord Mayor of London (1496-7 and June-October 1514) and mayor of Calais (1505 and 1509). Their children were John, Anthony, and Bartholomew (d.1532). The Tates lived in the parish of All Hallows by the Tower and later in the parish of St. Dion’s, Backchurch. Tate’s will, dated January 13, 1515 and proved eighteen days later, left charitable bequests totaling £1763 and named his wife as executor. This will favored his youngest surviving son, Bartholomew, and excluded his elder son. When Magdalen wrote her own will, she took the opportunity to criticize her late husband for this oversight.



ALICE HARPUR (c.1474-1546)
Alice Harpur was the daughter of Sir Richard Harpur or Harper of Latton, Essex (d.1492) and Elizabeth Arderne (d.c.1510). Before 1492, Alice married John Middleton (d.1509), a London mercer. Their children were Alice (c.1501-1563) and Helen (d.c.1510). In 1511, she married Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) as his second wife. More’s children were all from his first marriage. More and his family lived at Crosby Place in London and, after 1523, in the house he built on land in Chelsea. More’s execution and the confiscation of his property left his widow destitute. On March 16, 1536/7, she was granted £20 per annum. In 1542, she was leasing a house in Chelsea at 20s/year. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “More [née Harpur; other married name Middleton], Alice.” NOTE: the DNB entry gives her date of death as “on or before 25 April 1551.” Portraits: Alice is included in the group portrait of the More Family by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527).which exists as a sketch by Hans Holbein and a later portrait based on Holbein by Rowland Lockey; Holbein also painted an individual portrait of Alice.

Dorothy Harpur was the daughter of Robert Harpur (d. 1535) and Helen Lyttleton (later married to Sir William Bassett of Blore). Before October 1524, she married Sir Anthony Kingston (c.1508-April 14, 1556). Although the Oxford DNB entry says he tried and failed to divorce her in 1533 and that she died in 1535, records of a suit in Chancery indicate that they were divorced in 1536. She then married Sir Richard Egerton (d. November 1579). In a suit brought against them by Thomas and Elizabeth Broke over lands in Coppenhall, Cheshire, Dorothy was identified as the “divorced wife of Sir Anthony Kingston.” She had no children. This information comes from commentary on the will of Sir William Kingston at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com.

Joan Harrenden or Harrendey was innkeeper of the Crown in Maidstone, Kent (“the Corner House beside the bear stake”). In her will of 1515, Joan asked to be buried in the churchyard of All Hallows, Maidstone next to her late husband, Philip King. She left bequests to Christ Church, Canterbury, where her son was a monk, to twelve women, including the wife of the local baker, and for the repair of the great bridge in Maidstone.

see also HARINGTON

Jane Harrington was the daughter of William Harrington (d.1540/1), a grocer who was Lord Mayor of York in 1536, and his first wife, Katherine (d. before 1528). By 1529, she married Robert Hall of York (by 1497-October 5, 1565), a merchant, Their children were John, Robert, Leonard, Mary, Anne, Elizabeth, and Katherine. They lived in Goodramgate Street. Hall was Lord Mayor of York twice. During September 1541, in his first term, King Henry VIII visited York. During the second term, 1557-8, a Russian ambassador who was passing through York on his way to London lodged with the Halls. In his will, made on October 23, 1564 and proved October 8, 1565, Hall left his wife the house in which they lived and other property and made her his executor. She survived him by less than a month. In her will, she left £100 to rebuild Ouse Bridge.

Alice Harris was the daughter of John Harris, Thomas More’s secretary, and Dorothy Colley, Margaret More’s maid. Her father was later employed by Margaret More to make copies of manuscript letters. These were in Dorothy Colley Harris’s possession in 1588, when she loaned them to Thomas Stapleton, More’s biographer, whose Tres Thomae was published that year at Douai. The entire Harris family went into exile after the death of Mary Tudor. At some point before 1571, in Louvain, Alice married John Fowler (1537-February 13, 1578/9), a scholar and printer. With her husband, she moved to Antwerp in 1574, Douai in 1577, Rheims in 1578, and finally Namur, where he died. Alice then opened a boarding house in Douai for English Catholics.

ANNE HARRIS (1574-October 2, 1636)
Anne Harris was the daughter of Sir Thomas Harris (1547-1610) and Elizabeth Pomeroy (d.1634). On June 24, 1594 she married Thomas Southwell of Spixworth, Norfolk (c.1575-1626). Anne was a poet, writing from a staunch protestant viewpoint. She often wrote about prominent people. Her second husband, Captain Henry Sibthorpe (d.1626+), was her mentor and editor. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Southwell [née Harris], Anne.”

Elizabeth Harris was the daughter of Francis Harris of Hayne, Devon (d.1509) and Philippa Grenville (d.1524). In 1528 or 1529, she married Walter Staynings or Steyning of Honycott (Honeycroft; Holnicote), Somerset (c.1500-1537). By June 1534, when he was in prison for debt, they had four children under the age of six, including Honor (c.1530-1601), who was named after her mother’s sister, Honor Grenville, viscountess Lisle, and Elizabeth was about to have another child. Elizabeth wrote to Lady Lisle to ask for help in appealing to the queen. In 1537, when her husband died, Elizabeth was again pregnant. She was offered a home with Lady Lisle in Calais but chose instead to enter the service of Mary Arundell, countess of Sussex, as a waiting gentlewoman. Lady Sussex was Elizabeth’s cousin (the daughter of Katherine Grenville). Another of Elizabeth’s children was Philip Steyning (d.1589). At some point after 1538, Elizabeth married Thomas Gawdy (c.1476-August 4, 1556) as the second of his three wives. His entry in The History of Parliament misidentifies her as the daughter of John Harris of Radford, Devon. Their children were Anthony (c.1554-1606) and one other son. Her daughter Honor later married his son Thomas. She died before Gawdy made his will on February 1, 1554.

JANE HARRIS (1593?-1619+)
Jane Harris was the daughter of Thomas Harris of Maldon, Essex (December 5, 1562-1621) and Cordelia Gyll or Gill (c.1566-1632+?). Provisions in the will of Francis Wolley (1583-August 17, 1609) and the subsequent record of properties left to his illegitimate daughter, Mary Wolley, identify Jane (called Jeane Herris, eldest daughter of Lady Cordelia Herris of Essex) as Mary’s mother, although it is not clear exactly when Mary was born. According to the summary in A Topographical History of Surrey by E. W. Brayley, Wolley left £200 to Jane, together with an annuity of £100 for life or until she married. The will then reads: “I give my manor of Burpham [Burgham] and lands at Jahdenn to that female child that was christened in Pirford [Pyrford] Church, by my wife [Mary Hawtrey] and Mrs. Bridget Weston, by the name of Mary Wolley, and to the heirs of her body.” His principal heir, Sir Arthur Mainwaring, was to have the reversion of these rights if there were no heirs. Further, Jeane Herris was to have the care of Mary Wolley until she attained the age of twenty and would receive the rents of the estate for her support. The will was challenged in the Court of Wards and in Chancery with the result that Mary Wolley was to keep the manor but pay the other claimants £500. With her husband, John Wyrley, Mary was still in possession of Burgham and the manor of Worplesdon in 1645. As for Jeane or Jane Harris, on December 10, 1612, she married Captain Henry Wroth of Woodbury on December 10, 1612 in St. Giles, Cripplegate, London. They had two sons, John (b.1617) and Henry (b. November 24, 1619).



ELIZABETH HARRISON or HARRISONE (d. 1585+) (maiden name unknown)
By 1567, Elizabeth was the wife of George Harrison (d.1582/3), a gentleman and wealthy land-owner who was a trustee of the Rugby School. They lived in St. Andrew’s, Holborn, London. They do not appear to have had any children. In his will, proved February 22, 1582/3, Elizabeth was named his executor. At that time, she had three outstanding debts totaling £75, including one for £10 to a Mistress Fourde and another to Robert Stanton. A group of her husband’s relatives sued the estate for money they claimed they were owed. Elizabeth dealt with this by making her own will, dated August 13, 1584, in which she specified how her leaseholds and freeholds should be used by her executors to pay her debts. Stanton was to have the forty-eight year-remainder on the lease of her house in Holborn and use the income from the property to pay off her remaining debts. To make sure her wishes were carried out, Elizabeth chose as her executors three influential London men, Sir Gilbert Gerard, Thomas Sackford, and Richard Martin. In March 1584/5, she added a codicil to her will in which she stated that all the aforementioned debts had been paid in full and the remainder of her lease on the house in St. Andrew’s, Holborn was to go to found an almshouse for thirteen poor men and thirteen poor women. Elizabeth’s will left mourning clothes to Goodwife Smyth, who had been her husband’s keeper in his sickness, and she included specific provisions concerning property left by her late husband to make certain it went to his blood kin, in particular to his nephew, Peter Harrison. Most details in this entry come from Susan E. James, Women’s Voices in Tudor Wills, 1485-1603.

MARGARET HARRISON (1546-September 11, 1600)
Margaret Harrison was the sister of George Harrison the printer. She married William Sharles (d.1590), a mercer. In 1568, he purchased a house in Newgate Market for £120. They lived there for most of their marriage. When he died, Margaret continued to run his business, in which the sale of glassware played a large part. By the time she made her will, on September 2, 1600, and signed it with her mark, she owned seven houses in London, one in Clerkenwell, and Barking Manor. Her estate was worth around £3000. She left several charitable bequests and willed property to her sisters, Christina Warden and Agnes Howe, and to her niece, Alice Sharles, the daughter of her brother-in-law, Thomas Sharles, but the bulk of her estate went to another niece, Agnes, daughter of John and Agnes Howe, with the condition that Agnes was not to inherit until she was twenty, nor was she to marry until then. The will was challenged by Thomas Sharles on behalf of his daughters Suzan and Alice, and by Humphrey Warden on behalf of his wife, but they were not successful. For details on what happened to Agnes Howe and her inheritance, see her entry. Margaret was buried in Christchurch beside her husband.

ANNE HART (d.1566)
Anne Hart was the daughter of John Hart of Westmill, Hertfordshire (c.1450-1507) and Elizabeth Peche (1452-July 15, 1544). She married Edmund Talbot of Bashall, Yorkshire (d. February 20, 1520). They had a son, Thomas (1507/8-1558). She married Sir James Stanley of Cross Hall, Lancashire (d. 1546+). Their child was Anne (1532-March 1612), although some genealogies also list her as the mother of George (d. December 8, 1570) and Henry (1515-July 23, 1598) and the Tudor Place website gives her nine children by Stanley—George, Henry, Alice, Margaret, Edward, Thomas, Jane, Anne, and Eleanor/Helen. Other than Anne, they were probably Anne’s stepchildren. After her second husband’s death, Anne lived at Holt Hall, which had been left to her by her first husband. The story goes that when her daughter wished to marry a man named Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh, Lancashire, who had mistreated two previous wives and had, indeed, been married to both of them at the same time, Anne forced the younger Anne to marry John Rishton, Ralph’s cousin, instead. One online source says that John divorced Anne in 1560 and married her sister, after which Anne married Ralph and had nine children by him. Under the laws on divorce at the time, a divorce could be obtained, but neither party was permitted to remarry afterward. It seems more likely the marriage between Anne the younger and John Rishton was annulled. Anne Hart Talbot Stanley made her will on November 20, 1557. She asked to be buried in the church of Blackburn. She made bequests to her four servants, two men and two women (Margaret Green and Anne Gibson) and named her son Thomas as her executor. No other children are mentioned. There is no record of probate for this document but several online genealogies give 1566 as her date of death.


ELIZABETH HART (d. March 1551/2+)
Elizabeth Hart was the daughter of John Hart of Westmill, Hertfordshire (c.1450-1507) and Elizabeth Peche (1452-July 15, 1544). In about 1518, she married Thomas Brooke, 8th baron Cobham (d. July 19, 1529) as his third wife. She had a jointure worth 100 marks a year and his will left her Cobham Hall for life, together with all his moveable goods. She married John Cornewall and was still living on March 31, 1551/2 when her stepson, George Brooke, 9th baron Cobham, wrote his will.





ISABEL HARVEY (d.1543/4)
Isabel Harvey was the daughter of John Harvey or Hervey of Thurleigh (Thirley), Bedfordshire (d. September 23, 1474) and Alice or Agnes Morley. Her mother later married John Isley and then John Paston the Younger. Isabel married John Leigh of Addington, Surrey (d.1503). They had a son, Nicholas. She married Roger Fitz of Southwark (d.1504), owner of two houses “in the Stews, on the Bankside” in Ram Alley, the Lion and the Ram. His will specified that both were to be sold to found a chantry in Lewisham. Isabel married William Hatcliffe of London and Lewisham, Kent (d.1518/19) as his second wife. He was under-treasurer of Ireland and organized the 1513 invasion of France. They entertained Cardinal Campeggio at Lewisham in 1518. His will was made November 10, 1518 and proved March 18, 1519. In May 1519, Isabel released all the money (over £25,000) her husband had handled for the king in 1513. She married John Fleming of Southampton (d.1528). Portrait: floor brass at Addington with her first husband on which his date of death is incorrectly given as 1509.

LUCY HARVEY (1530-1586)
Lucy Harvey was the daughter and coheir of Thomas Harvey or Hervey of Elmesthorpe, Leicestershire. By 1544, she married Thomas Cotton of Conington, Huntingdonshire (February 23, 1514/15-October 28, 1574). They had four sons. In his will, made July 28, 1574, Cotton left most of his property to his wife. He specified that £10 was to go to each of his younger sons and left the manor of Wood Walton to his eldest son, Thomas (d. May 30, 1592), provided Thomas left his mother in undisturbed possession of Conington. Later there was a lawsuit over this stipulation.

MRS. HARVEY (d. November 24, 1574) (given and maiden names unknown)
Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) theorizes that Mrs. Harvey is the unnamed Mother of Maids who died suddenly at Greenwich Palace. Nothing else is known of her.

Eleanor Haselrigge was probably the daughter of Robert Haselrigge of Donnington, Leicestershire (d.1554) and Eleanor Shirley. She married Thomas Smythe of Mitcham, Surrey (d. 1576). Their children were George, Edmund, Edward, Mary, Eleanor, and Mary the younger. Smythe left two-thirds of his properties to Eleanor. In 1577, she married Bartholomew Clerke of Mitcham, Surrey (c.1537-March 12, 1589/90), a lawyer, judge, professor of rhetoric at Cambridge, and master in Chancery. He bought the manor of Clapham in Surrey in 1583. In his will, dated April 1589 and proved March 17, 1590, he left money in trust for his wife. She and their son, Francis (b.1579) were named as executors and were ordered not to spend more than £100 on his funeral. Eleanor built a little chapel for the family tombs near the north window in Clapham church. Clerke made even more detailed arrangements for their daughter Cecily (d.1629). She was to be brought up by Lord and Lady Buckhurst, to whom he left his most valuable horse and a “casket of cyprus.” Lady Buckhurst was Cecily Baker and was probably Cecily Clerke’s godmother. Cecily was to receive £1000 upon her marriage “if possible to one of Clerke’s own name, but the matter must be left to God’s providence.” Cecily married Sir Edward Bellingham on January 26, 1595 at St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street, London. Eleanor left an undated will which was found locked in a little black trunk standing at the foot of her bed on July 20,1594, after her death. This will was proved July 23, 1594. She left £50 to her married daughter, Eleanor Borne, £500 to her daughter, Mary Smythe, and £400 to her daughter, Cecily Clerke. To Elizabeth Trowell, “now kept by me in my house,” she left £40. Custody of her son, Francis Clerke, was to go to her brother, John Haselrigge. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Portrait: effigy on her second husband’s tomb in Clapham, Surrey.

ANNE HASSALL (d.1549+)
Anne Hassall was the daughter of Richard Hassall of Hassall and Hankelow, Cheshire. She was the mistress of Sir Anthony Lee of Quarrendon, Buckinghamshire (1510/11-November 24, 1549) while Lee was still married to Margaret Wyatt. Their children were Richard (d. December 22, 1608) and Russell, both born out of wedlock. After Lady Lee died, they were married. The marriage settlement is dated May 23, 1548. In his will, Lee left Anne a large flock of sheep, plate, and household stuff. If she remarried, the plate and household stuff were to go to her sons. She was buried at Hardwick, Buckinghamshire.

ANNE HASTINGS (c.1471-c.1512)
Anne Hastings was the daughter of William, 1st baron Hastings (1430-x. June 13, 1483) and Katherine Neville (1442-before November 22, 1503). She married George Talbot, 4th earl of Shrewsbury (1468-July 26, 1538). Their children were Mary (d. April 16, 1572), Francis (1500-September 25, 1560), Margaret (d. before 1516), Elizabeth (d.1532), Dorothy, Richard, Henry, John (d.yng.), John (d.yng.), William, and Lucy. Anne was at court as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies in waiting at the beginning of Henry VIII’s reign and her youngest daughter Lucy was a maid of honor. Portraits: effigy with her husband and his second wife (Anne is on Talbot’s right). The other wife was Elizabeth Walden (d. July 1567); engraving of the monument.

ANNE HASTINGS (c.1485-November 17, 1550)
Anne Hastings was the daughter of Edward, 2nd baron Hastings (November 25, 1466-November 8, 1506) and Mary Hungerford (c.1468-July 10, 1533). Anne was married to John Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter (1442-1496) as a child. In 1507, she married Thomas Stanley, 2nd earl of Derby (1485-May 23, 1521). Their children were Edward, 3rd earl (May 10, 1508-October 24, 1572), John, Anne, Margaret (d. January 1534), Henry (d. June 29, 1528), James, George, Thomas (c.1515-1538), and Jane. Anne was at the court of Catherine of Aragon as the youngest of her ladies in waiting in 1509 and at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. In 1542, when her son-in-law, Robert, earl of Sussex, died, he gave Anne custody of his daughter, Jane (her mother was Anne’s late daughter Margaret) as well as the wardship of young Lord Berkeley, intended as the girl’s husband. In 1545, Anne sold Berkeley’s wardship to his mother for £1000. In her will, Anne left Jane clothing, furnishings, and the profits of that sale.


CATHERINE HASTINGS (August 11, 1542-c.1585)
Catherine Hastings was the daughter of Francis Hastings, 2nd earl of Huntingdon (1514-June 20, 1561) and Katherine Pole (d. September 23, 1576).  She married Henry Clinton of Tattershall, Lincolnshire (1540-September 28,1616), who succeeded his father as earl of Lincoln in 1585. The online site, Tudor Place, gives the date of the marriage as March 30, 1567, but a biography of Catherine’s brother, The Puritan Earl by Claire Cross, states that she was already married when their father died. Clinton was bad tempered, possibly insane, and universally detested. According to his entry in the History of Parliament, he was at loggerheads with his wife in 1580 over the future of their sons, Thomas (c.1568-January 15,1618/19) and Edward (b.1572). The death date frequently given for Catherine of September 22, 1576, only one day different from the date her mother died, is in error. In a 1585 letter to Lord Burghley, written shortly before his father died, Clinton mentions Catherine, claiming that his stepmother (ELIZABETH FITZGERALD) and his wife were conspiring together to slander him to the queen. Clinton married his second wife (ELIZABETH MORISON) on October 20, 1586.


Dorothy Hastings was the daughter of George Hastings, 4th earl of Huntingdon (c.1540-December 30, 1605) and Dorothy Port (d. September 2, 1607). By January 1598, she was a maid of honor. On June 14,1600, she danced in the masque at the wedding of Anne Russell. In 1606 she married Sir James Stuart (d. November 8, 1609).

ELIZABETH HASTINGS (c.1450-1507/8)
Elizabeth Hastings was the daughter of Sir Leonard Hastings (c.1397-October 20, 1455) and Alice de Camoys and the sister of William, baron Hastings (x. June 13, 1483). At some point between February 24, 1462 and March 11, 1465, she married Sir John Donne (Don, Dun, Dwnn) of Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire (c.1430-January 1503). Their children included Anne (c.1471-c.1507), Margaret, Edward (c.1482-1551/2), and Griffith or Gruffudd (c.1487-January 18, 1543). In his will, Lord Hastings left his sister 100 marks and urged Sir John Donne to buy the wardship of Edward Trussell, whose ward and marriage Hastings held. It appears he did, as Trussell later married Margaret Donne. Although Donne was replaced as lieutenant of Calais in 1497, Elizabeth still had a house there after his death. The family also lived for long periods in Wales. Elizabeth left a will dated November 28, 1507 and proved February 15, 1508. She and her husband are buried in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. Portrait: c. 1479/80, the artist Hans Memling, created an altarpiece for use in a private chapel, using Sir John and his wife and one of their daughters (the Oxford DNB entry for Donne indicates this daughter was probably Anne) as models for the figures kneeling before the Virgin Mary. The Donne Triptych is now in the National Gallery, London.

ELIZABETH HASTINGS (c. 1496-1504/5)
Elizabeth Hastings was the daughter of Sir John Hastings of Fenwick,Yorkshire (c.1466-July 12, 1504) and Katherine Aske (c.1457-February 4, 1506/7). Following her father’s death, Elizabeth was abducted by Henry Percy, 5th earl of Northumberland, an action which usurped King Henry VII’s right of prerogative wardship. To make matters worse, Elizabeth died while in Northumberland’s custody, thus permanently depriving the king of a valuable wardship. Northumberland was fined £10,000, although payment was suspended during the king’s pleasure. Eventually Northumberland paid £3000, although part of that may have been for unlawful retaining (keeping too many liveried retainers in his employ).

ELIZABETH HASTINGS (d. July 29, 1588)
Elizabeth Hastings was the daughter and coheir of Sir William Hastings (1470-1514) and Jane Sheffield (1474-March 16, 1528). In about 1540, she married Sir John Beaumont of Grace Dieu and Thringston, Leicestershire (d.1557) as his second wife. Their children were Francis (c.1540-April 22, 1598), Henry (c.1543-1585), and Elizabeth (d. August 1562). Beaumont became master of rolls on December 13, 1550, but he abused his position, speculating with the revenues and forging the signature of the late Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, on a deed to favor Suffolk’s daughter, Anne Brandon, Lady Grey of Powis. He then bought the property from her. Since Henry Grey, the new duke of Suffolk, challenged Anne’s right to the property, the forgery was discovered and Beaumont was imprisoned in February 1552. His lands were surrendered to the Crown, including the family seat at Grace Dieu, which was granted in 1553 to Francis Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, Elizabeth’s cousin. After Beaumont’s death, Elizabeth petitioned for the return of her dower lands, including Ashburton Manor, Fleckney Manor, and messuages, lands, etc. at Grace Dieu, Belton, Merele, Osgardthorpe, Thringston, and Swannington. By 1567, she had regained possession of at least some of the property, including Grace Dieu. From 1571, Elizabeth raised her late daughter’s four children, Henry (c.1559-1587), Eleanor (c.1560-c.1625), Elizabeth (b.c.1561), and Anne (July 1562-c.1637) Vaux at Grace Dieu, instilling in them the tenets of Roman Catholicism. Eleanor and Anne later spent decades providing safe houses for Jesuit missionaries and Elizabeth became a Poor Clare nun in Rouen, France in March of 1582. On August 13, 1581, Elizabeth’s kinsman, Francis Hastings, was ordered to examine her and search her home because she was believed to be harboring the priest Edmund Campion. In 1584, after her son Francis was interrogated about his correspondence with known recusants, she was labeled “great favorite of papists” and it was recommended that she be confined to her house. Henry Garnet, who was active in England from 1586, wrote of her: “It was her great pleasure to look after the priests’ rooms and to cook their food so that their presence might be kept more secret. And she showed great devotion to me without my meriting it in any way.” Elizabeth died in her home in Leicestershire and Garnet sang the Requiem Mass. Her son Francis, who had conformed to the New Religion, was not told of her death until afterward. He later arranged a memorial service for his mother during which he praised her virtues but decried her adherence to Catholicism. She left two of her greatest treasures, a “tawny rouge mantle” and “a gold cross full of relics” to her granddaughter, Anne Vaux.

ELIZABETH HASTINGS (c.1546-August 24, 1621)
Elizabeth Hastings was the daughter of Francis Hastings, 2nd earl of Huntingdon (1514-June 20, 1561) and Katherine Pole (d. September 23, 1576). In 1562, either Elizabeth or her sister Mary was to marry the earl of Oxford’s heir, Lord Bulbeck. She had a dowry of £1000 from her father’s will and her brother added another 1000 marks, but when Bulbeck succeeded as earl of Oxford, he married Ann Cecil instead. Elizabeth was a maid of honor before she married Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester (1553-March 3,1628) in December 1571. Queen Elizabeth credited her with converting “a stiff papist into a good subject.” Their children were Francis (d.yng.), Katherine (c.1575-October 30, 1624), Anne, Elizabeth, William (d. before January 21, 1598), Henry (d.December 18, 1646), Thomas (1579-1649/50), a second Catherine (d. November 6, 1654), Blanche (c.1583-October 28, 1649), two sons named Charles, Christopher, Edward, Frances, and Mary. The large number of their children was said to have kept them poor. Elizabeth died at Worcester House, St. Clement Danes, London and was buried at Raglan. Portraits: c.1571 by William Segar; c.1600 (reproduced in Roy Strong’s The Cult of Elizabeth); portrait listed as “possibly Elizabeth Hastings, Countess of Worcester” on Flickr.


Florence Hastings was the daughter of Ralph Hastings of Harrowdon, Northamptonshire and Kirkby, Leicestershire (1435-1495) and Amy or Anne Tattershall. She married Edmund, 9th baron Grey de Wilton (c.1468-May 5, 1511). Their children were George, 10th baron (1494-before 1517), Thomas, 11th baron (1497-October 3, 1517), Richard, 12th baron (1505-October 14, 1521), William, 13th baron (1509-December 15, 1562), and Elizabeth (d. December 29, 1559). Grey’s will was written May 5, 1511 and proved May 15, 1511. Alison Weir, in her biography of Mary Boleyn, identifies Florence as the “young dowager Lady Grey de Wilton” and suggests that she, not her daughter, accompanied Mary Tudor to France in 1513. If she did, she was one of those who remained in France after most of Mary’s entourage was sent home, but I am not convinced Florence was the one who stayed. By 1513, she was no longer all that “young.” Weir also states that she was widowed in 1505, which is incorrect. Florence later married Richard Brett of Bletchley, Buckinghamshire (d.c.1533). His will was written July 16, 1532 and proved March 20, 1533/4. After his death, she was sued for a debt he owed. Florence’s will was written July 28, 1536. In it she mentions her daughters Brydges (Elizabeth) and Bardara (?) and her sister Dyre (Dyer).

Frances Hastings was the daughter of Francis Hastings, 2nd earl of Huntingdon (1514-June 20, 1561) and Katherine Pole (d. September 23, 1576). Her father left her a dowry of £1000, which was doubled in 1562 in an agreement between her mother and her brother, the 3rd earl. This agreement was altered two years later and it is unclear what affect that had on the dowry. In about 1567, Frances married Henry Compton (February 16, 1538-December 1589), who was created Lord Compton in 1572. They had one son, William (1568-June 24, 1630).



MARY HASTINGS (c.1552-1584+)
Mary Hastings was the youngest daughter of Francis Hastings, 2nd earl of Huntingdon (1514-June 20, 1561) and Katherine Pole (d. September 23, 1576). In 1562, Mary’s brother contracted a marriage for one of his sisters, either Lady Elizabeth or Lady Mary, to Lord Bulbeck, the earl of Oxford’s heir. The agreement provided for a dowry of 1000 marks and a jointure of £1000. Edward de Vere was supposed to marry one of the sisters within a month of his eighteenth birthday. Before that date, however, the earl of Oxford died and Bulbeck succeeded to the title. The new earl was the ward of William Cecil, Lord Bughley and married Burghley’s daughter, Ann Cecil. Lady Mary, still unmarried and in her late twenties, may have been at the court of Queen Elizabeth in 1581 when Dr. Robert Jacobi, an English physician living in Muscovy, suggested her name to Tsar Ivan the Terrible of Russia in reponse to the tsar’s interest in finding an English bride of royal blood. Mary was a Plantagenet descendent distantly related to the queen. It is uncertain when she was told of her role in the negotiations, but if she knew anything about Ivan, she cannot have been enthusiastic. He was at that time married to his seventh wife, a woman he planned to discard if the match with an English “princess” could be arranged. Ivan sent an ambassador,Theodor Andreevich Pissemsky, to England to negotiate the marriage and an alliance with England against the king of Poland. Pissemsky was to report on the height, complexion, and measurements of the proposed bride and procure a portrait of her. Ivan was looking for a stately appearance, and required that Mary and all her attendants convert to the Orthodox religion. Queen Elizabeth, who wanted exclusive English access to the port of St. Nicholas, deliberately delayed committing herself with the ambassador, who arrived in England in September 1582, at first telling him that Mary Hastings had recently had smallpox and that a face-to-face meeting and a portrait would be intrusive. By May 1583, however, she could no longer put him off. There are  contradictory accounts of the meeting, based on a report by the ambassador himself (translated) and a memoir by Sir Jerome Horsey, who was not present. They differ widely in some areas but agree that the meeting was in the Lord Chancellor’s garden. The Lord Chancellor was Sir Thomas Bromley, but while the ambassador’s account says the garden was at Bromley’s country house, Horsey places it in the gardens at York House, near Charing Cross in the city of Westminster. According to the ambassador, he was allowed only an interpreter, Dr. Roberts, and did not actually speak to Lady Mary. Lady Mary was pointed out to him in a party of ladies in the garden. She was walking at the head of the group, between the countess of Huntingdon (her brother’s wife, Katherine Dudley) and Lady Bromley (Elizabeth Fortescue). The two groups circled the garden several times, passing each other, so that the ambassador could get a good look. The ambassador recorded that he said “it is enough” and reported to the Tsar that “The Princess of Hountinski, Mary Hantis is tall, slight, and white-skinned; she has blue eyes, fair hair, a straight nose, and her fingers are long and taper.” In some translations her eyes are grey. In Horsey’s version, the ambassador threw himself on the ground before the Tsar’s prospective bride and declared she had the face of an angel. The long-awaited portrait was completed in time for the ambassador to take it with him when he returned to Russia. He embarked on June 22, 1583, along with England’s new ambassador to Russia, Sir Jerome Bowes. Bowes’s instructions were to dissuade the Tsar from marrying Mary on grounds of her poor health, scarred complexion, and reluctance to leave her friends. Until Ivan’s death on March 18, 1584, Mary (at least according to Horsey) had to put up with being called “the Empress of Muscovia.” Mary died, still unwed, before 1589, when a bequest in her will was contested. One source says her death came shortly after a visit to her brother in Ireland, but none of her brothers appear to have served there during the 1580s.





BEATRIX HATCLIFFE (d. April 20, 1505)
Beatrix Hatcliffe was the daughter of James Hatcliffe/Hawcklyfe of Grimthorpe, Yorkshire. At some point after September 20, 1483, she married Ralph, 2nd baron Greystock (1408-June 1, 1487). He had fifteen children by his first wife but none by Beatrix. Her second husband was Sir Robert Constable of North Cliffe, Yorkshire (c.1445-November 22, 1501). Their marriage license is dated August 18, 1490. Their children were Agnes (d.c.1520), Marmaduke (c.1491-c.1525), Elizabeth, Robert (d.c.1564/5), Anne, Jane (d.1564+), and William. On April 12, 1502, Beatrix became a vowess. She made her will on that same day three years later and it was proved on June 5, 1505. At that time she had three underage children. She wished Elizabeth to become a nun, but provided for her marriage if she did not agree to enter into religion at the age of twelve.



ANNE HATHAWAY (1556-August 8, 1623)
Anne Hathaway was the daughter of Richard Hathaway (d.1581). She married William Shakespeare (April 1564-April 23, 1616) on November 30 or December 1, 1582. Their children were Susanna (May 1583-1649), Hamnet (January 1585-August 1596) and Judith (January 1585-February 1662). From her husand’s departure for London until his death there is no documentary evidence of Anne’s whereabouts or activities. In his will, he left her “the second best bed with the furniture.” The best bed went with the house, which was left to his daughter Susanna and her husband. This was in no way an unusual bequest, as the expectation was that Susanna would take care of her mother, who was then sixty, for the remainder of her life. Anne is said to have wished to be buried with her husband but that the curse on those who disturbed his remains prevented this. Portrait: a tracing of an earlier portrait by Sir Nicholas Curzon, 1608, comes from the Colgate Library copy of the 3rd Folio of 1663. Biography: Germaine Greer, Shakespeare’s Wife (2007).



DOROTHY HATTON (c.1536-c.1591)
Dorothy Hatton was the daughter of William Hatton of Holdenby, Norfolk (c.1510-August 29, 1546) and Alice Saunders. She married John Newport of Hunnington, Warwickshire (d.1565). They had a son, William (d. March 12, 1596), who took the surname Hatton in order to inherit from Dorothy’s brother Sir Christopher Hatton (1540-1591), who never married. Dorothy married William Underhill of Idlicote, Warwickshire (c.1512-May 31, 1570). They also had a son named William, who was poisoned by his son, Fulke Underhill (x.1599) in 1597. Dorothy’s husband purchased New Place, the second best house in Stratford-upon-Avon, in 1567. Their son sold it to William Shakespeare in 1597. This loose connection led novelist and biographer Daphne du Maurier to speculate, in The Winding Stair (1977), that Elizabeth Cecil, Lady Hatton, William Hatton’s second wife, might be the dark lady of Shakespeare’s sonnets.

Elizabeth Hatton was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Christopher Hatton (1540-November 20, 1591). She was seduced by Sir John Perrott (1527-1592) and bore his illegitimate daughter Elizabeth. Her life dates are unknown but she was not the Elizabeth Hatton allegedly murdered on January 26 or 27, 1626, “torn limb from limb” in the courtyard behind the stables at Ely House in Holborn. In fact, there was no such person. The “Legend of Bleeding Heart Yard” has several versions featuring a variety of women connected to the Hatton family.


FRANCES HATTON (July 1590-before November 21, 1623)
Frances Hatton was the daughter of William (Newport) Hatton (d. March 12, 1596) and his first wife, Elizabeth Gawdy (1569-1591). Left an orphan, she was raised by her stepmother, Elizabeth Cecil Hatton (1577-1646). Frances’s marriage on February 24, 1605 to Robert Rich, 2nd earl of Warwick (1587-April 18, 1658) was cause for a major rift between Lady Hatton and her second husband, Sir Edward Coke. Frances and her husband had seven children, including Frances, Anne (d. February 14, 1642), Robert (1611-1659), Charles (1619-1673), and Essex (a daughter).

see also HAWTE



KATHERINE HAUTE (d.1508+) (maiden name unknown)
Katherine Haute appears to have been the wife of James Haute of Kinsbourne Hall at Harpenden, Hertfordshire (d.1508), whose mother was a Woodville and thus related to Edward IV’s queen. Their children were Edward, who died in 1528 (according to Alison Weir and in 1537? according to the Oxford DNB), Alan (d.1529+), and Henry (1474-1508). Katherine may have been the mistress of King Richard III (1452-1485) and the mother of his daughter Katherine (c.1470-1487) and his son, John of Pontefract (c.1468-1499). This speculation, by Rosemary Horrox and other scholars, is based on Richard grant to Katherine Haute in 1477 of 100 shillings a year for life. Richard III probably  had had at least one other mistress and the leading contender is Alice Burgh of Knaresborough. On March 20, 1474, calling her “my beloved gentlewoman” Richard granted Alice an annuity of £20 for “certain special causes and considerations.” Later she (or another woman with the same name) received a grant of twenty marks for being nurse to Edward of Warwick, Richard’s nephew. Her sister, Isabel Burgh, appears to have been nurse to Edward of Middleham, Richard’s legitimate son. James Haute’s will, proved on July 20, 1508, indicates that his wife was still living at that time.

Ysabel de Hauteville, also known as Elizabeth de Kanteville, was the daughter of Samson de Hauteville, Lord of Boulay in Normandy, and Marguerite de Loré. According to some accounts Ysabel was the mistress of Odet de Coligny, Cardinal de Chatillon (July 10, 1517-March 21, 1571) before she married him in December 1564 in Montataire in Picardy. By that time, he had abandoned the Catholic faith to become a Huguenot and been excommunicated by the Pope. Ysabel was presented at the French court after her marriage as Madame la Contesse de Beauvais, the title her husband chose to use after his conversion, but most people continued refer to him as the Cardinal de Chatillon. By September 8, 1568, he was in England and had brought with him twenty-seven others, including his wife. With a month, Queen Elizabeth had welcomed the couple in person and they were settled at Sheen. More details can be found in the Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London, Vol. 3, p. 179 and following, which is available online. In late 1570 and early 1571, the Cardinal was attempting to return to France but was delayed by the weather and by his wife’s ill health. He was himself in poor health in January 1571, but when he died in the pilgrim’s lodge in Canterbury in March, “Lady Châtillon” insisted he was the victim of a slow poison. An autopsy was performed but was inconclusive and the doctors involved ruled that he’d died of natural causes. Eleanor Herman, in The Royal Art of Poison, incorrectly states that it was the Cardinal’s mother who “howled for an autopsy.” Odet de Coligny’s mother, Louise de Montmorency, died in 1547. One online genealogy gives Ysabel’s date of death as c.1615 in Paris, but without documentation. Portrait: sketch by François Clouet, date unknown.

BARBARA HAWK (d.1569+) (maiden name unknown)
All the Queen’s Women: The Changing Place and Perception of Aristocratic Women in Elizabethan England 1558-1620 (1987) by Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith lists Barbara Hawke Bruselles as part of the household of Elizabeth Tudor before 1558 and again after she became queen, but Barbara Hawke is also listed as a gentlewoman of the chamber in the household of Mary Tudor from 1536-47, before Mary became queen and appears again in 1553-8 as a Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Mary. Queen Elizabeth gave Barbara russet colored material for gowns in 1565 and again in 1569. Jane Brussells, listed as a chamberer in the household of Queen Elizabeth in 1586, was Barbara’s daughter. Marion Colthorpe’s “Women at Court: Royal Household” (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Jane Hawk as the daughter of Francis and Barbara Hawk of Flanders. That they came from Brussels (in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium) may explain the confusion in surnames.

JANE HAWK (d. 1594+)
Jane Hawk was the daughter of Francis and Barbara Hawk of Flanders. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, lists her as Jane Hawk-Brussells-Heneage and gives specific dates when she was known to be at court between 1567 and 1597. By 1566, according to Marion Colthorpe’s “Women at Court: Royal Household” (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day), Jane was married to a man named Brussells and Jane Brussells is listed as a chamberer to Queen Elizabeth in 1586, but rather than Brussells being her surname, it is more likely that Jane (and her mother) were referred to in that way because the family originally came to England from Brussels. At one point, Jane was put in charge of the royal ruffs and cuffs. In 1589, “Jane Hawkes” received a brequest from the countess of Sussex. In about 1594, she married William Heneage of Hainton, Linconshire (d. March 29, 1610) as his second wife. They had no children. The Heneage tomb shows both wives and states that Jane served Queen Elizabeth for twenty-four years in “her bedchamber and her private chamber.” Portrait: effigy on Heneage tomb in Hainton, Lincolnshire.





JANE HAWTE (c.1486-1538+)
Jane Hawte was the daughter of Sir Thomas Hawte/Haute of Kent (d.1502) and Isabel Frowick. The will of her godfather, John Digges of Barham, dated June 5, 1502, left her a legacy. She later married Thomas Goodere (Goodyere/Goodier) of Hadley, Hertfordshire. Their children were Anne (d.1560+) and Francis (d.1546). Some genealogies say Goodere died in 1518, but by then Jane was already married to Robert Wroth of Durants, Enfield, Middlesex (1488/9-1535). Their children were Thomas (1518-October 9, 1573), John, William, Oliver, Dorothy, and another daughter. Wroth made his will on May 8, 1535 (proved May 26,1536), leaving two thirds of his lands to Jane for the education of their children. He also specified that his ward, Edward Lewknor, marry their daughter Dorothy (d.1556+). The wardship of Thomas Wroth was granted to Thomas Cromwell, who had been a friend of the family and to whom Robert left his best grey horse. On December 3, 1538, Jane was mentioned in connection with the vicarage of South Mimm in Middlesex. The manor of Hadley was on the border of Middlesex and Herefordshire.

JANE HAWTE (1522-1600)
Jane Hawte was the daughter of Sir William Hawte or Haute of Bishopsbourne, Kent (1489-1539) and Mary Guildford (b.1487). In 1536/7 she married Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger of Allington, Kent (1521-x. April 11, 1554). Their children were Anna, Frances, Jane, Richard, Charles, Arthur, Henry, Jocosa, Ursula, and George (1554-1624). Some accounts say that Jane and her husband did not get along and that he had a mistress. Five of their children were still living when Wyatt was executed for treason and his property confiscated by the Crown. According to some accounts, Jane was sent for after Wyatt’s arrest and promised he would be spared if she could convince him to implicate Elizabeth Tudor in treason. He refused. Jane presented a formal appeal for clemency to Mary as the queen returned from a session of Parliament and received a “sharp answer.” Later the queen promised she would “have mercy on her,” probably because Jane’s half sister, Mary Kempe Finch, was one of Mary’s ladies, but the family was destitute by the time Queen Mary provided Jane with an annuity of £200 in 1555. Jane was eventually allowed to reclaim her husband’s goods and some of his property. The family was restored in blood in 1570.



ANNE HAWTREY (d. November 2, 1624)
Anne Hawtrey was one of the four daughters of William Hawtrey the younger of Chequers, Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire (d.1592) and Winifred Dormer (d.1614). She married John Saunders of Dinton, Buckinghamshire (d.1623). Their only child was a daughter, Elizabeth (c.1616-1640). Portrait: by a follower of Robert Peake (at Chequers Court).

Bridget Hawtrey was the second daughter of William Hawtrey the younger of Chequers, Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire (d.1592) and Winifred Dormer (d.1614). She married Sir Henry Croke of Hampton Poyle, Oxfordshire (c.1587-January 1,1659). Their children were Robert (c.1609-February 8, 1680), Henry, Frances, and Winifred. She was buried at Ellesborough on July 5, 1638. Portrait: by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger.

MARY HAWTREY (1587-1638)
Mary Hawtrey was the eldest daughter of William Hawtrey the younger of Chequers, Ellesborough, Buckinghamshire (d.1592) and Winifred Dormer (d.1614). In 1597, she inherited £500 from her grandfather, the senior William Hawtrey of Chequers. His will indicates that she was the ward of Elizabeth More, Lady Wolley of Pyrford, Surrey, who was widowed in 1596, but the History of Parliament entry for Mary’s husband, Francis Wolley (1583-1609), who was Lady Wolley’s son, gives the date of their wedding as September 11, 1594, when he was eleven. They had no children together, but when Francis Wolley fathered an illegitimate daughter, Lady Wolley and Mrs. Bridget Weston christened the child in Pyrford Church with the name Mary Wolley. As a widow, Lady Wolley lived at Bodicote, near Adderbury, Oxfordshire. She wrote her will on February 20, 1636/7 and it was proved February 21, 1637/8. She died early in 1638. Her half sister, Katherine Pigott, unsuccessfully challenged her will. Portrait: by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c.1625.

ANNE HAYNES (d.1625)
Anne Haynes was the daughter of Richard Haynes of Hoxton, Middlesex. She married Anthony Cage of Stowe, Cambridgeshire (d. June 8, 1583), a salter, as his second wife. They had one son, Nicholas (1577-before January 1625). The will of Anthony Cage was proved October 31, 1583. On May 14, 1586, Anne married John Hart or Harte (1541-1603), a member of the grocer’s company who was involved with the Levant Company, the Muscovy Company and the East India Company and engaged in moneylending. They lived in the parish of St. Swithins in Candlewick Street near London Stone in a very fine mansion. Hart served as Lord Mayor of London in 1589-90. They had no children. Hart died, according to the History of Parliament, of a “tedious and dangerous disease often repeated.” Together with other bequests, including his house in St. Swithins, his will, dated January 3, 1604 and proved January 23, 1604, left his well-beloved wife all the jewels, rings of gold, and plate which were hers before their marriage and all chains and other jewels he had given her, together with a dozen silver trenchers and a chafing dish of silver he had been given by Lady Ramsey. She was also to have his “new spout-pot of silver to serve her at her table.” Anne wrote her will on January 31, 1625 and it was proved March 15, 1625. Her principal heirs were the sons and daughters of her late son Nicholas. A mansion house in Burnham, Buckinghamshire went to John Cage and Toby Cage (d.1641). Forty-five acres of meadow in Datchet went to Toby. Anne and Elizabeth Cage were to have two thousand marks apiece upon their marriages or when they turned twenty-one, whichever came first. There are numerous other bequests to friends and servants. Lady Martyn, widow of Sir Richard, was left £3 “to make her a ring” while Anne’s maidservant, Elizabeth Scott, was to receive £6 13s. 4d. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. In a letter written July 18, 1634, concerning the arms to which he was entitled, John Cage referred to the presence of heralds at the funeral of his grandmother and his payment of £33 in fees.


ELIZABETH HAYWARD (d. September 3, 1622)
Elizabeth Hayward was the daughter of Sir Rowland Hayward or Heyward (c.1520-1593), a clothworker who was Lord Mayor of London in 1570. Some online sources say her mother was his second wife, Katherine Smythe (d.1593+), but the inscription on her father’s monument lists her as the daughter of his first wife, Joan Tillesworth (d, 1580). Elizbeth married Richard Warren of Claybury, Essex (c.1545-March 1597), He wrote his will on March 23, 1596/7 and it was proved March 26, 1596/70. On July 21, 1597, at St. Pancras Church, Soper Lane, London, Elizabeth married Thomas Knyvett of Escrick, Yorkshire and King Street, Westminster (1545-July 27, 1622). She had no children by either marriage. She was appointed governess of James I’s two youngest daughters, Mary and Sophie. Knyvett was created baron Knyvett of Escrick in 1607. Elizabeth was granted probate of his will on August 3, 1622 but died a month later. Portrait: effigy on monument at Escrick.

JOAN HAYWARD (1558-March 3, 1612)
Joan Hayward was the daughter of Sir Rowland Hayward or Heyward (c.1520-1593), a clothworker who was Lord Mayor of London in 1570, and Joan Tillesworth (d.1580). In February 1576 she married John Thynne (c.1551-November 21, 1604). Their children were Thomas (1577-1639), Dorothy, Christian, and John. From 1580 until 1604, Joan was mistress of Longleat House, one of the great mansions of Elizabethan England. After that, she lived primarily at Caus Castle in Shropshire. In 1594, when he was sixteen, her son Thomas secretly married Maria Touchet at the Bell Inn in Beaconsfield. She was the daughter of Lord Audley, whose politics were opposed to those of the Thynnes. There may also have been a long-standing feud with her mother’s family, the Mervyns. Joan and her husband attempted to annul the marriage but failed. Some speculate that this situation was the inspiration for Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Joan was involved in other legal disputes and was reputed to keep muskets in her bedroom at Caus Castle. As a widow, she managed her own affairs and added a lead mine to her holdings. John Maynard, who was music tutor to Joan’s children, dedicated his The XII Wonders of the World to her in 1611. Joan wrote her will at Caus Castle on February 28, 1612 and it was proved March 4, 1612. A transcript is at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Among other bequests, she left her daughters, who were her sole executors, £500 each and the residue of her goods, chattels, plate, and ready money. She also left £100 to her waiting gentlewoman, Anne Criche. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Thynne [née Hayward], Joan;” Alison D. Wall, Two Elizabethan Women: correspondence of Joan and Maria Thynne. Portrait: by an unknown artist.




KATHERINE HAYWOOD (1548-March 26, 1614)
Katherine Haywood was the daughter of Thomas Haywood. On May 15, 1574, she married Rowland Berkeley (1546- June 1, 1611), a clothier of Worcester. They had two sons, William and Robert (July 26, 1584-August 5, 1656). In 1606, Rowland Berkeley purchased Spetchley, Worcestershire. Portrait: effigy in All Saints, Spetchley.



JANE HECKINGTON (1501-March 10, 1588)
Jane Heckington was the daughter of William Heckington of Bourne, Lincolnshire and Alice or Anne Walcot. Around 1518, she married Richard Cecil of Burleigh, Northamptonshire (d. May 19, 1552). Their children were William (September 13, 1520-1598), Anne, Margaret, and Elizabeth. Jane took no part in court life, although her husband was a yeoman of the wardrobe from 1530. As a widow, Jane was noted for her piety and her good works at Stamford. Late in life she became difficult and demanding, partially because she suffered from poor eyesight. She was said to be careless about her appearance. She gave her son-in-law, Robert Wingfield of Upton, Northamptonshire (husband of her daughter Elizabeth), £120 to buy an estate for his younger son, John (c.1560-1626), but at the time of Wingfield’s death on March 31, 1580, he had not yet done so. He left instructions to return the money to her to use for John as she saw fit. It was probably used to purchase his marriage to Elizabeth Gresham, who brought the manor of Tickencote, Rutland to the marriage. Portraits: artist unknown; effigy on monument in St. Martin’s Church, Stamford.

ANNE HEIGHAM (1567-February 27, 1601)
Anne Heigham was the daughter of Sir William Heigham of Dunmow, Essex and Ann Allen. She and her brother William were disowned by their father for converting to Catholicism. On February 3, 1583, Anne married Roger Line or Lyne of Ringwood, Hampshire (1567-1594), who had also been disinherited by his family for the same reason. In 1585, Anne’s husband and brother were arrested for their religious activities. They were banished from the realm in December 1586. Roger went to Douai and lived out the rest of his life in poverty. William went to Spain. Although her husband sent her part of his small pension, Anne was nearly destitute. She lodged for a time with the Wiseman family, then became housekeeper at a refuge in London used by priests. She took a vow of poverty and chastity. She was arrested in 1599 for harboring priests but was let go with a fine.The next time she was caught, however, on February 2, 1601, she was sentenced to be hanged at Tyburn. Anne Line was the only woman in the years 1590 to 1603 to be executed in England for harboring priests and the last woman ever to be hanged in England as a felon for that crime. Anne Dacre, countess of Arundel, loaned her coach to friends bent on retrieving Anne Line’s body. After a clandestine funeral, she was buried in secret. It has been suggested that Shakespeare’s poem, “The Phoenix and the Turtle,” may have been written to commemorate the lives of Roger and Anne Line. In 1970, Anne Line was canonized. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Line [née Heigham], Anne.” Portraits: statue in the church of St. Ethelreda, Holborn, London; other likenesses made after her death.


Thomasine Heminges was one of the fourteen children of John Heminges (November 25, 1556-October 10, 1630) and Rebecca Edwards (1571-1619). She was baptized in St. Mary Aldermanbury, London on January 15, 1595. In 1611, she married William Ostler (c.1585-December 16, 1614) and they had one son, Beaumont, who was baptized in St. Mary Aldermanbury on May 18, 1612. Heminges and Ostler were both members of the same company of players and had shares in the Globe and in the Blackfriars Playhouse. Thomasine was named administrator of her husband’s estate. It consisted his debts and his shares in the playhouses. She gave the shares to her father in trust, but when she tried to get them back, he refused and also refused to give her the income from those shares. In 1615 and 1616, Thomasine brought suit against him to get the shares back. The outcome of the case is not known.


FRANCES HENDER (1584-August 1626)
Frances Hender was the daughter and co-heiress of John Hender of Botreaux Castle, Cornwall (1554-June 9, 1613; although History of Parliament says he died June 7, 1611 and his will was proved July 8, 1612) and Jane Thorne of Yardley Hastings, Northamptonshire (d.1613+). By a marriage settlement dated January 5, 1598, Frances married Richard Robartes (c.1584-April 19, 1634), later created 1st baron Robartes of Truro. Their children were Jane (December 21, 1598-1655), Hender (1602-1602), John (1606-1685), and Mary. She was buried on August 12, 1626. Portraits: probable subject of a portrait c.1600-1629; effigy at St. Hydroc, Lanhydrock, Cornwall.




ELIZABETH HENEAGE (c.1518-December 1,1555)
Elizabeth Heneage was the daughter of Sir Thomas Heneage of Hainton, Lincolnshire (c.1480-August 21,1553) and Catherine Skipwith or Skipworth (c.1484-c.1575). She married William Willoughby (c.1515-July 30, 1570), created Baron Willoughby of Parham in 1547. They had two children, Charles (1537-1612) and Mary (d.1570+). Portrait: memorial brass at Hainton, Lincolnshire.

ELIZABETH HENEAGE (July 9, 1556-1633/4)
Elizabeth Heneage was the daughter of Sir Thomas Heneage (d. October 17, 1595) and Anne Poyntz (d. November 19, 1593). In 1572, she married Sir Moyle Finch of Eastwell, Kent (d. December 14, 1614). Their children were Heneage (d.1631), Thomas, later earl of Winchelsea (c.1575-November 4, 1634), Anne (d.1638), and Katherine (d.1639). At her father’s death, Elizabeth made a settlement on her stepmother, Mary Browne, dowager countess of Southampton, in return for the countess’s agreement to pay all of Heneage’s debts. Elizabeth was at the courts of Elizabeth I and James I as Lady Finch and was in the queen’s funeral procession in 1603. Finch’s death left her the richest widow in England. She was sole executrix of his will. In 1623, she was created viscountess Maidstone, supposedly in remembrance of her father’s service. In fact, she transferred the family seat, Copt Hall, Essex, to the Lord Treasurer, Sir Lionel Cranfield, to secure the honor. In 1628, she was created countess of Winchelsea. Portraits: the lifelike effigy created during her lifetime at Eastwell, Kent is now in the Victoria & Albert Museum; two portraits by unknown artists; c.1600, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger.





ANNE HERBERT (1545-1593)
Anne Herbert was the daughter of William Herbert, 1st earl of Pembroke (c.1506-March 17, 1570) and Anne Parr (c.1515-1552). In 1562/3, she married Francis, Lord Talbot (1550-1582), the earl of Shrewsbury’s heir. Her brother Henry (1540-1601) married Francis’s sister Catherine (d.1575) on February 17, 1562/3. From 1568 on, Anne’s stepmother-in-law was the redoubtable Bess of Hardwick, who married two of her children by her first husband, William Cavendish, to two more Talbot children, Gilbert and Grace. In her father’s will, Anne was left £500. In late August 1582, Lord Francis contracted the plague and died of it at Belvoir Castle, where he had gone to visit his uncle, the earl of Rutland. At some point shortly thereafter, according to Charlotte Merton’s The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, Lady Talbot was resident at court when she heard that her brother, the 2nd earl of Pembroke, had written to their mutual father-in-law to demand that Anne’s widow’s jointure be paid directly to him. He wanted to use the money to invest in one of Sir Walter Raleigh’s overseas ventures. Anne was furious. She had been under the impression that the money would be used for repairs on some houses in which she had an interest. Although some genealogies give the date of Anne’s death as 1582, the same year as her husband, she lived another eleven years. Anne and Francis had no children and the earldom passed to his brother, Gilbert Talbot. Portrait: part of a stained glass window showing her parents and their three children.




ELEANOR HERBERT (1578-1595+)
Eleanor Herbert was the daughter of Henry Herbert of Troye (c.1528-1596) and Lucy Somerset (c.1554-January 18, 1603/4). She married William Rawlings. Portrait: 1595, identified elsewhere as Eleanor Percy (1582/3-1650).



KATHERINE HERBERT (c.1464-c.1504)
Katherine Herbert was the youngest daughter of William Herbert, 1st earl of Pembroke (c.1423-July 27, 1469) and Anne Devereux (d.1486). She was born at Raglan Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales, where she spent her earliest years in the same household as Henry Tudor and was later said to have been well regarded by him, although he was much closer in age to her older sister Maud. In 1485, Henry considered Katherine as a prospective bride after rumors reached him in exile that Richard III might marry Henry’s first choice, Elizabeth of York. He went so far as to write to Maud, by then countess of Northumberland, concerning the match, but his letter never reached her. On July 31, 1485, Henry set sail for England, subsequently defeated Richard, and married Elizabeth. At some point after October 1, 1490, Katherine married George Grey (before 1454-December 25, 1503), who had succeeded his father as earl of Kent in May of that year. She was his second wife and the mother of all but one of his children. They included Anne (1493-March 1545), Henry, 4th earl (1494-September 24, 1562), Anthony, George (d. March 6, 1564), and possibly Edmond and Elizabeth. Katherine survived her husband and inherited custody of his ward, Elizabeth Trussell (1496-c.1527), whose wardship he had purchased in 1501 with the idea of marrying her to their son Henry. The new earl of Kent, Katherine’s stepson Richard, took the girl by force from Katherine’s household at Harrold in Bedfordshire. For this illegal act, he was fined 2,500 marks by the Crown. The girl was probably returned to Katherine. Katherine died before May 8, 1504. On May 28, 1505, Richard surrendered Elizabeth’s wardship to the Crown.





Anne Herdson was the daughter of Henry Herdson (1500-1555), merchant and alderman of London, and Barbara Watson (1504-1568). Her mother’s second husband was Richard Champion, Lord Mayor of London in 1565-6. In 1555, Anne married Thomas Sexton. They had a daughter, Barbara. On November 14, 1559 in St. Dunstan’s in the East, Anne married George Stoddard or Stoddart (d. October 1580), a grocer who was also a moneylender. Their children were Nicholas (d. 1636), Richard, and Judith. Her third husband, as his second wife, was John Barker (c.1532-June 1589), a merchant who traded in cloth with the Spanish and engaged in privateering. They lived in Mark Lane in the parish of St. Olave’s, Hart Street, London and had a daughter, Abigail (b.1584). They had several black servants, including Mary Fillis. Barker wrote his will on May 19, 1589. He left his widow goods and chattels in their London house and provided Abigail with a dowry of £1000. According to the History of Parliament, there was a dispute over the will, which was not proved until 1592. Anne’s will, written on August 28, 1610, indicates that she lived an opulent lifestyle. Further details are given in the chapter on Mary Fillis in Black Tudors by Miranda Kaufmann.

ALICE HERON (d.1580+) (maiden name unknown)
Alice was the wife of sergeant painter William Heron of St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch (d. April 27, 1580). She learned her trade in her husband’s workshop and as a widow was one of the royal painters of Henry VIII.



MARY HERRICK (c.1587- 1592+)
Mary Herrick had her portrait painted in 1592, when she was five. The artist is unknown. The painting can be seen at the Leicester Arts and Museums Service, Newarke House.


see also HARVEY


Elizabeth Hervey was the daughter of John Hervey of Thurleigh, Bedfordshire (d. c.1475) and Joan Niernuyt or Neyrnuit. She became a nun at Elstow in Bedfordshire in 1463 and was abbess there from November 5, 1501 until her death in 1524. What makes her memorable is a brass in the Church of St. Mary and St. Helena, Elstow that shows her in her abbess’s robes with her crosier. This is one of only two such brasses in England.

Elizabeth Hervey, known as Bess, is my candidate for the “very handsome young lady of the court” in whom Henry VIII took an interest in during Anne Boleyn’s 1534 pregnancy. All we know from the records is that Anne attempted to dismiss this young woman but failed to do so, and that she was a friend to Princess Mary. In October 1534, Lady Rochford was dismissed from court instead, for conspiring against the mystery woman. David Starkey’s Six Wives recounts that Bess Hervey was in service to Anne Boleyn and on “friendly terms” with Sir Francis Bryan. She was sent away from court in 1536, although she claimed she did not know why. If she was the “handsome young lady,” she had lost the king’s interest by then. According to Carolly Erickson in Bloody Mary, an Elizabeth Harvey was one of Catherine of Aragon’s women in 1536. After Catherine died she asked to be placed in Mary’s service and was refused. In 1539, she was one of a group of court ladies who visited Portsmouth to tour the king’s ships at the special invitation of Henry VIII. She was also among the ladies in Anne of Cleves’s household, as “Elsabeth Harvy.” She was not appointed to Catherine Howard’s household, but during Catherine’s tenure as queen, Catherine gave Bess the gift of a gown. Starkey suggests that Bess was Thomas Culpepper’s paramour. In March 1541, she was granted an annuity of £10/year. A recent biography of Catherine Howard, Young and Damned and Fair by Gareth Russell, summarizes the career of Bess Harvey this way: “She had once been attached to Anne Boleyn’s household, from which she had been dismissed on grounds that may have had something to do with her alleged immorality. She remained at court, perhaps in some other lady’s service, although she was retired from the Queen’s household with an annual pension of £10, the salary of a maid of honor. She was still at court in 1540-41, when she became Culpepper’s latest mistress.” Russell explains the royal gift of a gown as Catherine’s way of taunting Culpepper.

ISABEL HERVEY (d. May 8, 1594)
Isabel Hervey was the daughter of Edmund Hervey or Harvey of Elstow, Bedfordshire and Margaret Wentworth (c.1492-1511). Her father was a wealthy London merchant with a house in Cheapside. According to the legend, Isabel and her father were visiting friends in the village of Kensington when the earl of Sussex and his retinue rode past. In her eagerness to see the cavalcade, Isabel leaned too far out a window and dropped her glove. Sir Humphrey Radcliffe (c.1509-August 13, 1566), third son of the earl, dipped his lance, impaled the glove, and returned it to its owner. Struck by her beauty, he left his father’s company and offered his services to Hervey to escort him and his daughter back to London. Some versions of the tale say that Humphrey represented himself as one of the earl’s men and did not tell them he was Sussex’s son until after he and Isabel were married. They settled first in Surrey, where Hervey had been made keeper of the Carew estate at Beddington following the arrest and execution of Sir Nicholas Carew. In July 1533, Radcliffe received Elstow from Hervey and the couple moved there. They also lived at Edgworth, Lancashire. Their children included Thomas (d.1586), Mary (d.1616/17), who was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth, Edward (1552-1643), Martha, and Frances (b.1545). Alec Ryric in The Sorcerers Tale identifies Isabel (calling her Elizabeth) as a wealthy client of Dr. Gregory Wilson, physician and con man. In 1543, Wisdom stayed for a month or more in her house in Bedfordshire (actually the estate of Edmund Hervey). when Isabel’s husband was not with her. In 1558, when Elizabeth Tudor became queen, she granted the manor of Houghton Grange in Bedfordshire to Isabel and her second son, Edward. Portrait: the Hans Holbein the Younger drawing at Windsor inscribed “The Lady Ratclif” may be Isabel Hervey, although neither the date of her marriage nor the date of the drawing are known. The others proposed as the subject are Elizabeth Howard, Lady Fitzwalter, Margaret Stanley, countess of Sussex, and Mary Arundell, countess of Sussex, but none of them would have been called Lady Radcliffe.







MARGARETE HETZEL or PREU (c.1511-1576)
According to a story invented by the author of Bishop Cranmer’s Recantacyons (1556), the wife of Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489-x. March 21, 1556), was smuggled into England in a crate. Cranmer, later Archbishop Cranmer, met Margarete in the summer of 1531, when he was in Nuremberg, Germany as Henry VIII’s ambassador to the Emperor. He was visiting a German reformer, Andreas Osiander (1498-1552), Margarete’s uncle. Since Osiander’s name is also given as Hosmer, Hosemann, and Heiligmann, Margarete’s name was long long thought to be Hosmer. Her parents’ names seem to be lost to history, but she was the niece of Osiander’s wife, Katharina Preu, so her surname was either Preu or Hetzel. Margarete married Cranmer in 1532 as his second wife. He had married his first wife, Joan, sometime between 1515 and 1519. She died in childbirth along with their child. In August of 1532, when Archbishop Warham died, Cranmer was appointed to replace him. Unfortunately, at that time priests were not allowed to have wives. Cranmer hid his marriage and was consecrated on March 30, 1533. After Margarete’s arrival in England, by crate or otherwise, they had at least four children, including Margaret (c.1536-1568) and Thomas (c.1538-1598). Around 1540, to avoid prosecution, Cranmer sent Margarete back to Germany. She was able to return c.1544. She seems to have left England after her husband’s execution. There she married publisher and preacher Edward Whitechurch (d.1562). By 1561, they were living in Chamberwell, near Lambeth. After his death, she took possession of the abbey of Kirkstall near Leeds. On November 29, 1564, she married Bartholomew Scott of Chamberwell (d.1600), J.P. for Surrey, but soon realized that he had only married her for her money. She left him, taking refuge with her old friends, Reyner Wolfe and his wife, in London. Lawsuits ensued. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Cranmer, Margaret.”

Abigail Heveningham was the daughter of Sir Anthony Heveningham of Ketteringham, Norfolk (c.1507-November 22, 1557) and Mary Shelton (1512?-January 1571). Abigail was at court, probably as a maid of the Privy Chamber, by March 7, 1567/8, when she received a length of orange and blue striped velvet as a gift from the queen. In a letter of May 14, 1571, George Delves reported to Edward, earl of Rutland that Abigail had “tasted the quintessence out of the long-necked bottle.” According to Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, the queen was duly informed of Abigail’s misbehavior. Instead of dismissing her, Elizabeth made her a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber instead of a maid. She was replaced in her old post by Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Lady Clinton’s niece. After Abigail married George Digby of Coleshill, Warwickshire (1550-April 1587), who was knighted in 1586, she continued to serve in the Privy Chamber and the queen was godmother to their daughter Elizabeth in March 1585. Their other children were Robert, John (1580-1653), Abigail (d. February 6, 1630/1), and one other son. Digby’s will, made April 1586 and proved May 11, 1587, divided his property between his widow and his eldest son. On December 8, 1587, Abigail was granted a twenty-one year lease on Coleshill Rectory. In 1588, she was a client of the earl of Leicester. A letter Abigail wrote to her brother, Sir Arthur (d. October 8, 1630), on  February 7, 1588/9, is still extant. She tried to further his campaign to be re-appointed sheriff of Norfolk in 1600, but he had an abrasive personality that interfered with his political ambitions. On October 21, 1588, Abigail married Edward Cordell (d. December 9, 1590), a clerk of the queen’s high court of Chancery, but she continued to be called Lady Digby. He made his will December 7, 1590 and it was proved January 20, 1591. Abigail was sole executor and inherited a house in Fleet Street and land in several counties. She erected his monument in St. Dunstan-in-the-West. In 1591, she married Ralph Bowes (d.1598), Master of the Queen’s Game. She was still alive on November 9, 1611, when she received an acknowledgement of a payment of £43 6s. 8d. to Thomas, earl of Suffolk. There is a monument to Sir George and Lady Digby in Coleshill Church.



Dorothy Heveningham was the daughter of Christopher Heveningham of Aston, Staffordshire (1540-1574) and Dorothy Stanley (d.1587), a Catholic recusant. Some genealogies misidentify her as the daughter of Mary Shelton and Anthony Heveningham and still others give her a date of death of January 3, 1617. Dorothy wrote her will on July 11, 1635 (proved February 2, 1636; transcript at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com). It indicates that she had two husbands. In 1590, she married Henry Vernon of Hilton and Essington, Staffordshire (d. June 21, 1592). They had one child, Margaret (September 1592-January 3,1656). On September 2, 1593, Dorothy married Sir Henry Townshend of Cound and Ludlow, Shropshire (1537?-December 8, 1621), Justice of Chester. The wardship of her daughter was granted to her second husband. They had one son, Henry (1601-1663). Some genealogies also give them a daughter named Elizabeth, but she appears to have been the child of his first wife, Susan Hayward (d. May 1592). During her second marriage and as a widow, Dorothy involved herself in several memorable incidents. According to Charles J. Cox, ed, “The Rhymed Chronicle of John Harestaffe” (Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 1888, pp.71-147), Dorothy was the villain in a plot against her brother-in-law, John Vernon, and his wife, Mary (née Littleton) that went on for a number of years c.1601. This rhymed account, written c.1615 and revised c.1645, is supported by a lawsuit filed against John Vernon (d. July 8, 1600) by Henry Townshend, Dorothy Townshend, and others. The dispute centered on ownership of lands known as The Farm of Haselbache (Hazelbadge) in the Peak District of Derbyshire. In a separate incident in August 1610, after a visit to Sir John Wynn of Gwydir, Lady Townshend and other gentlewomen were reported to be so sweaty “from Sir John’s good cheer and their ill-throwing at dice, that they must needs wash and purify themselves in the Holywell.” Finally, in June 1614, Dorothy and others were fined £3000 for forging the will of Sir Randall Brereton. Sir Henry refused to pay the fine but the Star Chamber held him responsible for the actions of his wife. According to the Harestaffe poem, £3000 was also the amount offered to Mary Vernon, together with use of the land for life, if she would settle the dispute over Haselbache. She refused to accept, since doing so would defraud the other defendants in the lawsuit. On July 11, 1635, while living at Elmley Lovett, Worcestershire, Dorothy made her will. After itemizing everything from her “carnation satin petticoat embroidered” to the “great leaden cistern and my brewing furnace and all wooden vessels belonging thereunto” that was to go to her daughter Margaret, she inserted conditions. These bequests would all be null and void if Margaret and her husband, Sir Edward Vernon brought suit against Dorothy’s son, Henry Townshend, or her brother, Sir Walter Heveningham, after her death, or if they did not, within six months after her death, pay Henry the £140 they owned him.



ANNE HEWETT (1543/4-1585)
Anne Hewett was the daughter of William Hewett (1514-January 21, 1566/7), Lord Mayor of London in 1559, and Alice Leveson (1523-April 8, 1561). She was their only surviving child and heir to Hewett’s country house at Highgate and estates and manors in  Essex, Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Wales. According to legend, a young man named Edward Osborne (c.1530-February 4, 1592) was apprenticed to Hewett when Anne was just a baby and when her nurse carelessly let her fall out of a window overlooking the Thames, Osborne dived in and saved her. Paintings depicting this rescue hang in both the Clothworker’s Hall and at Hornby Castle, but there are those who say that Osborne was never apprenticed to Hewett and that Hewett’s house, far from being on London Bridge, was located in Philpot Lane. The story first appeared in print in 1720. Anne was at one time courted by George Talbot, 6th earl of Shrewsbury. In 1562, she married Edward Osborne, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1583. Their children were Alice (1563-1626), Hewett (1566-1614), Anne (1570-1653), Edward (November 1572-1625), and Jane (November 1578-1601+). Lady Osborne was buried in St. Martin Orgar on July 14, 1585.





MARIA HEYMAN (d. 1556+)
Maria Heyman was the daughter of Peter Heyman (Hayman/Haymond) of Somerfield House, Sellinge, Kent (c.1502-1553/4), who was steward to Thomas Cranmer and a gentleman of the bedchamber to King Edward VI, and his first wife, Elizabeth Till. In July 1551, Maria married John Ponet, Bishop of Winchester (c.1514-August 1556). Their marriage was controversial not only because the concept of married clergy was still an anathema to many, but also because Ponet had been “married” to another woman until earlier that same year. He was charged with bigamy when it came to light that she was already married to a Nottingham butcher. They obtained a formal separation, but part of the settlement was that Ponet make an annual payment to the butcher. That Thomas Cranmer attended Maria’s wedding, gave respectability to the occasion, but when Mary Tudor became queen, Ponet and Maria fled from England to settle in Strassburg. Ponet died there. While still in exile, Maria married John Hill.

Elizabeth Heywood was the daughter of John Heywood of North Mimms, Hertfordshire, Hinxhill, Kent, and London (1496/7-1578) and Joan Rastell (c.1500-1574). She was the younger of two sisters with the same name. The elder Elizabeth Heywood married a man named Marven. In March or April 1563, Elizabeth the younger married John Donne of London (c.1535-1576), an ironmonger. Their children, all born in Bread Street, were Elizabeth (d.1577), Anne (1565/6-c.1616), John (1572-March 31,1631), Henry (1574-1593), Mary (d. November 1581), and Katherine (d. November 1581). After 1564, when her parents left England as Catholic exiles, Donne acted as their agent, collecting rents and forwarding the money. Donne wrote his will on January 16, 1576 and it was proved on February 8, 1576.  Elizabeth was pregnant with her seventh child when he died. He was buried in St. Nicholas Olave. Donne’s estate was valued at between £3500 and £4000. In June of 1576, Elizabeth married Dr. John Symynges or Syminges of Oxford (by 1526-July 1588), a court physician. He was a wealthy widower with three children. According to Dennis Flynn in John Donne and the Ancient Catholic Nobility, Elizabeth and her second husband were estranged from early in 1583, but David Colclough (John Donne’s Professional Lives) does not mention this. He reports that they lived in the parish of Trinity the Less until the autumn of 1583, when they moved to Bartholomew Close in the parish of Bartholomew the Less. Elizabeth’s daughter Anne was married there in late 1585 to Avery Copley of Batley, Yorkshire (1555-January 1590/1), a barrister. Symynges died intestate and Elizabeth administered the estate. She moved to St. Saviour’s parish, Southwark, where she was fined for recusancy on September 28, 1589. In late 1590, she married Richard Rainsford of Southwark. By then, her daughter Anne was a widow. Avery Copley had spent her dowry of £500, as well as £600 he had borrowed from Elizabeth, and Anne and her child had been forced to move in with Elizabeth. Copley’s father and brother then sued Anne and Elizabeth, which cost Elizabeth at least another £1000, and another lawsuit deprived her of £400 that had been placed in trust for her by Symynges before his death. In May 1593, Elizabeth’s youngest son, Henry, was arrested for harboring a priest, William Harrington. Under threat of torture, he gave evidence against Harrington, who was executed on February 8, 1594. Henry himself did not live long enough to go to trial. He was imprisoned first in the Clink and then transferred to Newgate, where the plague was raging. He died within a few days of his incarceration. On September 10, 1595, Elizabeth and her third husband left England for Antwerp. Left behind were her son John (the poet) and her daughter Anne, who was by then married William Lyly, a diplomat. In 1598, £2000 that should have come to Elizabeth from her second marriage was forfeited to the Crown because she had left the country without permission. In 1606, when Elizabeth and Richard returned from exile, King James returned this £2000 through a royal grant. In February 1611/12 and again in August 1613, Richard Rainsford was imprisoned in Newgate for refusing to sign the Oath of Allegiance. Elizabeth was buried in the parish church in Barking.


KATHERINE HEYWOOD (d. 1571+) (maiden name unknown)
Katherine Heywood was the wife of Richard Heywood (d. May 2, 1570), a wealthy King’s Bench official who was also part of a Catholic circle. They married around 1539 and had four sons and one daughter. By March 1572, Katherine was married to William Parry of Flintshire (x. March 2, 1584/5) and they were involved in litigation. Katherine brought lands in Lincolnshire and Kent worth £80 a year to the marriage. In early 1577, Parry left England for Rome and Siena. He was a spy for Lord Burghley but was arrested in 1584 for treason. Writing after that, John Somers remembered Katherine as “old Mrs. Haywood, my neighbor in Fleet Street,” and said Parry made as much as he could” of her and “abused” her daughter.







AGNES HILL (d. 1589)
On December 1, 1575, Agnes Hill married Thomas Allen (d. December 1591), a merchant in St. Michael Cornhill, London. Marion Colthorpe identifies Agnes as the Mrs. Allen who was one of the Mothers of the Maids at Elizabeth Tudor’s court. Arthur A. Kinney and Jane A. Lawson, in Titled Elizabethans: A Directory of Elizabethan Court, State and Church 1558-1603, 2nd edition (2014) says Mrs. Allen was Mother of Maids in 1589. Allen exchanged New Year’s gifts with the queen in 1563-68 and 1576 and Mrs. Allen is listed on the gift rolls 1576-89.


ANNE HILL (1538-April 2, 1613)
Anne Hill married John Ireland of St. Mildred, Bread Street (1531-June 25, 1615), a wealthy salter and first master of the Salter’s Company, in about 1563. Their messuage in Bread Street was called the Two Black Boys and in the subsidy roll of 1582 Ireland’s property was assessed at £60. Their children were Hester, Elizabeth, Mary, Toby (d. before 1615), and Thomas. Some online sources also add John, Rowland, and Wilson. In 1590, John and Anne were sued in the court of common pleas by Thomas Johnson over a debt owed to Johnson’s mother-in-law, Alice Gittens. Johnson’s wife, Katherine, had long regarded the Irelands as a second set of parents and believed that the loan had already been repaid, but her husband insisted that they’d received private loans for as much or more from Alice Gittens over the years. It was another Anne Hill, the daughter of Richard Hill of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire (c.1500-1539), wine merchant and master of Henry VIII’s wine cellar, and Elizabeth Isley (1510-1592+), who married John Bellingham of Erlington (d. November 6, 1576) and Thomas Lewknor of Tangmere (and later of Selsey) Sussex (c.1538-July 1596).


ELIZABETH HILL (d.1590+) (maiden name unknown)
According to Charlotte Merton’s PhD dissertation The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth: Ladies, Gentlewomen and Maids of the Privy Chamber, Queen Elizabeth gave £200 to Elizabeth Hill, her second cousin, after Mrs. Hill’s house burned down in 1590. Merton further states that there were chamber women related to both the queen and Mrs. Hill. She does not, however, identify Elizabeth further, and of the Hills with connections at court (see MARY HILL) the only two named Elizabeth had died by 1590.


JOAN HILL (d. September 21, 1545)
Joan Hill was the sister of John Hill of London. She married Richard Welles or Wellis (d.1505), a mercer. Their children included a son named Anthony. She married John Chester (d. May 16, 1513), a draper, as his second wife. Their children were William (c.1509-1595?) and Nicholas. She married John Milborne (d. April 5, 1536), a draper who was Lord Mayor of London in 1521-2. In 1515, she and Milborne, by whom she had no children, endowed a fellowship at St. Catherine’s Hall, Cambridge. Joan was executor of the wills of all three of her husbands. Her own will was dated November 17, 1542. She was buried in St. Edmund, Lombard Street where her son, Sir William Chester, erected a monument to her in 1563.

MARGERY HILL (c.1463-1523)
Margery Hill was the daughter of John Hill, a grocer in the area around Hitchin, Hertfordshire. She married William Edward (d. 1487), another grocer. They had a son, Thomas (c.1480-1523+). The family had two servants, one male and one female. Edward owned lands and tenements in London and on the Isle of Thanet in Kent and was engaged in trade with Calais. He made his will on August 1, 1487, naming his wife sole executrix. He was buried in the Church of St. Peter Cornhill, where Margery also asked to be buried. She married Robert Revell of Byfield, Northamptonshire and London (d. February 23, 1491), another grocer who was also an alderman, as his second wife. The Revells lived in the parish of St. Mary at Hill. They had one son, John (d. September 1517). Revell wrote a will that was proved in March 1491. Margery was one of the executors. She married Ralph Astry, fishmonger from Hitchin (d. November 18, 1494), as his second wife. He also exported cloth and served as an alderman and was Lord Mayor of London in 1493-4. On September 29, 1493, the manors of Brishing and Gorecourt were demised for Margery for the term of her life. The Astrys lived in the parish of St. Martin Vintry and then in St. James Garlickhithe. They had one son, Henry (c.1493-1523+). The household supported at least four male servants and three female servants. At his death, Astry owned property in London, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex, and Surrey. The lands in Kent went to Margery for life, as did some property in Surrey, the house in St. James Garlickhithe, and tenements elsewhere in the city. He also bequeathed her access to a London brewery. She continued to live in the London house for another twenty-nine years. During that time, she frequently appeared in court documents because of an ongoing feud with her daughter-in-law Joan (née Rastell), the widow of John Revell. See Joan’s entry for details. Margery left a will, proved on December 10, 1523, that made specific provision for avoiding the sort of trouble caused by her son’s death. The bulk of her estate was divided between her surviving sons but she also left £50 to students of divinity at Cambridge and £10 to a student of grammar who intended to become a priest. Biography: “Dame Margery Astry” by Clare Martin (The Ricardian Vol 14, 2004)


MARY HILL (1532-November 30, 1616)
Mary Hill was the daughter of Richard Hill of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire (c.1500-1539), wine merchant and master of Henry VIII’s wine cellar, and Elizabeth Isley (1510-1592+). By 1539, Mary’s mother was trying to place her in the household of Elizabeth Tudor. According to the Oxford DNB (“Cheke, John”), she joined that household in 1546. Other sources say she was in the household of Anne Stanhope, countess of Hertford (later duchess of Somerset) as a young girl and that it was there she met Sir John Cheke (June 16, 1514-September 13, 1557), tutor and close friend of King Edward VI. They were married on May 11, 1547. In the winter of 1549, Mary somehow displeased the duchess, prompting Cheke to write a letter of apology on January 27, 1549/1550. In it he told the duchess that he had urged Mary to “be plain” and hoped that Mary’s “honest nature” would “content” the duchess. He blamed Mary’s behavior on the fact that she was pregnant. Their children were Henry (c.1548-1586), John (1549-1580), and Edward (1550-1563). When Mary Tudor became queen in 1554, Cheke fled the country, leaving his family behind. On April 4, he wrote to his friend, John Harington, from Calais, asking him to look after Mary. In the spring of 1556, Cheke journeyed to Brussels at the invitation of Sir John Mason, Mary’s stepfather and the queen’s ambassador, and met Mary there. On May 15, Cheke was kidnapped and sent back to England to stand trial for heresy. He was in the Tower on June 1. On July 7, Mary was allowed to visit him and stay the night. When he was released, he went to live with a nephew by marriage, Peter Osborne, and died at Osborne’s house. Mary left her sons with Osborne to be raised. According to the DNB, she was a well-to-do widow with plate valued at £666 13s. 4d., jewels worth £533 6s. 8d., and household goods worth £400. She also inherited the wardship of Thomas Barnardiston (c.1543-1619). By December 14, 1558, she had married Henry MacWilliams (MacWilliam/Mackwilliam) of Stambourne Hall, Essex (c.1532-December 27, 1586), a gentleman at the court of Elizabeth Tudor. Their children were Margaret (c.1560-1640), Susan (d.1616+), Ambrosia, Cassandra, Cecily or Cecilia (1564-1627), and Henry (killed in a duel on June 18, 1599). Mary, who continued to be called Lady Cheke, was a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth and received a number of valuable grants from the queen. She and her husband were jointly made Keepers of St. James’s Palace in 1576. There was one setback. On May 16, 1569, Mary was “surprised with the Earl of Ormond and banished from court.” There were two women named Lady Cheke  at court in the late 1590s (see KATHERINE OSBORNE), but Mary was the one who composed a response to an epigram by John Harington titled “Of a certayne man.” “Erat quaedam mulier [a reply to John Haringtons poem, Erat quidem homo]” is reprinted in Early Modern Women Poets (1520-1700): An Anthology edited by Jane Stevenson and P. A. Davidson. It begins “That no man yet could in the bible find/A certaine woman, argues men are blinde.” Mary was buried in St. Martin’s-in-the-fields. Portraits: a marble figure on her monument; portrait by the Master of the Countess of Warwick, 1567; another portrait, by the Circle of Gower, c.1585-1590, is questionable, as it is identical with a portrait at Hatfield called “Lady Hunsdon.”

MARY HILL (1562-November 1655)
Mary Hill was the daughter of Richard Hill (c.1527-1568), a mercer of Milk Street, London, and Elizabeth Lok or Locke (August 3, 1535-c.1581). Her widowed mother married Nicholas Bullingham, Bishop of Worcester (c.1511-1576) c.1569/70 and he raised all thirteen Hill children. In about 1580, Mary married Dr. Thomas Moundeford, Moundford, or Mountfort (1550-December 13, 1630). Their children were Osbert (c.1584-1615), Richard (c.1586-1615), Bridget (1587-December 11, 1623), and Katherine (b.c.1588). They resided in Cambridge until 1593, when they removed to London. There Moundeford became well-known as a physician. Mary’s goddaughter, Rachel Speght, dedicated her third feminist tract to Mary in 1617. Mary was buried in St. Mary Magdalen, London.

MARY HILLERSDEN (d. December 30, 1618)
According to the Oxford DNB entry for her son, Sir Humphrey May (1572/3-1630), Mary Hillersden may have been the daughter of Andrew Hillersden of Memland, Devon. Online genealogies give her parents as John Hillersden of Devon (1500-February 15, 1569) and Joan Kirkham. She married Richard May of Mayfield, Sussex (c.1530-December 30, 1588), a merchant tailor of London. Their children included Elizabeth (c.1565-June 1643), Thomas (d. 1616), Humphrey, and at least two more sons. The essay “Portingale Women and Politics in Late Elizabethan London” by Alan Stewart, in Women and Politics in Early Modern England 1450-1700, edited by James Daybell, gives details of the case in Chancery brought by Mary May, widow, against Ferdinando Alvares, Alvaro de Lyma and others over the failure of a venture to sell English goods in Portugal in 1587. Mary claimed that the goods had been seized not because they were English but because the agents in Lisbon were Jewish and that the bribes that had to be paid, which cut into her profits, were not only to free up the goods for sale but also to keep those men from facing the Inquisition. There was a great deal at stake. The value of the merchandise was estimated at £4675 and £25,000 had been invested in the voyage of two ships, the Red Lion and the Christopher. What Mary apparently did not know was that the trip was also a cover for an intelligence gathering operation.










JOAN HOBY (d. 1573+)
Joan Hoby was the daughter of Thomas Hoby (Hobby/Halby) of London. She married four times. Her first husband was William Pantin of London. By her second husband, John Sprint of Bristol (d.c.1558), an apothecary, she had two sons, Gregory (d.1608+) and William (d.1592). She married Richard Duke of London and Otterton, Devon (d. September 8, 1572) as his second wife. They had one son who died in infancy. When Duke died, Joan arranged the marriage of his widowed daughter, Christina, to her son, Gregory Sprint, by “subtle drift and device” (according to Sprint’s entry in the History of Parliament) and by this means Sprint gained an income of £200 a year in land and 1000 marks worth of goods. Letters of administration for the Duke estate were issued to his widow on September 10,1573, but on September 13, 1573, new letters of administration were issued, this time jointly to the widow and Christina Sprint. Joan’s fourth husband was Roger Gifford, with whom her son Gregory was later involved in a lawsuit.



MARY HODDY (d. November 19, 1588)
Mary Hoddy was the daughter of William Hoddy of Pillistone, Dorset. In about 1549, she married Thomas Carew of Haccombe, Devonshire (1518-May 28, 1586), who died of gaol fever (typhus) following the Black Assizes of Exeter. Their children were William, Peter, Margaret, John, Catherine, Dorothy, Barbara, Mary, and Joan. Portrait: brass in Haccombe, Devonshire.


Christine Hogg was one of Mary Queen of Scots’ ladies. On February 9, 1567, she married Sebastian Pages, Mary’s valet-de-chambre. The queen attended the nuptials and that evening, after she suddenly remembered that she had promised to return to Holyrood to attend a masque in honor of the newlyweds, Lord Darnley, the queen’s husband, was killed in an explosion that destroyed the house in which he was sleeping. Pages was imprisoned on suspicion on complicity in Darnley’s murder but was later released. The couple continued to serve the queen after their marriage. When Mary fled Scotland for England, they followed her there. They were with her at Bolton by the autumn of 1568. They had a young family by 1571 and by 1586 their two daughters and their son were also listed as members of Mary’s household. Marie, the eldest, was the queen’s goddaughter. After the queen was executed, her ladies were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary’s funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England.

Alice Holcroft was the daughter of  Sir John Holcroft of Holcroft, near Warrington, Lancashire (d.1560) and Anne Standish (d. 1560+). She married Sir Thomas Hesketh of Rufford, Lancashire (1526-1588). Their children were Robert, (1560-1620), Thomas (1561-1613), Richard (1562-1611), Grace (d. yng), Dorothy, and Margaret (d.1606). Her husband was a patron of musicians and players and it has been suggested that the young Shakespeare spent some time at Rufford. Alice was a recusant and although her eldest son conformed after his father’s death, she continued to harbor Catholic priests at Martholme. She was buried at Harwood, Lancashire on March 25, 1604/5. Portrait: illustration in 1594 Hesketh pedigree.

Christian Holcroft was the daughter of William Holcroft, possibly the William Holcroft (c.1525-1581) who married Dorothy Page. She married Edward Cole, who was mayor of Winchester, Hampshire in 1587-8, 1598-9, and 1612-13. Dates given in the History of Parliament entry for Cole (c.1549-1617) vary wildly from those found in various locations online but agree with the dates on a portrait of Cole painted in 1616 when he was sixty-seven. Cole settled in Winchester in 1578 and was admitted to the merchant guild. The following year, Mrs. Cole was licensed by the burghmote to trade within the city during her lifetime. Cole served as registrar for the diocese of Winchester. The History of Parliament gives the Coles four sons and one daughter and says the eldest was Edward (d. 1647). Online genealogies list Edward, William, Martin, John, Anne, and Jane. Most say their son Edward died in 1637, after serving as mayor of Winchester in 1633. Their daughter Jane married another Winchester mayor, Lancelot Thorpe. Christian was buried in Winchester Cathedral.


ISABEL HOLCROFT (1555-January 16, 1606)
Isabel Holcroft was the daughter of Thomas Holcroft of Vale-Royal, Cheshire (1505/6-July 31, 1558) and Juliana Jennings (d.1595). Isabel was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth. On January 6, 1573, she married Edward Manners, 3rd earl of Rutland (July 12, 1549-April 14, 1587). As they had no sons, the Rutland title passed to the earl’s brother, but their daughter, Elizabeth (1574/5-May 1, 1591) kept the title Baroness Roos. After the death of the earl, the countess of Rutland lived at Newark Castle. It was another widowed countess of Rutland, Elizabeth Charleton (d.1594), who lived at Winkbourn Hall in Nottinghamshire. Isabel was buried in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. Portraits: effigy at Bottesford.



MARY HOLFORD (1563-August 15, 1625)
Mary Holford was the daughter of Christopher Holford of Holford, Cheshire (d.1581) and Elizabeth Mainwaring. In 1581 she married Sir Hugh Cholmondeley of Cholmondeley, Cheshire (1552-1601). Their children were Robert (1584-1659), Hatton (d.1605), Hugh (d.1641), Francis (d.yng), Thomas (1595-1653), Lettice (1585-1612), Mary (d.1616) and Frances. Lettice and Mary may be the Cholmondeley sisters pictured in the double portrait of “twins” and their babies now in the Tate. Mary Holford, Lady Cholmondeley, became somewhat infamous for the lawsuits she waged against her uncle, George Holford of Newborough, her father’s half brother. The litigation went on for forty years, finally ending in 1620 with an agreement to split the property. Mary got Holford Hall, where she lived until 1606, and George got the manor of Iscoit. After rebuilding Holford Hall, Mary bought and moved to Vale Royal. It was during a three-day visit there by King James I that he dubbed Mary “the bold lady of Cheshire.” She is buried at Malpas with her husband. Portrait: effigy at Malpas.



ELIZABETH HOLLAND (by 1512-before 1557)
Elizabeth Holland was the daughter (some sources say the sister) of John Holland of Wartwell Hall in Redenhall, Norfolk and a kinswoman, probably a niece, of John Hussey, 1st baron Hussey of Sleaford. John Holland was the duke of Norfolk’s secretary and one of his stewards. In 1526, Elizabeth, known as Bess, was also part of the ducal household at Kenninghall when Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 24, 1554) made her his mistress. Bess Holland was probably not a laundress in the household, or the children’s nurse. She may have been their governess. She was on good terms with Mary Howard, Norfolk’s daughter. When Anne Boleyn was created Marquess of Pembroke, Bess Holland was one of her maids of honor and she was still at court in 1537, when she rode in the funeral cortege of Queen Jane Seymour. Although the duchess of Norfolk painted Bess as a villainess and the duke as a monster, the truth is less dramatic. Bess was his mistress for some twenty years. In December 1546, however, when both the duke and his son, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, were charged with treason, Bess gave evidence against them. She probably had no choice. When the king’s agents seized and searched Kenninghall, they confiscated all of Bess’s possessions, including the jewelry she had concealed upon her person. She also lost a new house on thirty-six acres of land in Framlingham, which the duke had recently given to her, and probably the side saddle of Naples fustian he had ordered for her but not yet paid for. The bill for it was 26s 8d. In her lodgings at Kenninghall (an outer chamber, bedchamber, and adjoining garret), the commissioners seized rings, brooches, strings of pearls, silver spoons, ivory tables, and other treasures. She was taken to London for questioning but was eventually released. Her jewelry was returned in February 1547, when her brother George signed for it “in the name of my said sister.” Bess was living in Mendham, Suffolk. She received an annuity of £20 from Mary Howard, by then duchess of Richmond. According to Gerard Brenan and Edward Phillips Stratham in The House of Howard (1908), Bess married Jeffrey Miles or Myles of Stoke Nayland, Suffolk, but the Oxford DNB says she married Henry Reppes of Mendham (1509-February 10, 1558) in 1547 and died in childbirth in 1547/8. Other sources claim she was still alive when the duke died in 1554. He made no provision for her in his will, but he did not mention his wife, either. He did leave £100 to bring up a child in his household named Joan Goodman, who may have been his natural daughter. Henry Reppes remarried in 1557.


MARY HOLLAND (1540+-before November 16, 1570)
Mary Holland was the daughter of Sir Richard Holland of Denton, Lancashire (March 25, 1493-May 27, 1548+) and Eleanor Harbottle (1504-May 18, 1566). Eleanor’s first husband was Sir Thomas Percy (c.1504-x.1537), by whom she had several children, including two future earls of Northumberland. Holland had also been married before. Mary Holland had only one full sibling, a brother named Richard (d.1548+). It has been suggested that Mary Holland might be the Mrs. Holland who was one of Queen Mary’s attendants in 1555/6 and this is certainly possible. She married Arthur Pole of Lordlington, Sussex (1531-1570). His entry in the Oxford DNB says they wed before September 1562. Other sources say the wedding took place between September 15, 1562 and January 27, 1563. Either way, they were not to have much of a life together. Arthur had been imprisoned in the Fleet in April 1561 and was encarcerated again in late 1562. Condemned on a charge of treason in February 1563, he died in the Tower of London before August 12, 1570.





Margaret Holsewyther was the daughter of Henry Holsewyther of Berg, a part of Cleves. He was a goldsmith naturalized in England on June 12, 1514. Margaret married Lucas Horenboult (d. May 1544) in 1522 or 1523 and had by him a daughter named Jacomyne or Jacquemine. They lived at Charing Cross and both appear to have been working artists. In May 1547, nearly three years after Lucas’s death, Queen Katherine Parr ordered minatures of herself and the young King Edward VI from “the painters” there. Susan E. James believes this reference was to Margaret and her daughter. On July 4, 1544, Margaret married Hugh Hawarde, surveyor of the queen’s stable. Haward’s will is dated October 12, 1558 and was proved on January 17, 1559. Margaret survived him and may have been the Margareta Hawarde who married Hans Hunt on November 18, 1560 at St. Martin in the Fields, where her first husband was buried. A John Hunt was the queen’s armorer.

MARY HOLT (d. August 1, 1597)
Mary Holt was the daughter of John Holt or Holte of Cheshire. She married Nicholas Barham of Maidstone and Boxley, Kent (1520-July 25, 1577), by whom she had two children, Arthur (d.1608+) and Margaret (d.1564+). Their main residence was a mansion called Dygons in Knightrider Street in Maidstone. This and other property acquired between 1555 and 1561 was later said to have been forfeited in Wyatt’s Rebellion, but it was awarded to Mary and her son after her husband’s death. Barham, who died of gaol fever contracted at the Oxford assizes, left a very detailed will behind, written on July 24, 1577. Among other things, he left Mary all his bedding at Serjeant’s Inn. According to his entry in the History of Parliament, this document gave a value to her gold chain and even estimated the amount of wheat, fruit, and rabbits she’d need for housekeeping. Barnham named her one of his two executors and left them with about £200 in debts to pay. In the subsidy of 1585, Mary was assessed £3 on lands she owned.

ELIZABETH HOME (c.1599-August 19, 1633)
Elizabeth Home was the younger daughter and coheir of George Home (or Hume), earl of Dunbar (1573-January 20, 1611) and Elizabeth Gordon (1575-1645). At an early age, she was betrothed to Theophilus Howard, baron Howard de Walden (1584-1640), later 2nd earl of Suffolk. They married in March 1612. Their children were James (c.1620-1689), Thomas, Catherine (d.1650), Elizabeth (d. March 11, 1705), Margaret, George (1625-1691), Henry (1627-1709), Anne, and Frances (d.1677). Portrait: unknown artist, c.1615.

JOAN HONE (d.1586)
Joan Hone was the daughter of Robert Hone of Ottery St. Mary, Devon (c.1490-1543) and his wife Johane. In about 1543, she married John Bodley of Exeter (c.1520-October 1591). Their children were Thomas (1545-1613), Sybil, Lawrence (1547/8-1615), Josias (c.1550-1617), Miles, Prothesia, Alice, Elizabeth, and Susan. Fleeing Mary Tudor, the family left England in 1555, settling first in Wesel. They arrived in Geneva in May 1557, remaining there until they returned to England in September 1559. In Geneva, artist Nicholas Hilliard, then still a child, was part of their household. On January 8, 1561, John Bodley received a license for seven years exclusive right to print and import the Geneva Bible. By 1568, the family was settled at the Three Cranes in London.

ELIZABETH HONEYWOOD (December 2, 1561-August 3, 1631)
Elizabeth Honeywood was the daughter of Sir Robert Honeywood of Honewood, Kent (c.1523-1576) and Mary Waters or Atwater (1527-May 11, 1620). On December 9, 1579, she married George Woodward of Burgate, Suffolk (b. April 10, 1549). Their children were Bridget (b.1582), Elizabeth (b.1584), and Martha (June 7, 1597-August 25, 1670). Portrait: date unknown.


ANNA HOOFTMAN (1565-April 28, 1624 or April 26, 1626)
Anna Hooftman was the daughter of Gieles or Gilles van Eychelberg or Eyckelberg, alias Egidius Hooftman (1521-1581), a wealthy Antwerp banker who was one of the richest men in the Netherlands, and Margaretha van Nispen (c.1545-March 23, 1598). The History of Parliament entry for her second husband gives the spelling of her name as Anne Hoostman. In Frankfurt on April 27, 1591, she married Sir Horatio Palavicino (c.1540-July 5, 1600), a naturalized English citizen and financial magnate who undertook missions for Queen Elizabeth. She had a dowry worth £10,000, most of it in property in the Netherlands. They settled at Babraham, near Cambridge, England. Their children were Henry (1592-1615), Toby (1593-c.1644), and Baptina (1594-1618). According to the Oxford DNB entry for Palavincino, Anna was “inclined toward melancholy” during her first years in England. Her husband was much older than she and suffered from gout and arthritis, but in 1594 he spoke of going to the Netherlands to bring back her mother and two unmarried sisters and arrange marriages for the girls in England. It is not known if he did so. When he died, Anna was sole executor of the Palavicino estate, valued at about £100,000.  He left her all his plate, jewels, and household goods, and all her clothes. He left their daughter an annuity of £150 until her marriage, at which time her portion would be £5000. Anna bought back the custody, wardship, and marriage of the heir, Henry, for £550 and also acquired the one-third of the property that fell to the Crown by paying a fine of £340 and an annual rent of £90. She cut off the allowance Palavicino had been paying to his illegitimate son, Edward. On July 7, 1601, Anna married Sir Oliver Cromwell of Godmanchester and Hinchinbrooke, Huntingdonshire (April 25, 1563-August 28, 1655). Their children were Oliver (d.1628), Giles (d. 1634), Anna (d. April 13, 1663), and Mary (d.1634). Palavicino had been owed a large debt by the City of London at the time of his death and in 1602 there was talk of giving Anna the Burgundian jewels as partial payment. Her agent valued them at £6,477. 5s. while the Crown’s jeweler estimated they were worth £12,000. Nothing came of this and the settlement dragged on into the reign of King James, when Cromwell received a grant of chantry lands valued at £700 a year to settle the debt. He took £500 worth and traded the other lands for a cash payment of £6000. In 1603, the Cromwells entertained King James at Hinchinbrooke with “the greatest feast that has ever been given to a king by a subject.” The king returned for visits in 1605, 1616, and 1617. In 1606, Cromwell’s daughter Catherine (1594-1614) married Anna’s son Henry, his daughter Jane (1593-c.1644) married her son Toby, and his son Henry (1586-1657) married her daughter Baptina. When Anna died, her goods at Cromwell’s house at Ramsey in Huntingdonshire, which had come from Babraham, were inventoried. Among other items were a silver tongue scraper and ten rings. Portrait: identified as Anna Hooftman but with incorrect life dates.


ANNE HOPTON (1561-May 1625)
Anne Hopton was the daughter of Sir Owen Hopton of Cockfield Hall in Yoxford, Suffolk (c.1519-September 1595), Lord Lieutenant of the Tower of London from 1570, and Anne Echingham (d.1599). She is said to have been a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth in 1588/9, but according to some sources she married Henry Wentworth, 3rd baron Wentworth (1558-August 16, 1593) around 1585. Maids of honor were, by definition, unmarried. Their children were Thomas (1591-1667), Henry (d.1644), and Jane. In 1595, she married Sir William Pope of Wroxton (1573-1633), who was later created earl of Downe. They had one son, William (1596-1624). Portrait: by Marcus Gheeraerts, 1596, pregnant with son William and shown with her children from her first marriage.

CECILY HOPTON (1559-April 1625)
Cecily Hopton was the daughter of Sir Owen Hopton of Cockfield Hall in Yoxford, Suffolk (c.1519-September 1595), Lord Lieutenant of the Tower of London from 1570, and Anne Echingham (d.1599). In August 1581, a twenty-five-year-old recusant named John Stonor was a prisoner in the Tower for eight months. Cecily fell in love with him and converted to Catholicism. After Stonor’s release, in April 1582, Cecily continued to work for the Catholic cause. In November 1583, she let George Throckmorton into the precincts so that his brother Francis could throw messages written on playing cards down to him from his cell window. George himself became a prisoner in the Tower only a few days later. When Cecily was examined by the authorities on December 14, 1583, she confessed to speaking to George Throckmorton in his chamber and said he’d asked her to help his brother escape. She refused, but she did not report the request to her father. She also admitted that on December 8 or 9, she brought a man to George’s chamber door. She left him there to talk with George through the keyhole while she went into Mrs. Somerville’s chamber, which prevented her from overhearing what the two men said to each other. Stephen Alford, in The Watchers, suggests that “Sislye” Hopton also helped George convey a letter from Francis to his wife, Anne. Anne received this letter on December 13. At some point, Cecily also took messages from prisoners in the Tower to those in the Marshalsea. Ronald Connelly, in Women of the Catholic Resistance in England 1540-1680, states that when her activities were discovered (he says in 1586), her father was removed from his post and Cecily was never permitted inside the Tower again. However, according to the Oxford DNB, Hopton continued to serve as Lord Lieutenant until he resigned in 1590, and that he did so then for financial reasons. Another source has Cecily letting a priest into the earl of Arundel’s cell to say Mass in 1588. Cecily later married Sir George Marshall (d. July 1636), an equerry to King James. They had a daughter, Anne. Cecily was buried April 23, 1625 at the Athelstan Chapel at Malmesbury.

DOROTHY HOPTON (c.1570-April 1629)
Dorothy Hopton was the daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton of Witham, Somerset (c.1551-November 20, 1607) and Rachel Hall (1554-1629). Some sources incorrectly give her father as Sir Arthur Hopton (1488/9-1555) or as Sir George Hopton. Her first husband was William Smith or Smyth of Burgh Castle Manor, Suffolk (d. December 6, 1596). Their children were William (c.1593-1609) and Owen (d.1637). On July 21, 1597, she married Sir Nathaniel Bacon of Stiffkey, Norfolk (1546-November 1622) and he was awarded her sons’ wardships. He planned to make eldest her son his heir by means of a marriage to one of his granddaughters. At Dorothy’s instigation, he built a second mansion at Irmingland, Norfolk for the boy. When William died at sixteen, his younger brother, who had threatened to sue Bacon for abusing his guardianship, was not considered an acceptable replacement. In around 1609, Bacon had an annual income estimated at about £2000. According to his entry in the Oxford DNB, his marriage to Dorothy was not a happy one. Husband and wife were “temperamentally incompatible” and “quarrelled to the point where their servants talked openly of their ‘great falling out.’” In spite of this, he left Dorothy Irmingland in his will, together with £400 a year. She lived at King’s Lynn for the remainder of her life. She was buried beside her first husband at Great Cressingham.

Margaret Hopton was the daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton of Cockfield in Yoxford, Suffolk (1488-August 16, 1555) and his second wife, Anne Owen (d.1556+). She married Anthony Cockett of South Mimms, Middlesex and Sibton, Suffolk (d.1560/1). Their children were Arthur and Anne. Both were minors when he died. Margaret married Arthur Robsart, illegitimate half brother of Amye Robsart, and in 1571 they were granted letters of administration for her first husband’s estate.


SUSANNA HORENBOULT (c.1504-c.1554)
Susanna Horenboult was the daughter of Gerard or Gheraert Horenboult of Ghent (1480-1540) and Margaret Sanders (d. November 26, 1529). Both her father and her brother, Lucas, were among the King’s Painters at the court of Henry VIII. Lucas was employed in 1525 and Gerard by 1528 at an annual salary £25. Their surname is also spelled Hornebolt, Horneboud, Hoorenbault, Horenbout, and Horebout. Susanna was an illuminator and miniature painter who had gained recognition on the Continent before coming to England around 1522 to work for Henry VIII. She was assigned to the queen’s household. Around 1526, she married John Parker (c.1493/4-September 1537), Yeoman of the Wardrobe and Keeper of the Palace of Westminster. They had no children. Susanna may have ceased to paint professionally when they married, as that was the common practice. Her husband had houses in Fulham and King’s Langley. The same year Parker died, Susanna also lost her place in the queen’s household due to the death of Jane Seymour. By 1538, she was in serious financial difficulties. On September 22, 1539, Susanna married John Gylmyn or Gilman (c.1503-1558) in St. Margaret’s Church, Westminster. He was a widower with a young daughter and a freeman of the vintner’s company, as well as holding a position at court. Two weeks later, Susanna was sent to Anne of Cleves as a personal ambassador from King Henry, and possibly as a spy. She was supplied with £40 for travel expenses and issued livery and was gone from England for three months. She joined the household of Anne of Cleves in Düsseldorf and accompanied the future queen to England. Anne made Susanna her chief gentlewoman and provided her with servants of her own. At Calais in December, delayed by bad weather, “Mrs. Gylmyn” taught Anne of Cleves to play a card game called Cent (an early form of piquet). Susanna remained in Anne’s household as a gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber until Anne’s marriage to Henry VIII was annulled. Gareth Russell places her in the household of Catherine Howard as a gentlewoman of the privy chamber. Susanna and her second husband received several grants of property from the Crown and lived in St. Bride’s parish, London and later in Richmond. They had two sons and at least two daughters, including Henry (1540-1593) and Anne (b.c.1541/2). In 1543, Susanna was back at court as part of Kathrine Parr’s household and remained at court under Edward VI. In 1544, Princess Mary gave her a gift of twelve yards of black satin. In June 1547, Susanna and her second husband brought a case against the heirs of her first husband in the Court of Requests. She died before July 7, 1554, when John Gilman remarried. According to one source, at the time of her death, she was living in Worcester. Biography: Lorne Campbell and Susan Foister, “Gerard, Lucas and Susanna Horenbout,”  The Burlington Magazine, vol.128 no.1003 (October 1986), pp. 716-727; Susan E. James, The Feminine Dynamic in English Art, 1485-1603, Chapters 5 and 6; Kathleen E. Kennedy, “Susanna Horenbout, Courtier and Artist” at artherstory.net. Portrait: Susanna and her first husband may be the subjects of a pair of miniatures in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna painted by Hans Holbein in 1534.

JANE HORNBY (d.1535)
Jane Hornby was from Lancashire. At some point after the death of his third wife on January 12, 1523, she married Sir Richard Fitzlewis of West Horndon, Essex (c.1446-July 12, 1528). She was one of his executors and commissioned a brass for his grave at Horndon showing him with all four of his wives. She married Sir John Norton of Faversham and Middleton, Kent (d. February 8, 1534) as his second wife. The History of Parliament calls him her third husband. She had intended to be buried with Norton in Faversham, Kent and began building a monument there, but when he died, he left instructions that he be buried in Middleton with his first wife. Jane completed the monument in Faversham anyway but left instructions in her will that she be buried with Fitzlewis. Portrait: brass in Ingrave Church, Essex (formerly in the old church of West Horndon, alias Thorndon; moved in 1731).


ANNE HORNE (1455-November 1505)
Anne Horne, sometimes called Joan, was the daughter of Robert Horne, alderman of London, and Joan Fabian. She married Sir William Harcourt of Maxstoke, Warwickshire and Braunstone, Leicestershire (d.c.1471), then Sir John Stanley of Elford, Staffordshire (d. June 29, 1476), and then, before January 31, 1477/8, as his third wife, Sir William Norreys or Norrys of Yattendon, Adresham, Elington, Bullocks, Hall Court, and Marlston, Berkshire and London (1433-January 4, 1507). Their children were Richard, Lionel (1480-1537), Katherine, Anne, Elizabeth, and Jane. In 1479, they sued John Stanley for a third part of the manors of Clifton-Campville, Haunton, and Pipe, Staffordshire, claiming them as part of her dower. Norreys was attainted in 1484 for taking part in the Duke of Buckingham’s rebellion but in 1486 he was granted the manor of Redenhall, Norfolk by the king.

ELIZABETH HORNE (c.1549-1599)
Elizabeth Horne was the daughter of Edmund Horne of Sarsdon, Oxfordshire (c.1490-1553), a gentleman pensioner, and Amy Clarke. Elizabeth’s mother’s second husband was Sir James Mervyn of Fonthill, Gifford, Wiltshire (1529-1611). They had a daughter, Lucy (1565-before 1610), who later married George Touchet, baron Audley (later earl of Castlehaven). In 1566, Elizabeth married Anthony Bourne of Holt Castle, Worcestershire. Their children were Mary and Amy, Bourne was a womanizer and frequently away from home. He was also a violent man, both verbally and physically. By the early 1570s, after he had stolen the wife of a London gentleman, Lord Burghley threatened him with prosecution. In 1575, Bourne fled to Calais with his mistress and their son. He had placed his assets in trust, but to prevent the Crown from confiscating his estate, Bourne’s trustees persuaded him to return to England and beg Queen Elizabeth’s forgiveness for leaving the country without a license. He was fined £1000. After setting up a new trust with Sir John Conway (d. October 4, 1603) as sole trustee. Bourne left England for a second time. He gave Conway the right to arrange his daughters’ marriages, with the understanding that the eldest girl would marry Conway’s eldest son, Edward (c.1564-1631). Soon afterward, however, Bourne tried to break the trust. According to Lamar M. Hill’s “The Privy Council and Private Morality,” an essay in State, Sovereigns & Society, edited by Charles Carlton, it was at this point that Elizabeth petitioned the Privy Council for a legal separation from her husband. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, says it was her mother, by then one first “ladies extraordinary” of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth, who “contrived to have her daughter’s plea brought before the Privy Council rather than before an ecclesiastical court.” About seventy of Elizabeth’s letters are extant, some of them written under the pseudonyms Frances Wesley and Anne Hayes. They paint a detailed picture of her life after her husband left her. In November 1584, Elizabeth wrote to her half sister, Lady Audley, in reply to a letter Lucy had written to her in August: “My good Sister, I give you a million of thanks, that you would vouchsafe to enquire after my well-doing. Amongst all my misfortunes, nothing had increased my grief so much as the unkindness of my natural friends, of whom I have allways deserved well, and find the contrary. When I was distressed, and forced and constrained by necessity to seek the aid of friends to resist the injuries my unkind husband offered me himself, and my children, to the utter overthrow of us all, I first sought my refuge amongst those which by nature were most bound to have yielded me counsel and comfort, friendship, succour and assistance. Being refused through no ill deserts in myself, but through want of good will in themselves, I was forced, my dear sister, and could not otherwise, to accept aid amongst strangers who had some reason to offer it, and I more to take it. . . . I live at Sarisden, where I mean to secrete myself and my sorrows, until God give me a better estate.” Sir John Conway and his wife, Ellen or Eleanor Grenville, had retained custody of Elizabeth’s daughters. A good number of her letters are addressed to him. In one, she called him “a friend so perfect as ever was.” In many they discussed books—Elizabeth read histories, romances, and poetry—but there are also hints of a closer, romantic relationship. One prefaces a plea for financial aid with an original poem. In another, Elizabeth describes herself as “a wandering woman laden with grief.” One letter (September 11, 1587) complains about his wife, who “wrongfully” was trying to match Mary with their second son (instead of Edward, the heir), and gain control of Amy in order to have her marry their youngest son, Fulke. In another, written as Frances Wesley, Elizabeth mocked Lady Conway. Additional details can be found in James Daybell’s Women Letter-Writers in Tudor England.


JOAN HORNER (d. 1568+)
Joan Horner was the daughter of John Horner of Cloford, Somersetshire. She married John Buckland (1498- October 18, 1558), who bought the manor of West Harptree, Somersetshire from Sir John Russell in 1543. She inherited a life interest in this property when he died. Their children were John (d. February 6, 1563), George, Thomas, Frances, Margaret, and Cecile. Her eldest son, John, left the “lands, rents, etc. late belonging to the monastery of Keynsham” in trust to his younger brother George during the life of his mother “Jone Buckland.” At her death, they were to go to his wife, Thomasine. He also left his mother a cup of silver gilt that had belonged to his uncle and a ring. At some point after this, Joan married Sir John Newton of East Harptree, Somersetshire (d. April 10, 1568). By his first wife, who had died in 1559, he had fathered twenty-one children, including Henry (c.1531-1599). After Sir John Newton died, Joan and her stepson were embroiled in a series of quarrels over the life interest she inherited in the manor of Netherbadgworth, Somersetshire. Henry claimed this did not give her the right to arrange tenancies on the property. The case went to Chancery. By 1580, the Star Chamber and common law courts were also involved. The plans made by her son, Thomas Buckland, to dig for iron ore in the Mendips c.1580 also featured in the case. The outcome is unknown, as is the date Lady Newton died.

JOAN HORNER (1561-1608)
Joan Horner was the daughter of Sir John Horner of Cloford, Somersetshire (c.1527-November 24, 1587). She had a dowry of £1050. On December 16, 1594, she married John Still, bishop of Bath and Wells (1543-February 26, 1608). He had been consecrated in February 1593. His first wife, Anne Alabaster, had died on April 15, 1593, leaving him with six children under the age of nineteen. With Joan, his children were Thomas (1595-1640), and possibly a daughter named Anne or Agnes. Queen Elizabeth did not approve of married clergy and is said to have remarked that it was dangerous for a bishop to match with a Horner. This was probably a reference to the rumor that Joan’s grandfather, Sir John Horner of Stoke St. Michael, Somersetshire and steward to the last abbot of Glastonbury, was the “Little Jack Horner” of the nursery rhyme. The “plum” he pulled out is supposed to have been the deed to the manor of Mells, which the Horners acquired at the Dissolution of the Monasteries. At the time of her marriage, Joan’s brother Thomas (c.1547-1612) acted as her trustee for the purchase of the manor of Mourton Wroughton in Compton Martin and other property at that time. Still made his will on February 4, 1608, at which time Joan was still living. She was buried on September 29, 1608 at Cloford.



Margery Horsman was a maid of honor to Henry VIII’s first three queens and a member of the households of the last three, although in some accounts of Anne Boleyn’s life, she is identified as “of the queen’s wardrobe.” In January 1534, she is listed seventh, after Mrs. Marshall, “mistress of the maidens.” If there were only six maids of honor, this may indicate she held a different post at court. She was probably the “one maiden more” who made accusations against Anne Boleyn in 1536. Edward Baynton recorded that “Mistress Margery” first assisted him and then became uncooperative, which agress with the report by Sir William Kingston that Margery remained loyal to the queen. Margery may also be the “Marguerite” mentioned as a witness in some reports. She may also have been with Anne Boleyn in the Tower. When Jane Seymour was queen, Margery offered advice to Lady Lisle about placing her daughters at court and appears a number of times in the Lisle letters. On June 27, 1537, Margery married Sir Michael Lister of Hurstbourne, Hampshire (d.1551), as his second wife. Their children were Charles (d. November 26, 1613) and Lawrence. She and her husband served jointly as Keeper of the Queen’s Jewels. Portrait: The portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger labeled Lady Lister may be Margery, but it is more likely to be her mother-in-law, Isabel Shirley.






ANNE HOWARD (c.1500-February 1558/9)
Anne Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). On April 15, 1512, she married her father’s ward, John de Vere (August 14, 1499-July 14, 1526), who in the following year became the 14th earl of Oxford upon the death of his uncle. They had no children. The countess of Oxford in Catherine of Aragon’s household was the wife of the 13th earl, but Anne did accompany the queen to the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. As a countess, she was allowed to take three gentlewomen with her. According to John Chynoweth in Tudor Cornwall, Thomas Arundell, second son of Sir John Arundell, was at court in the early 1530s when he began negotiations with Lady Oxford to marry her cousin, Margaret Howard. He complained to his father that Lady Oxford was obstinate about wanting him to add £100 of his own lands to the jointure Sir John was offering and stated that if Margaret shared that characteristic, he would rather be ruined than have her as his wife. They married before 1535. There is a tantalizing reference to Anne in the entry for John Raynsford in the History of Parliament. Raynsford was part of an armed expedition led by the earl of Oxford (probably the 15th earl, her husband’s cousin) into Lavenham park, where the earls of Oxford were lords of the manor, against Anne Howard, countess of Oxford. No reason or outcome is given, nor is a date. Anne was buried in the parish church at Lambeth on February 22, 1558/9.

ANNE HOWARD (1532-November 18, 1601)
Anne (sometimes called Agnes) Howard, was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and his first wife, Katherine Broughton (c.1514-April 23, 1535). She should not be confused with her half sister, also named Anne, who was born around 1560. In February 1548, Anne/Agnes married William Paulet of Hooke Court, Dorset (1535-November 24, 1598). Their children were William (1563-February 4, 1627/8), Anne, Catherine, Elizabeth (1560-1581), and one other daughter. He became 3rd marquess of Winchester in 1576. He and Anne were estranged and he had four sons by his mistress, Jane Lambert, but he claimed Anne’s wilfulness and disobedience were responsible for the breakdown of their marriage. In 1578, Queen Elizabeth attempted to reconcile the couple but failed. Sir Amias Paulet took Anne’s side but recommended a reconciliation, while the 2nd earl of Bedford supported the marquess. According to the unpublished PhD dissertation All the Queen’s Women: The Changing Place and Perception of Aristocratic Women in Elizabethan England 1558-1620 (1987) by Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith, Anne had no official position at court but was often there to visit friends. In 1587, she was one of two women of higher rank than countess who were available to serve as chief mourner at the funeral of Mary, Queen of Scots. When the countess of Rutland was chosen instead, it was a deliberate insult to the Scottish queen’s memory. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth tells the story of how, on November 24, 1588, the marchioness had the dubious honor of carrying Queen Elizabeth’s train in the celebrations following the defeat of the Spanish Armada. This formal procession moved through London from Somerset House to St. Paul’s. The queen rode in a chariot. Anne, her arms full of fabric, was on foot behind it.


CATHERINE HOWARD (1521-February 13, 1542)
Catherine Howard was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard (c.1479-March 19, 1539) and Joyce Culpepper (c.1480-1527+). She was raised by her father’s stepmother, the dowager duchess of Norfolk (Agnes Tylney) until she went to court as a maid of honor to Anne of Cleves in January,1540. When King Henry VIII fell in love with Catherine, he had his marriage to Anne annulled and married her. Unfortunately, Catherine had two lovers in her past and another in her future and within two years of her marriage she had been executed for adultery and treason. Biographies: Gareth Russell’s, Young and Damned and Fair: The Life of Catherine Howard, Fifth Wife of King Henry VIII (2016); Joanna Denny’s Katherine Howard; Lacey Baldwin Smith’s A Tudor Tragedy; Oxford DNB entry under “Katherine [Catherine; née Katherine Howard].” Portraits: a painting by Hans Holbein the Younger often said to be Catherine is actually Elizabeth Seymour, sister of Queen Jane; a Holbein miniature, although Susan E. James suggests that is actually a portrait of Lady Margaret Douglas.

CATHERINE HOWARD (1539?-April 7, 1596)
Catherine Howard was the second daughter of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey (1517-x. January 19, 1547) and Frances de Vere (1517-June 30, 1577). After her father’s execution, she was raised by her aunt, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond, and taught by John Foxe. She was a tomboy, an excellent shot with a longbow, an avid hunter of deer, and an expert falconer. In September 1554 at Kenninghall, she married Henry, baron Berkeley (November 26, 1534-November 26, 1613). Their extravagant lifestyle forced them to reduce their household from 150 in 1570 to 70 in 1580. Catherine refused to agree to marriages for her two daughters, Mary and Frances (d.1595), with two sons of Sir Henry Sidney, because they were the earl of Leicester’s nephews and there was enmity between Leicester and Catherine’s brother, the 4th duke of Norfolk. In August 1572, less than a month after Norfolk’s execution, when Catherine and her husband were elsewhere, Queen Elizabeth visited Berkeley Castle to go hunting. Her party slaughtered twenty-seven stags in one day. She made a return visit in 1574. In 1575, she was godmother by proxy to their son Thomas. The queen was said to have encouraged lawsuits by Leicester and his relatives against the Berkeleys. These lawsuits originated in the early fifteenth century and were not settled until 1609. According to the history of the Berkeley family written by a member of the household, John Smyth, when Catherine attempted to win back the queen’s favor, Queen Elizabeth said, “No, no, my Lady Berkeley, we know you will never love us for the death of your brother.” Smyth describes Catherine as haughty and overly proud of her lineage but praises her eloquence in speech and great learning, saying that she was “skillful in French” and “perfect in Italian.” Jesse Childs, in Henry VIII’s Last Victim,” a biography of Catherine’s father, claims that Catherine was a “dilettante of the dark arts” who “dabbled” in necromancy.


DOROTHY HOWARD (1513-1545)
Dorothy Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 12, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). She and her mother were with Princess Mary at Richmond in 1520 when most of the court went to France for the meeting between Henry VIII and Francis I at the Field of Cloth of Gold. Sometime after the death of his first wife, Katherine Howard, in 1530, Dorothy married Edward Stanley, 3rd earl of Derby (May 10, 1508-October 24, 1572). Their children were Henry (1531-September 25, 1593), Thomas (d.1576), Elizabeth (d.1590), Mary, Anne (d. September 22, 1602), and Jane (d.1569). As Lady Derby, she accompanied Anne Boleyn to France before Anne’s marriage to Henry VIII. She was also in Anne’s coronation procession and in the funeral procession of Jane Seymour.


DOUGLAS HOWARD (1542/3-December 1608)
Douglas Howard was the eldest daughter of William Howard, baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510-January 21,1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1,1581). It has been suggested that Margaret Douglas, countess of Lennox, was her godmother. She was said to resemble her cousin, Queen Catherine Howard. She was a maid of honor in 1558. In 1560, at seventeen, she married John Sheffield, 2nd baron Sheffield (c.1538-December 10,1568). Their children were Edmund (December 7,1565-October 6,1646) and Elizabeth (d.November 1600). Douglas is not mentioned in her husband’s will, written on December 10, 1568 and proved January 3, 1568/9. After Sheffield’s death, some later said by poison, his widow returned to court as a gentlewoman of the privy chamber. There she vied with her sister, Frances, for the attention of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester (June 24,1532-September 4,1588). By May 1573, it was an open secret that Douglas was his mistress. According to Douglas’s later deposition, they were secretly married at Sheen House in Surrey late that year, well before the birth of their son, Robert (August 7, 1574-1649). An earlier child is supposed to have been born at Dudley Castle, home of Douglas’s sister, Mary, but that baby did not live. When young Robert was two, Leicester took him to Newington to be brought up by Lord North as befitted an earl’s son, but he refused to support Douglas’s claim that she was his wife. In 1576, he offered her a settlement of £700 per annum to agree that they had never been married. After Leicester’s marriage to Lettice Knollys became public, Douglas was asked to help the queen in her effort to have that marriage annulled. Instead of pressing her claim, Douglas married Sir Edward Stafford of Grafton, Staffordshire (1552-February 5, 1604/5) on November 28, 1579 at her house in Blackfriars. They had two sons who died young. Douglas may be the Lady Sheffield the queen visited at Highgate, Middlesex in March 1582. In 1583, she accompanied Stafford to France, where he served as ambassador until 1591. She was a great success there and is said to have become friendly with Catherine de’ Medici and to have consoled her after the death of her son, the duc de Alençon, in 1584. In 1588, because of the wars of religion, Douglas was sent home for her own protection. She was at the English court during the 1590s. In 1604, in an attempt to legitimize her son by Dudley, she appeared before the Star Chamber and testified that she and Dudley were betrothed in 1571 and married in 1573 at Esher, Surrey, but she had no proof. She also claimed she committed bigamy to put an end to Leicester’s attempts to have her poisoned. Among the provisions in her will, dated September 14, 1608 and proved February 16, 1608/9, which can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com, were bequests to her “beloved friend” Mrs. Waller, to Marie Morton (“my woman”), to “my woman Savile” and to “Marie Turner, my ancient servant.” She was buried December 11, 1608 in St. Margaret’s, Westminster. Biography: a lengthy Oxford DNB entry under “Sheffield [née Howard], Douglas.” Portraits: a portrait “of Lady Sheffield in a frame” was listed in the earl of Leicester’s inventory in 1588; possible portrait at Ancestry.com.

DOUGLAS HOWARD (January 29, 1571/2-August 13, 1590)
Douglas Howard was the only child and heiress of Henry Howard, 3rd viscount Bindon (1542-January 16, 1591) and Frances Meautas (d.1600+). On October 13, 1584, she married Sir Arthur Gorges of Chelsea, Middlesex (1557-October 10, 1625), the poet and translator. They had the approval of Douglas’s mother, but her father, who was both insane and in prison, objected to the match and a legal wrangle ensued. Douglas had one child, Ambrosia (December 25, 1588-October 1600). Bindon claimed the baby was a changeling who had no claim on Douglas’s future inheritance from him. Douglas’s death devastated her husband and prompted the composition of an elegy, “Daphnaida,” by his friend Edmund Spenser. Although the quote is credited to Gorges in reference to his second wife in the History of Parliament entry for Henry Clinton (Gorges’s second father-in-law), it is more likely Douglas he was speaking of when he called her “the most obedient child in the world” and blamed her father’s odious behavior for her death.

ELIZABETH HOWARD (1476-April 3, 1538)
Elizabeth Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Elizabeth Tylney (d. April 4, 1497). “To My Lady Elizabeth Howard” in “The Garland the Laurell” was probably composed by John Skelton in May 1495 during a visit to her father at Sheriff Hutton Castle, when the ladies Skelton honored in verse supposedly made him a laureate’s garland of silk, gold, and pearls. The poem was not published until 1523. Skelton compares Elizabeth to Cressida. Alison Weir suggests that this was because of her beauty, but there is a possibly that it refers to her promiscuity. Elizabeth married Sir Thomas Boleyn of Blickling, Norfolk (c.1477-March 12, 1539). Their children were Thomas (d. c. 1520), Henry (d. yng.), Mary (d. July 1543), Anne (x.May 19, 1536), and George (1503-x.May 19, 1536). There is no evidence that Elizabeth served Elizabeth of York. She is believed to have been at court as a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon, but as Alison Weir points out in her biography of Mary Boleyn, that are is no specific references to her being there. She suggests that it is Anne Tempest, wife of Edward Boleyn, who was part of Queen Catherine’s household. Lauren Mackay, however, in Among the Wolves: The Untold Story of Thomas and George Boleyn, states that Elizabeth was appointed “Baroness” of the Queen’s chambers in 1509 and was responsible for arranging Catherine of Aragon’s Great Wardrobe for the joint coronation with Henry VIII. The night before the coronation, both Thomas Boleyn and his wife were in attendance at a dinner hosted by Henry and Catherine in the Tower of  London. Both Lady Boleyns were at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. In the nineteenth century, It was believed that Elizabeth Howard died young (on December 14, 1512) and that her children were raised by a stepmother, but documentary evidence has disproved this. It is unlikely she ever Henry VIII’s mistress. According to Lauren Mackay, Elizabeth was ill at the time her daughter and son were executed. She died at the Abbot of Reading’s place beside Baynard’s Castle in London and was transported by barge to Lambeth, where she was buried in the Howard Crypt in St. Mary-at-Lambeth on April 7, 1538. The chief female mourner was her half-sister, Katherine, Lady Daubeney. Biography: Elizabeth Norton’s The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women.

ELIZABETH HOWARD (d. September 18, 1534)
Elizabeth Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). In 1520, during the Field of Cloth of Gold, she was at Richmond with her mother, two of her sisters, and four-year-old Princess Mary. Some sources identify her as the Elizaeth Howard who was one of the “bevy of ladies” with Elizabeth Stafford, Countess of Surrey, described in the poem A Goodly Garland or Chaplet of Laurel (1523) by John Skelton. It is more likely that Skelton wrote the poem in 1495 and it was her older half sister, also named Elizabeth, who was its subject. Elizabeth the younger married Henry Radcliffe (c.1506-February 17, 1557). He became Lord Fitzwalter in 1529 and 2nd earl of Sussex in 1542. Their children were Thomas, 3rd earl (1526-June 9, 1583), Henry, 4th earl (c.1530-December 14, 1593), and Robert. In 1532, Lady Fitzwalter was one of six ladies who accompanied Anne Boleyn to Calais. Portrait: Elizabeth is a leading candidate to be “The Lady Ratclif” of the Holbein drawing, although the identity of the sitter is by no means certain.

ELIZABETH HOWARD (d. January 1645/6)
Elizabeth Howard was the daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Notthingham (1536-December 14, 1624) and Catherine Carey (c.1546-February 24, 1603). She was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth from 1576-83. On April 13, 1583 at Cold Harbour, with the queen in attendance, she married Sir Robert Southwell of Woodrising (1563-October 12, 1599). Their children were Elizabeth (c.1586-September 13, 1631) who became a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth in 1599, Catherine, and Thomas (1599-1643). On October 26, 1604, Lady Southwell married John Stewart, earl of Carrick (d.c.1644). They had a daughter, Margaret. Elizabeth was buried on January 31, 1646 at Greenwich, Kent. Portrait: 1582, unknown artist.

ELIZABETH HOWARD (August 1586-April 17, 1658)
Elizabeth Howard was the eldest daughter of Thomas Howard, 1st earl of Suffolk (1561-1626) and Katherine Knyvett (c.1564-1638). At eighteen, she was courted by sixteen-year-old Edward, 4th baron Vaux of Harrowden (September 13, 1588-September 8, 1661) and plans were underway for them to marry. These had fallen through by July 14, 1605, when Edward was granted a license to travel abroad for three years. On August 12, 1605, when King James paid a visit to Harrowden Hall, Vaux’s mother tried to revive the suit, but the suspicion that she had foreknowledge of the Gunpowder Plot put an end to any hope of the match. On December 2, 1605, less than two months after the death of his first wife, Dorothy Bray, Elizabeth married William Knollys, baron Knollys of Greys (c.1545-May 25, 1632), who was created Viscount Wallingford in 1616 and earl of Banbury in 1626. Their children were Edward (April 10,1627- June 1645) and Nicholas (January 3, 1631-March 14, 1674), and some genealogies list an unnamed daughter (1606-1610). Both boys were born at Harrowden Hall, Northamptonshire. According to Godfrey Anstruther in Vaux of Harrowden, who give the date of Elizabeth’s marriage to Knollys as January 19, 1606, Knollys was unaware of the birth of either boy until well after each confinement. In 1613, they entertained Anne of Denmark at Caversham Park, Oxfordshire. The entertainment included a masque by Thomas Campion. Elizabeth was a staunch Catholic with a domineering personality. In 1618, her parents were accused of embezzlement and later her sister Frances was charged with the murder of Thomas Overbury. After Frances and her husband were released from the Tower of London in 1622, they were confined for a time at Caversham Park by order of King James. Later, Frances was a frequent visitor at both Caversham Park and Rotherfield Greys. Before the birth of her sons, Elizabeth began an affair with Edward Vaux, her first love. Less than five weeks after her husband died, she married him. She was buried at Dorking, Surrey. Portrait: attributed to Daniel Mytens, c.1618-20.


EMILY HOWARD (c.1589-1623+)
Emily Howard was one of the twelve children of Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk (1561-1626) and Katherine Knyvett (c.1564-1638). Portrait: dated c.1623, giving the sitter’s age as thirty-four, attributed to the school of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. Another portrait in the same collection, dated c.1623-30, is signed by Cornelius Johnson and was identified at a later date as Gertrude Howard, another daughter of Thomas Howard and Katherine Knyvett. Nothing else is known of either Emily or Gertrude.

FRANCES HOWARD (1553/4-May 14, 1598)
Frances Howard was the daughter of William Howard, baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1, 1581). According to Charlotte Merton’s The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, she lived in France for a time as a young girl. She became a maid of honor c.1571 and served Queen Elizabeth in that post for many years. She spoke fluent French and had many admirers. In the 1570s, Thomas Coningsby was in love with her. In a tournament, he carried a banner with the device of a white lion (an allusion to the Howard family crest) devouring a young cony and the words “Call you this love?” In 1573, she was her sister Douglas’s rival for the earl of Leicester’s attentions, but by 1575 she was the object of a nearly ten-year courtship by Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (1539-April 6, 1621). Between August 1584 and January 1585, because Frances she was the queen’s cousin, she was on the list of possible brides for James VI of Scotland. In December 1585, she married Hertford at Richmond, but the queen still kept her “Franke” at court. In 1591, the Hertfords entertained Queen Elizabeth at Elvetham. Shortly thereafter, Hertford was imprisoned for attempting to establish the legitimacy of his sons by his first wife, Lady Catherine Grey. When Lady Hertford was rumored to be mad with fear for his life, the queen wrote to reassure her that she had no intention of executing Hertford. Frances returned to court and subsequently obtained her husband’s release. When she died, he erected a monument 38′ high to her memory in St. Benedict’s Chapel in Westminster Abbey. She is not, however, mentioned on his monument, which he shares with Catherine Grey. Portrait: effigy in Westminster Abbey.

FRANCES HOWARD (December 1566-July 1628)
Frances Howard was the daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) and Catherine Carey (d. February 25, 1603). According to a story told by Sir Jerome Bowes in about 1600, he suggested to Ivan the Terrible of Russia (in late 1583, when he was English ambassador to Muscovy), that the queen of England had another “more charming” cousin than Lady Mary Hastings, namely Frances Howard, who might make the czar a good wife. Fortunately for Frances, Ivan died in March 1584. There were also rumors she might make a match with King James of Scotland. Instead, in 1589, she married Henry FitzGerald, 12th earl of Kildare (1562-August 1, 1597). Their children were Bridget and Elizabeth. After his death, she returned to England and became a lady in waiting, vying with a maid of honor, Margaret Radcliffe (and possibly with Elizabeth Russell, Bridget and Susan de Vere, and Elizabeth Spencer, as well), for the attentions of Henry Brooke, baron Cobham (November 22, 1564-January 24, 1618/19). She wed Cobham in May 1601 but they separated less than six months after the marriage contract was signed. Frances signed herself “Frances Cobham of Kildare” after her marriage to Lord Cobham. David McKeen, in his biography of Cobham’s father, credits Frances with “an inexplicable passion for her unlovable husband,” Frances herself seems to have inspired a good deal of dislike, even hatred. The earl of Essex reportedly called her “the spider of the court” and she feuded for many years with Elizabeth Throckmorton, Lady Raleigh, over her refusal to help Elizabeth win the queen’s forgiveness for her clandestine marriage. After Elizabeth Tudor’s death, Frances was one of two countesses appointed to lead a delegation of ladies to meet Queen Anne. They were supposed to wait in Berwick, but Frances rushed on to Edinburgh in the hope of winning a position in the new queen’s Privy Chamber. She served as Princess Elizabeth’s governess for a time. Frances’s husband was involved in the plot to assassinate King James and was sent to the Tower in July 1603 and condemned that November. Frances attempted to obtain a pardon for him, but only in order to save the estate. According to the History of Parliament, his lands were granted to his estranged wife in April 1604, but another source says that she was granted lands worth £5000 only after his death and that they were held in trust for her by her father and two friends. Cobham was allowed to visit Bath for his health in September 1617 and again in July 1618. He died, destitute, in a lodging house near the Tower. Frances continued to occupy Cobham Hall, where the king visited her in 1622. In 1620, she took custody of her granddaughter, Mary Stuart O’Donnell, intending to make the girl her heir, but Mary ran away in 1626 rather than marry the Protestant suitor Frances had picked out for her. Portrait: by Marcus Gheeraerts.

FRANCES HOWARD (July 27, 1578-October 8, 1639)
Frances Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, viscount Bindon (c.1520-January 28, 1582) and his third wife, Mabel Burton (1540-1580) and was born at Lytchett, Dorset. In his will, dated May 24, 1581 and proved February 14, 1583, her father specified that Frances was to have a dowry of £2000 and be placed in the care of her aunt, Mary Fowle (née Burton) or her uncle, Robert Burton, until a place could be found for her in the household of Queen Elizabeth. Instead, she appears to have become the ward of Thomas Howard, earl of Suffolk. In December 1590, Lord Burghley, to whom Bindon had entrusted her dowry, stated that he had not seen one penny of that money, nor did Frances receive her dowry when she married Henry Prannell (d. December 10, 1599), the son of a wealthy vintner, in early 1592. In 1597, Frances began to consult Simon Forman the astrologer. According to Forman’s records, she was hoping to begin an affair with the earl of Southampton. She is said to have been the inspiration for Hecatonphila, the title character in a poem translated into English in 1598 and dedicated to Henry Prannell. In April 1600, widowed, she was being courted by William Eure, heir to baron Eure, but on May 27, 1601 she married Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (1539-April 6, 1621), whose previous wife was also named Frances Howard. When their marriage became known, another former suitor, Sir George Rodney of Somerset, killed himself. On June 16, 1621, Frances married Lodovic Stuart, duke of Lennox (September 29, 1574-February 16, 1624) and became the only duchess in the kingdom. Later her husband was also created duke of Richmond, earning Frances the nickname “the double duchess.” Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Stuart [née Howard; married name Prannell], Frances.” Portraits: an effigy on the monument she erected to herself and her third husband in Henry VII’s chapel in Westminster Abbey; portraits painted in 1611, 1615, c.1620; studio of Anthony Van Dyke c.1624-33; after Anthony Van Dyke c.1633.

FRANCES HOWARD (May 31, 1593-August 23, 1632)
Frances Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, baron Howard of Walden and later earl of Suffolk (August 24, 1561-May 28, 1626) and Katherine Knyvett (1564-September 8, 1638). On January 5, 1605, she married Robert Devereux, earl of Essex (1591-September 14, 1646). For the occasion, Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones’s Hymenaei was performed, probably in the banqueting house at Whitehall. In 1613, Frances had the marriage annulled in order to marry Robert Carr, earl of Somerset (1587-1645). They were both arrested, tried, and imprisoned when it was revealed that Frances had planned the murder of Thomas Overbury in order to advance her plans. Biographies: for accounts of the Overbury murder see Beatrice White’s Cast of Ravens and Anne Somerset’s Unnatural Murder: Poison at the Court of King James; Oxford DNB entry under “Howard [married names Devereux, Carr], Frances.” NOTE: the DNB gives the year of her birth as 1590. Portraits: there are a number of portraits said to be Frances Howard, countess of Somerset. Some have been discredited. One in the National Portrait Gallery is attributed to William Larkin c.1612-15.




JANE HOWARD (1537?-1593)
Jane Howard was the eldest daughter of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey (1517-x.January 19,1547) and Frances de Vere (1517-June 30,1577). Robert Hutchinson, in House of Treason, a history of the dukes of Norfolk, states that Jane was the youngest child, born in February 1547, three weeks after her father’s execution. Other sources report that Lady Surrey miscarried in 1547 and was ill afterward or that it was Margaret Howard who was born in 1547. What is known of Jane’s early life supports the contention that she was the oldest sister. Her early education was in the hands of Hadrianus Junius.  After 1547, she and her sisters Catherine (1539-April 7,1596) and Margaret (January 1543-March 17,1592), were entrusted to their aunt, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond (1517-December 9,1557). The girls were educated by John Foxe, who taught them Greek and Latin and had them compose poetry. He equated Jane’s learning with that of the most learned men of her times. Jane went to court in 1558/9 as one of Queen Elizabeth’s first six maids of honor. Around 1563, she married Charles Neville, 6th earl of Westmorland (August 8,1542-November 16,1601). Their children were Margaret (1564-1594+), Anne, Catherine, Eleanor, and Thomas (1565-1601+). In 1569, the earls of Northumberland, Westmorland, Cumberland, and Derby plotted a rebellion to rescue Mary, queen of Scots, marry her to Jane’s brother, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, and restore Catholicism to England. When the duke was arrested, he advised the earls to abandon their plans, but in a meeting between Northumberland and Westmorland at Branspeth, it was Lady Westmorland who persuaded the two earls to take up arms. Of her brother’s defection she is said to have remarked, “What a simple man the duke is to begin a matter and not go through with it.” To the earls, who were considering flight or submission to the queen, she said, “We and our country were shamed forever, that now in the end we should seek holes to creep into.” She goaded them until, on November 14,1569, they began the first uprising England had seen since Wyatt’s abortive rebellion in 1554. Lady Northumberland and Lady Westmorland were with the troops when they took the city of Durham and sacked the cathedral there, tearing up all the English translations of the Bible and all the Reformation prayer books they could find. Queen Mary’s removal to Coventry and the lack of support they found as they moved slowly southeast forced them to turn back at Tadcaster and begin a rapid retreat. From Naworth Castle, Westmorland slipped across the border into Scotland, taking refuge there until he could escape to the Netherlands. Lady Westmorland remained in England and wrote to Queen Elizabeth for leave to come to court. In part, she wrote: “Innocency and the great desire I have had to do my humble duty to her Highness . . . emboldeneth me to continue this my suit.” Her request was denied. She was sent to Kenninghall, Norfolk and held there, a virtual prisoner, for the rest of her life. She was paid a pension of £200 during her husband’s exile. This was increased to £300 in 1577. Retha M. Warnicke, in Women of the Renaissance and Reformation, interprets Jane’s actions differently. She maintains Jane remained a protestant and was angry because, after her husband had been lured into treason, his fellow conspirators were prepared to abandon him. Northumberland, after his capture, then blamed Jane, without foundation, for egging on the rebels. According to Warnicke, Jane was investigated and exonerated, but she gives only secondary sources for this conclusion. Jane was buried at Kenninghall on June 30, 1593. Portrait: effigy on her father’s tomb. She is on the near side with her sister Catherine in the middle and her sister Margaret on the far side.


KATHERINE HOWARD (1508-May 1554)
Katherine Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1553-May 21, 1524) and Agnes Tylney (1477-May 1545). In 1520, during the Field of Cloth of Gold, she was at Richmond with her mother, two of her sisters, and four-year-old Princess Mary. At the age of six she was betrothed to Rhys ap Griffith of Carew Castle, Pembrokeshire (c.1505-x. January 4, 1531/2) and married him when she was fourteen. Their children, who followed the Welsh practice of using their father’s first name as their last name (ap Rhys or Rice) were, according to online sources, Thomas (c.1522-1544), Griffith (b.1526), Agnes (d. August 19, 1574), Mary, and one other daughter. When, in a conflict with Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers, Katherine’s husband was arrested for disturbing the peace, she rallied hundreds of supporters and marched on Carmarthen Castle. A fuller account can be found in Gareth Russell, Young and Damned and Fair: The Life of Catherine Howard, Fifth Wife of King Henry VIII (2016). Sir Rhys was arrested on October 2, 1531 and accused of plotting to kill the king. He was beheaded. The attainder of November 1531 safeguarded Katherine’s jointure and she continued to receive about £196/year. In 1532 she married Henry, Lord Daubeney (December 1493-April 8, 1548). She was his second wife. He’d had no children by his first marriage and this second union also proved childless. Barbara J. Harris in “Sisterhood, Friendship and the Power of English Aristocratic Women 1450-1550,” in Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1540-1700, edited by James Daybell, reports that Lady Daubeney sent three daughters to her mother to raise. Gareth Russell disputes this. He identifies her children as Gruffydd, the eldest, Thomas, and Anne, states that the two boys were under seven when their father died, and says that all three children remained with their mother at that time. By 1534, Daubeney was reportedly in poor health and trying to get rid of his wife. They were already living apart. He may have thought he could get an annulment and marry again in the hope of a son to inherit or they may simply have been incompatible. In any case, in 1535, he offered her all her own lands and £100/year. In the winter of 1535/6, she wrote to Lord Cromwell that her only income came from Queen Anne, her niece. She also claimed that efforts had been made to discredit her with the queen. Daubeney pled financial hardship. By March 1536, the queen’s father, the earl of Wiltshire, had loaned him £400. Queen Anne’s generosity did not extend to having her aunt at court, but Katherine was much with her mother, the dowager duchess of Norfolk, and her sons became the dowager’s wards. Katherine’s maid, Misress Philip, was also part of that household. Nearly two years after Anne’s execution, on April 7, 1538, Katherine was chief mourner at the funeral of her half sister Elizabeth, Lady Wiltshire. In that same year, Daubeney was elevated in the peerage to earl of Bridgewater. In 1540 there were rumors that Katherine and her husband might reconcile. She was at court when another niece, Catherine Howard, was queen. After Catherine was arrested and her household dissolved, Katherine was placed in the custody of the earl of Southampton. The next day, December 6, 1541, Mrs. Philip was questioned and Katherine herself was interrogated by ten of the king’s men. On December 13, her two sons were removed from their grandmother’s household. Gruffydd was placed with Archbishop Cranmer while Thomas was sent to the Bishop of Carlisle. Katherine’s daughter Anne was briefly sent to the countess of Oxford. This was probably Katherine’s sister Anne, the dowager countess. On January 15, 1541/2, Katherine was indicted for misprision of treason along with her mother, her brother William, and William’s wife (Margaret Gamage). She and her mother were sentenced to perpetual imprisonment and the loss of all worldly goods, but Katherine was later released and her daughter returned to her. On May 11, 1554, Katherine was buried in the Howard Chapel in Lambeth.

KATHERINE HOWARD (c.1546-1599)
Katherine Howard was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1, 1581). By September 1572, Katherine was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth. Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) says she received an annuity of 100 marks in 1591 and ceased to be listed as a maid of honor, but she remained at court until her death. She was buried September 20, 1599 as “the only old maid of court.”


MARGARET HOWARD (1506?-1554?)
Margaret Howard was the illegitimate daughter of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-February 24, 1554). In about 1523, she married William Timperley of Hintlesham, Suffolk (c.1489-April 1,1528). Their children were Thomas (1523/4-1594), William (c.1525-c.1606), Nicholas, and Henry. When Margaret’s husband died, her eldest son became her father’s ward. In 1546, Margaret married Sir Henry D’Oyly of Pond Hall, Hadleigh, Suffolk (c.1493-February 13, 1563) as his third wife. One D’Oyly genealogy gives her a previous marriage in 1532 to Edmund White of Little Porringland, Norfolk and two daughters, Anne White (1534-1592) and Mary D’Oyly, but this same source incorrectly lists Thomas (1474-1510) and Margaret Howard (1476-1531) as her parents.

MARGARET HOWARD (d. October 10, 1572)
Margaret Howard was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard (c.1479-March 19, 1539) and Joyce Culpepper (c.1480-1527+) and the sister of Queen Catherine Howard. According to John Chynoweth in Tudor Cornwall, Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour (c.1502-x. February 26, 1551/2), second son of Sir John Arundell, was at court in the early 1530s when he began negotiations with Lady Oxford (Anne Howard, widowed daughter of the duke of Norfolk), to marry her cousin Margaret. He complained to his father that Lady Oxford, who wanted him to add £100 of his own lands to the jointure Sir John was offering, was obstinate and that if Margaret shared that characteristic, he would rather be ruined than have her as his wife. The Oxford DNB gives a date of 1530 for their marriage, but various genealogies say they wed in either November 1531 or on September 5, 1533. The date on their marriage settlement was November 20, 1530. Their children were Matthew (1535-December 1538), Margaret, Dorothy (c.1535-c.1578), Robert (b. January 1537), Charles (c.1539-December 9, 1587), and Jane. The DNB and History of Parliament give October 10, 1571 as Margaret’s date of death, but other records indicate that she was buried on October 20, 1572 in Tisbury, Wiltshire. Just to make things more confusing, Margaret is sometimes said to be Joyce Culpepper’s daughter by her first marriage to Ralph Legh (d.1509) and born in 1505. The Oxford DNB gives the c.1514 date and says she was the daughter of Lord Edmund, but his marriage to her mother may have taken place as late as 1519. Margaret was at court during the time her sister was queen. During the reign of Edward VI, when the duke of Somerset was Lord Protector, Arundell became involved in rebellion and treason. He was executed for his part in an alleged conspiracy to assassinate John Dudley, at that time earl of Warwick but soon to be duke of Northumberland. Arundell’s estate, including Margaret’s widow’s third, was forfeit to the Crown. In June 1553, her dower rights and some of her husband’s lands were restored to her and she was granted a pension of £20 a year. With a total of twenty-six manors, she was a wealthy woman. Portrait: Because of its possible descent through her daughter Dorothy, who married Sir Henry Weston in 1559, Margaret has been suggested as a possible subject of a portrait of an unknown woman in black, attributed to William Scrots, which was at Sutton Place for many years. It would have to have been painted after she was widowed.

MARGARET HOWARD (January 1543?-March 17, 1592)
Margaret Howard was the youngest daughter of Henry Howard, earl of Surrey (1517-x. January 19, 1547) and Frances de Vere (1517-June 30, 1577). Some accounts have her born posthumously. After her father’s execution for treason, she and her sisters, Jane and Catherine, were brought up by their aunt, Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond (1517-December 9, 1557). The girls were educated by John Foxe, who taught them Greek and Latin and had them compose poetry. After Queen Mary succeeded to the throne in 1553, Margaret was briefly in the household of her grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 1554). Margaret married Henry Scrope, 9th baron Scrope of Bolton (c.1534-June 13, 1592) after his first wife died in November 1558. Their children were Thomas, 10th baron Scrope (1567-September 2, 1609) and Henry (c.1569-September 5, 1625). When Mary Stewart first fled from Scotland into England her earliest prison was Carlisle Castle, where she was in the keeping of Lady Scrope. She was there by May 18, 1568 and was moved to Bolton Castle in Yorkshire by mid-July. On February 3, 1569, the queen of Scots arrived at Tutbury Castle, where she was turned over to the keeping of the earl and countess of Shrewsbury. Mary’s biographer, Antonia Fraser, remarks that the Scots queen was surrounded by Protestants at Bolton, so it may be that Margaret Howard, unlike her older sisters, had been converted from the Catholicism of her father and grandfather to the Protestantism of her aunt. In June 1569, however, Margaret accompanied her husband to a meeting at Tattershall, Lincolnshire with her sister Catherine and Catherine’s husband, Henry Berkeley, 7th baron Berkeley (1534-1613), a gathering perceived by some to have been held to plan the Northern Rebellion, in which Margaret’s sister Jane, as countess of Westmorland, was to play a major role. When Scrope received an appeal for help from Westmorland, he proved his loyalty to Queen Elizabeth by forwarding it to her. Portraits: double portrait with her son Thomas; portrait at Knole; miniature based on painting at Knole.

MARGARET HOWARD (1562-August 19, 1591)
Margaret Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk (March 10, 1538-June 2, 1572) and his second wife, Margaret Audley (1539-January 10, 1564). Margaret’s father’s execution for treason when she was ten limited her choice of husbands but in February 1569/80 she married Robert Sackville of Bolbrooke and Buckhurst, Sussex and Knole, Kent (1561-February 27, 1609), later Lord Buckhurst and earl of Dorset. They had three sons and three daughters, including Richard (1590-1624), Edward (1591-1652), Anne, and Cecily. A devout Catholic, she influenced his religious beliefs. After her death, Robert Southwell published a book in her honor and Sackville described his late wife as “a lady . . . of as great virtue . . . as is possible for any man to wish to be matched withal.” He asked to be buried at Withyham “as near to my first dearly beloved wife . . . as can be” and ordered that £200 to £300 be spent on their tomb, which featured effigies of them both.

Margaret Howard was the daughter of Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) and Catherine Carey (c.1546-February 24, 1603). By a license dated December 13, 1587, she married Richard Leveson of Lilleshall, Shropshire and Trentham, Staffordshire (1570-August 2, 1605). He was a naval officer serving under her father and was knighted in 1596. They had one daughter who died young. At some point before 1600, her father-in-law, Walter Leveson (d. October 20, 1602) was accused by Robert Wayland of sorcery and trying to poison several people, including Margaret. He had already faced charges of piracy. He accused his son and a girl named Ethel of conspiring against him. By 1602, Margaret had suffered a mental breakdown and her husband was living with his mistress, Mary Fitton, at Perton, Staffordshire. He had two children by her. As a widow, Margaret was the ward of her brother William (d.1615). After his death, she was in her father’s keeping. It is not clear what happened to her after he died.


MARTHA HOWARD (c.1552-1598)
Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Martha Howard as the daughter of William, Lord Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21,1573) and his second wife, Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1,1581). By January 1577, she was a maid of honor. In January 1578, she gave birth to a child out of wedlock. She and the child’s father, George Bourchier (1537-September 24, 1605), one of the earl of Bath’s sons, were sent to the Tower of London. They were released on June 8 and married later that year. Their children were Charles (d.1584), Thomas, and Henry (c.1587-1654).

MARY HOWARD (1519-December 9, 1557)
Mary Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 25, 1554) and Elizabeth Stafford (1499-November 30, 1558). She was a maid of honor to her cousin, Anne Boleyn. On November 26, 1533, she was married to King Henry VIII’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond (June 18, 1519-July 22, 1536) at Hampton Court. They never lived together. In fact, King Henry tried to use non-consummation of the marriage as an excuse not to support Mary in her widowhood. By 1540, however, she had been granted a number of former church properties and had an income in excess of £744 per annum. Mary lived primarily at Kenninghall when she was not at court and was at the center of a literary circle that included her brother, Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, and Lady Margaret Douglas. She was part of the household of Catherine Howard but was sent back to Kenninghall in November 1541, when the queen’s household was disbanded. There was talk of a marriage with Thomas Seymour, Queen Jane’s brother, as early as 1538, and the idea was broached again in 1546, but Surrey was violently opposed and Mary does not seem to have liked it much herself. Her brother went so far as to suggest that if the family wanted to use Mary to advance their interests at court, she should become King Henry’s mistress rather than Seymour’s wife. In December 1546, when Mary’s father and brother were arrested on charges of treason, she was forced to give evidence against them. She said very little of use. After Surrey’s execution, Mary was given custody of his children. She established a household at Reigate and employed John Foxe to educate them. Unlike most of the rest of the Howards, Mary adoped the New Religion, which meant she fell out of favor when Queen Mary came to the throne. She remained close to her father. When he died, he left her £500. She was buried with her husband in St. Michael’s church, Framlingham, Suffolk, but their tomb was still unfinished by the time of the duke of Norfolk’s death and has no effigies. Biographies: there is none of Mary, but those written about her father, husband, and brother give further details of her life; Oxford DNB entry under “Fitzroy [née Howard], Mary.” For her writing, see Elizabeth Heale, ed., The Devonshire Manuscript: A Womans Book of Courtly Poetry. Portrait: Hans Holbein’s sketch of “The Lady of Richmond” is incomplete but is the only likeness we have of Mary. It is not certain when it was drawn or why it was not completed.

MARY HOWARD (d. August 21, 1600)
Mary Howard was the daughter of William Howard, 1st baron Howard of Effingham (1510-January 21, 1573) and Margaret Gamage (1515-May 1, 1581). Dates given for her birth range from 1537 to 1548. She was a maid of honor to Mary Tudor and continued in that post under Elizabeth. In 1566, the queen presented her with a purple velvet loose gown. At some point before his death in that same year, poet Richard Edwards wrote “Howarde is not haughte/But of such smylinge cheare/That wolde aleve eche gentill harte/His love to holde full clere.” There were rumors that Mary had secretly married Sir Thomas Southwell (c.1542-c.1572), and although they both denied it, the matter was taken seriously enough to require investigation by the Archbishop of Canterbury, who determined that no marriage had taken place, On December 16, 1571, Mary married Edward Sutton, 4th baron Dudley (c.1513-July 9, 1586) at court. She was his third wife. They had no children. Her sister, Douglas Howard, visited Dudley Castle on occasion and was rumored to have given birth there to a child by Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Queen Elizabeth visited Dudley Castle on August 12, 1575. Mary was her husband’s executor, but his will gave precedence to his creditors over his widow. In 1587, she married Richard Mompesson (1548-1627). Her monument, with her second husband, is in St. Margaret’s, Westminster.

MARY HOWARD (d.1597+)
Lady Mary Howard is said to have been the Lord Chamberlain’s (William, 1st baron Howard of Effingham) granddaughter, and to have been at court as a maid of honor from 1590-1603, but Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith’s unpublished dissertation, All the Queen’s Women, identifies her as the daughter of Catherine Carey (c.1546-February 4, 1603) and Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624). Neither identification can be confirmed. A letter from William Fenton to Sir John Harington in 1597 tells Harington that Fenton has spoken to the queen twice since Easter and that both times she spoke “vehemently and with great wrath” of Lady Mary Howard because Mary refused to bear the queen’s mantle when the queen wished to walk in the garden and made an unseemly answer that “did breed much choler” in her mistress. Mary also failed in to carry the cup of grace during dinner in the privy chamber and did not attend the queen when she went to prayers. Worse, she caught the attention of “the young Earl.” This may have been Essex, but is just as likely to have been Southampton. In either case, the queen was not pleased. Fenton seems to indicate that Mary had a sister, Jane, who had been a maid of honor before her marriage. Harrington, writing to Robert Markham in 1606, recalled an incident “that fell out when I was a boy,” that seems to involve this same Mary Howard, although in the 1590s Harrington, born in 1560, was hardly “a boy.” According to him, Lady Mary had “a rich border powdered with golde and pearle, and a velvet suite belonging thereto.” The queen, thinking it exceeded her own, sent for Mary’s “rich vesture, which she put on herself, and came forthe the chamber amonge the Ladies; the kirtle and border was far too shorte for her Majesties height; and she askede every one, How they likede her new-fancied suit? At lengthe she asked the owner herself, If it was not made too short and ill-becoming? — Which the poor Ladie did presentlie consente to. ‘Why then if it become not me, as being too short, I am minded it shall never become thee, as being too fine; so it fitteth neither well.’ This sharp rebuke abashed the Ladie, and she never adorned her herewith any more. I believe the vestment was laid up till after the Queenes death.” Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, suggests Harington’s Lady Mary Hoawrd was Mary Dacre (June 4, 1563-April 7, 1578), first wife of Thomas Howard, 1st baron Howard of Walden and that the incident took place in 1577. Marion Colthorpe makes no attempt to identify Lady Mary Hwoard in  http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) but says that she may have been dismissed late in 1597.


MURIEL HOWARD (1485-December 14, 1512)
Muriel Howard was the daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk (1443-May 21, 1524) and Elizabeth Tylney (d. April 4, 1497). She was at Sheriff Hutton Castle in 1495 when John Skelton composed his poem “The Garland of Laurell” (published 1523). In June 1504, she married John Grey, viscount Lisle (April 1480-September 9, 1505). They had one child, Elizabeth (1505-1519). Muriel married Sir Thomas Knyvett of Buckenden or Budkenham, Norfolk (d. August 10, 1512). Their children were Edmund (1507/8-1550/1), Ferdinando (b.1509), Henry (d. March 30, 1547), Anthony, Catherine, and Anne. Her will was written October 13, 1512 and proved January 12, 1512/13. She bequeathed “all my three sons and two daughters to the King’s Highness, together with my wedding ring to him, desiring him to be a good Lord to them.”

AGNES HOWE (1583-1610+)
Agnes Howe was the daughter of John Howe (d.1604+), a barber-surgeon who owned a house close to St. Gregory’s in London, and Agnes Harrison. She was the niece of Mrs. Margaret (née Harrison) Sharles (1546-September 11, 1600), a wealthy, childless widow. When Mrs. Sharles died, she left Agnes a magnificent dowry. The house in Newgate Market, her shop, the stock in it, and the residue of the estate after other bequests added up to an inheritance worth between £2000 and £3000. Mrs Sharles, mindful that her niece was only seventeen, established conditions. Agnes would not inherit until she was twenty and she could not marry before that. Further, she was to be guided by the minister of Christchurch, George Lynde, and by George Kevall, the notary who had drawn up William Sharles’s will in 1590. Agnes’s father posted a bond of £2000 to take charge of managing his daughter’s estate until she turned twenty. He did not have £2000, but he won the cooperation of an official of the prerogative court, the body that decided on the administration of estates, by promising that Agnes would marry to one of his sons. This plan fell through, but with the help of his brother, Peter Howe, his sister, Joan Darrell, alias Copprans, and Peter Howe’s daughter, Agnes Shaw, he found at least five other suitors willing to sign bonds to him. On October 3, 1600, Thomas Field of Dingwell, Hertfordshire, went through a betrothal ceremony with Agnes. On October 10, he signed bonds promising, within two days of his marriage to Agnes, to lease Harrow to Howe and make over all the goods in the shop to him. Henry Jones of Gloucester also claimed to be betrothed to Agnes. He made an unsuccessful attempt to carry her away with him. Unbeknownst to either of them, Agnes had been betrothed to another man, John Flaskett, a bookbinder/stationer who lived in Knightrider Street, since August 1600—before her aunt died. Once the three suitors became aware of the situation and lawsuits were imminent, John Howe consulted John Milward (1568-August 1,1609), a doctor of civil law and a preacher at Christchurch in Newgate Street. He was a colleague of George Lynde and with the approval of Lynde and George Kevall, Milward married Agnes in the church in Barnet, Hertfordshire where his brother was the minister. Flaskett, outraged, took the case to Archbishop Whitgift and Bishop Bancroft. Under the law, a pre-contract was usually considered to be as binding as a marriage. In February 1603, Sir Julius Caesar heard the case and declared in favor of Flaskett. Meanwhile, George Chapman wrote a play titled The Old Joiner of Aldgate, which had several obvious parallels to the Howe-Flaskett-Milward case. When Milward objected to the play, its performance was prohibited for several days. Chapman was called before the Star Chamber, but since the others involved in the case refused to admit that they recognized themselves in the characters, he was not prosecuted. In early 1604, the Star Chamber upheld the decision of the lower court, confirming the marriage between Agnes and John Flaskett. By this point, King James had taken an interest in the case. Early in his reign, he had appointed Milward as one of his chaplains. In May he ordered the case reviewed and on November 12, 1604 the ruling was reversed. Another play, Thomas Middleton’s Michaelmas Term, produced soon afterward, may also have been based on these events. John and Agnes Milward, now officially husband and wife, moved into the Newgate Market house. Their children were James, Mary, and Margaret. Milward continued to preach at Christchurch, but when he died, he was in Scotland and was buried there. His will was proved on August 28, 1609. Curiously, his biography in the Oxford DNB says only that he was involved in litigation in 1604 “for unknown reasons.” King James gave an annuity of £100 to Agnes and the children. On October 27, 1610, Agnes Milward of Christchurch, age 30, widow of John Milward, filed marriage intentions with Thomas Proud, clerk, vicar of Enfield, Middlesex, a widower aged 44. The most complete account of the case, with many more details than I have included here, can be found in C. J. Sisson’s, Lost Plays of Shakespeare’s Age.


ANNE HUBBARD (1435-1515+)
According to Alison Weir in Elizabeth of York, Anne Hubbard was a waiting gentlewoman to Margaret Beaufort. She also served Elizabeth of York and her daughter, Mary Tudor. In December 1515, when she was eighty, Anne was awarded an annuity of 100s.

Elizabeth Huddesfield was the daughter of Sir William Huddesfield of Shillingford, Devon (1429-March 20, 1499) and Katherine Courtenay (1443-January 12, 1515). She married Sir Anthony Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (c.1480-1535) in 1499. Their children were Mary, Giles, Nicholas (1504-July 1577), Ferdinando, Robert, Margaret (1510-1545+), and Thomas. According to Alison Weir, in Henry VIII: The King and his Court, Elizabeth Poyntz was appointed Lady Mistress of the King’s nursery in September 1510, charged with overseeing the birth of Catherine of Aragon’s first child and the care of the new baby. Weir, however, identifies Elizabeth as the unmarried daughter of Sir Robert Poyntz (c.1450-1520), Sir Anthony’s sister. Their mother was Margaret Woodville, sister of the king’s grandmother. The Lady Mistress supervised the wet nurse (and later the dry nurse) and the rockers and was a post usually filled by the wife or widow of a knight, making Sir Anthony’s wife a more logical choice than his sister. Giles Tremlett’s recent biography of Catherine of Aragon supports this supposition and names Elizabeth Denton (née Jerningham) as Lady Governor (ie. Lady Mistress) of the prince’s household.The entry in the History of Parliament for Nicholas Wykes, who married Sir Robert Poyntz’s daughter Elizabeth in about 1508, further supports this, since she’d have been Elizabeth Wykes by 1511. The entry also identifies Prince Henry’s nurse as Wykes’s sister-in-law. The baby, Prince Henry, was born in January 1511, at which time Mistress Poyntz was given a reward of £30, but he died the following month. On August 1, 1511, Elizabeth Poyntz, described as “late nurse unto our dearest son the Prince,” was granted an annuity of £20 for life, starting at Easter, 2 Henry VIII. The use of the term “nurse” rather than “Lady Mistress” in this grant suggests to me that Elizabeth, assuming she was Elizabeth Huddlesfield and not Elizabeth Poyntz, may actually have been the wet nurse rather than the person in charge of the nursery. She would have met the requirement of having had a child of her own at about the same time Prince Henry was born. The date of her death is unknown, but Sir Anthony had remarried by 1522.



Jane Huddleston was the daughter of Sir Edmund Huddleston of Sawston Hall, Cambridgeshire (d.1508) and Dorothy Beconsall. She married William Wiseman of Braddocks, Essex. Her mother-in-law, Jane Vaughan (d.1610) lived with them from December 1585 until 1591, when she left to set up her own household at Bullocks and created a haven for recusants. She was arrested in 1593 and imprisoned until after Queen Elizabeth’s death in 1603. The Wisemans had a second house in Golding Lane, Holborn, which was raided on March 15, 1594. Both were arrested and William was imprisoned in the Counter in Poultry, where Father Gerard was also being held. After her release, Jane bought an adjacent house to be close to them both. William bribed his way out of prison and moved in with her. When Gerard escaped some three and a half years later, he initially took shelter with them, after which the couple returned to Braddocks and appear to have had no further difficulty with the authorities.




GRISOLD HUGHES (1559-June 15, 1613)
Grisold or Grizel Hughes or Hewes was the daughter of Thomas Hughes of Uxbridge, Middlesex (d.1587) and Elizabeth Don (d.1590). By 1588, she married Edward Neville, 5th baron Bergavenny (1518-February 10, 1589). In June 1589, she married Francis Clifford, second son of the 2nd earl of Cumberland (1559-January 21, 1641). Their children were Margaret (c.1590-1622), George (1590-d. yng), Henry (February 28, 1591/2-December 11, 1643), and Frances (c.1594-1627). Although some sources say that she was the “Lady Neville” of “My Lady Neville’s Book,” that was more likely to have been Elizabeth Bacon, second wife of Sir Henry Neville of Billingbear, Berkshire (d.1593). Not only was Grisold already remarried by 1591, when this manuscript was presented to “Lady Neville,” but she would not have been called Lady Neville. Throughout her brief first marriage, she would have been Lady Bergavenny. In 1605, Clifford succeeded his elder brother, making Grisold countess of Cumberland.

ANNE HUICKE (c.1546-1605+)
Anne Huicke was the daughter of Robert Huicke (Huick/Huike/Hewyke/Hewicke) (d. September 6, 1580), royal physician to Henry VIII, Katherine Parr, Edward VI, and Queen Elizabeth, and Elizabeth Slighfield (d. 1546+) In early 1546, Huicke tried to divorce his wife on the grounds that she was an “ill woman,” which may mean he doubted he was the father of the daughter born to her around that time. When the judge, John Croke, found in favor of Huicke’s wife. Huicke appealed to the Privy Council. On May 11 and 12, 1546, both parties testified at Greenwich. The consensus was that Huicke had exhibited “crueltie and circumvencion” for “little cause” on the part of his wife and the divorce was denied. Shortly after King Henry VIII died, a commission under Archbishop Cranmer reconsidered Huicke’s request for a divorce. According to his entry in The History of Parliament, The House of Commons 1509-1558, the results are unknown, but it is possible that Elizabeth and Huicke were reconciled. His daughter Atalanta was born in 1562. It is also possible that Elizabeth had died and he remarried. If so, there is no record of another marriage until a license dated November 2, 1575. This wife was Mary Woodcocke of London.  By then, Anne (or Anna) was married to Mark Steward of Heckfield, Hampshire and (later) of Stantney on the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire (1524-March 1604). Their children were Huick (d. yng.), Simeon (July 31, 1575-February 10, 1632), and Mary. Anne and her husband lived at Shinfield, Berkshire with Huicke, on and off, during the last part of his life. In his will, dated August 21, 1580, Huicke divided his movable goods between his wife and a third daughter, Elizabeth, who was evidently old enough by that time to be named an executrix. Huicke left land to Atalanta, who was married to William Chetwynd. Some sources say Anne was not mentioned in the will. Others say the two daughters named were Atalanta and Anne. When Anne was widowed, her brother-in-law hoarded the revenues of the estate, leaving the widow and her children with “no place to hide their head in.” In 1605, Elizabeth, Lady Russell (née Cooke) wrote to her nephew, Robert Cecil, Master of the Court of Wards, to demand that the widow receive a jointure of £200, a yearly portion of £40, and the use of her own property to live in. She called Dr. Steward’s actions “as wicked a cozenage as ever was offered by an executor to a brother.”



Elizabeth Hungate was the daughter of William Hungate of Saxton, Yorkshire. Some older records confuse her with her sister Mary, who married Richard Cholmeley. It is Elizabeth, however, who is the subject of a portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger. She married Sir Marmaduke Grimston of Grimston Garth, Yorkshire (d.1604), as his second wife. Thomas Grimston (d.1618) was her stepson. Her second husband was Sir Henry Browne of Kiddington, Oxfordshire (c.1562-1628), a younger son of the first viscount Montagu. Portrait: c.1620 by Marcus Gheeraerts the younger (Royal Albert Museum, Exeter).






Lucy Hungerford was the daughter of Sir Walter Hungerford of Farleigh Castle, Somersetshire (c.1526-1596) and Anne Dormer (1525-1603). When she was ten, her father sued her mother for divorce, claiming she had committed adultery with a neighbor and had tried to poison him. Lady Hungerford was separated from her children and eventually went into exile in Flanders with other English Catholics. In about 1584, Lucy married John St. John of Lydiard Tregoze, Wiltshire (c.1552-1594). Their children were Walter (d.1597), John (1585-1648), and six daughters, the youngest of whom was named after her mother. Lucy married her cousin, Sir Arthur Hungerford of Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire (1567-1627). Their children were Edward (1596-1648), Anne, and Bridget. Portraits: by an unknown artist c.1590; St. John Polyptych in St. Mary’s Church (1615).

MARY HUNGERFORD (c.1468-before July 10, 1533)
Mary Hungerford was the daughter of Sir Thomas Hungerford of Chippenham, Rowden, and Sheldon, Wiltshire (x. January 17, 1468/9) and Anne Percy (d. July 5, 1522). She was suo jure 5th baroness Botreaux, 4th baroness Hungerford, and baroness Moleyns. Described as a “wealthy West Country heiress,” she married Edward, 2nd baron Hastings (November 26, 1466-by November 8, 1506) in1480. Their children were Anne (c.1485-November 1550), George, 3rd baron (1486/7-March 24, 1544), and William. The History of Parliament calls Mary “a woman of aristocratic bearing” who “aroused unfavorable comment by using her own title [Lady Hungerford] in preferment to her late husband’s.” She shared both Hastings’ “sports and his quarrels,” the latter chiefly with the Grey family. On May 1, 1509, Mary married Sir Richard Sacheverell of Ratcliffe-upon-Soar, Nottinghamshire (before 1469-April 14, 1534). By 1517, they lived in apartments within the College of St. Mary in the Newark, Leicester. The appointment of Lord George Grey as dean of the college led to a decade of petty quarrels. According to Mary L. Robinson’s essay, “Court Careers and County Quarrels,” she let her dogs run free in the chapel, organized bear-baitings on the grounds, and allowed her servants to be rude to Grey’s supporters. The rivalry grew so heated that Lady Hungerford complained because it was no longer safe for women to walk in the woodlands adjacent to the town. By the spring of 1525, Lady Hungerford and her husband took an armed escort of nearly two hundred men any time they traveled outside of Leicester. Some of those men came to blows on a market Saturday in July. For more details see Robinson’s essay in Charles Carlton, ed., State, Sovereigns & Society. Lady Hungerford and her second husband were both prominent at court. She was still living June 30, 1530 but had died by July 10, 1533. She was buried in the collegiate church of St. Mary in the Newark, Leicester, under a pillar in a chapel off the south transept.



ALICE le HUNTE (d.1585+)
Alice le Hunte was the daughter of Richard le Hunte of Bradley Parva and Little Thurlow, Suffolk (d.1540) and Anne Knighton (d. December 23, 1558). She married John Day of London (c.1522-July 23, 1584), a well known printer with a shop and house in Aldersgate in 1550, as his second wife. According to most accounts, each of his wives bore him thirteen children. In the winter of 1573/4, Thomas Asplyn, another printer, made an unsuccessful attempt to kill Day and his wife because “the spirit moved him.” Alice married William Stone of London and Segenhoe, Bedfordshire (d.1594/5), a wealthy haberdasher. His daughter, Alice (1555-1622), by his first wife, Mercy Gray, married Stephen Soame (c.1544-1619) Alice’s half brother, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1598.  Portrait: brass in Little Bradley, Suffolk, with her first husband, which says she, “mourning long for being left alone set up his tombe, her self turned to a stone.”





Margaret Hurleston (or Hurleton) is said in some sources to have been the daughter of Nicholas Hurleston of Cheshire, clerk of the green cloth to Henry VIII. However, since the History of Parliament entry for Nicholas Hurleston (d.1531) lists only two daughters, Anne and Elizabeth, this is highly speculative. Margaret married John Bristo or Bristow (d.1561), a London grocer. In 1558, their nine living children were John, Johane, Anne, Dorothy, Marie, Dina, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Alice (or Agnes). Two of their daughters married Walthal brothers. In 1562, she married Richard Chamberlain (d. November 19, 1566), an ironmonger who was a London alderman from 1560-66 and sheriff of London in 1561. Chamberlain was a member of the Russia Company and the Merchant Adventurers. He exported cloth to Antwerp and Spain and was wealthy enough to build a mansion in Coleman Street, London, in the parish of St. Olave. According to The Muscovy Merchants of 1555, he left Margaret £2200 and she carried on trading after his death, in particular importing sugar from Barbary. She made her will in 1588.

JOAN HURSTE (d. February 27, 1598/9)
Joan Hurste was the daughter of John Hurste of Kingston on Thames, Surrey. She married William Mainwaring of Eastham, Essex (d. October 10, 1529). They had no children. She married Henry Bradshaw of Halton, Buckinghamshire (d. July 27, 1553), who was Chief Baron of the Exchequer under Henry VIII and Attorney General under Edward VI. Their eight children included Benedict (d.c.1554), Bridget (1535-1580) and Christian (d.1557). In 1539, Bradshaw acquired the manor of Noke Place in Oxfordshire. As a widow, Joan repaired the church and built a new chapel. In 1588, her granddaughter, Mary Fermor (daughter of Bridget), an orphan, was married from Joan’s house in Noke, suggesting that she raised her grandchildren after their parents died in 1580. Joan was buried on March 1, 1598/9 in the chapel she built. Portrait: memorial brass in St. Giles, Noke, Oxfordshire. The inscription reads: “Here lyeth the body of Johan Bradshawe, daughter and coheire of John Hurste of Kingston on Temes in the countie of surry gent, who had to her first husband William Manwayringe of Eastham in the county of Essex Gent, who died the 10 day of October Anno 1529 and to her second husband Henry Bradshawe Esq. late Lord Cheife Barron of The Exchequer, who had issue between them 4 sonnes & 4 daughters who dyed 27 Day of Julye 1553. The said Johan all her life was very charitable to the poore and purchased lands and rents forever to the use of the poor of the towne of Noke in the county of Oxon. & to Halton & Wendover in the county of Buck. and at her chardgs Newlie builte this chappell and dyed the 27th day of February Anno 1598. Anno Rne Elizabethe 41.”

AGNES HUSSEY (d. October 20, 1588)
One online genealogy gives Agnes Hussey’s parents as John Hussey and Agnes Spence, while another says she was the daughter of Giles Hussey and Jane Pigot and born in 1530 in Caythorpe, Kent. Yet another gives her birthplace as Shapwick. She married Roger More of Bichester (d.1551). Her second husband was Thomas Curzon of Waterperry. They had a daughter, Mary (d. October 12, 1628). At some point after 1563, she married Sir Edward Saunders (d. November 12, 1576), who her second husband’s cousin. Portraits: memorials in Weston under Wetherley, Warwickshire with her third husband and in the church at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.

AGNES HUSSEY (d.1572+)
Agnes (or Anne) Hussey was the daughter of John, 1st baron Hussey (1466-x. June 29, 1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1545). Dates for her birth range from c.1515 to 1528. She married Henry Ryther of Ryther Castle, Yorkshire (1511-January 5, 1544). In about 1547, she married Sir Humphrey Browne of Ridley Hall, Essex (d. December 5, 1562), a judge, as his third wife. Their children were Mary, Christian (b.c.1554), and Katherine (c. 1560-1617). Christian’s monument incorrectly lists her mother’s name as Mary. According to the Oxford DNB, Agnes was sued in 1572 for diverting water to her house in Cow Lane through a conduit installed by her late husband. Agnes may have been the second Lady Browne recorded as sending gifts to Mary Tudor (the other was Elizabeth Fitzgerald).


BRIDGET HUSSEY (c.1514-January 12, 1601)
Bridget Hussey was the daughter of John, Lord Hussey of Sleaford (1466-x. June 29, 1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1545). Some accounts give her a birthdate as late as 1528. In 1545, Bridget inherited half of her mother’s estate. By a marriage license dated November 13, 1546, she married Sir Richard Morison (1510-March 17, 1556), one of the men who had written virulent denunciations of her father and the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their children were Elizabeth (1545-1611), Jane Sybilla (1551-July 1615), and Charles (d.1599). Morison kept a mistress, Lucy Harper (née Peckham), during their marriage. Under Edward VI, Morison was sent as Ambassador to Charles V. Bridget went with him and they remained on the Continent from 1550 until Edward’s death in 1553. In late 1551, when the Imperial court moved to Innsbruck, Morison could not at first afford to take his pregnant wife with him. By the following spring, Innsbruck burgomasters offered their assistance to find honest matrons to wait upon Morison’s wife. Following a brief visit to England after Mary Tudor became queen, the family returned to the Continent, this time as exiles. They eventually settled in Strassburg. In December 1555, Bridget was godmother to John Ponet’s son. As a widow, Lady Morison remained in exile, giving lodging to other English refugees. Morison had left her all his moveable goods except his library, but Bridget claimed this, too.When she returned to England, she was allowed to claim her  husband’s estate at Cassiobury, Hertfordshire, but not the custody of her son. In 1561, she married Henry Manners, earl of Rutland (September 23, 1526-September 17, 1563), a widower. She brought a dowry of £600 to the marriage. Rutland died two years later, probably of the plague. On June 25, 1566, she married another widower, Francis Russell, 2nd earl of Bedford (1527-July 28, 1585). She was with him at Berwick, where he was Captain, and probably accompanied him into Scotland to attend the christening of the future James I. Twenty years later, on June 20, 1587, she served as chief mourner at the funeral of James’s mother, Mary, queen of Scots. The Bedfords entertained Queen Elizabeth at Chenies on July 23, 1570 and at Woburn in July 1572. As dowager countess of Rutland and Bedford, Bridget was a prominent social figure and an influential supporter of Puritan causes. She did not get along well with the earl of Bedford’s children, but she arranged brilliant matches for her own daughters. In 1588, she took over the upbringing of one of her second husband’s daughters, Lady Bridget Manners. She trained the girl to take a post as maid of honor to the queen the following year. In October 1592, the queen visited Lady Bedford at Chenies, Buckinghamshire. Bridget lived the last part of her life at Woburn. She died on a Sunday, “well at the sermon in the afternoon and dead that night.” Her monument at Watford, Hertfordshire was moved to Chenies, Buckinghamshire in the early 20th century.

Dorothy Hussey was the daughter of Sir Robert Hussey of Linwood, Lincolnshire (d. May 20, 1546) and Anne Say (d. September 2, 1522). She married Ralph Quadring. In January 1559, Mrs. Quadring was an Extraordinary Gentlewoman of the Privy Chamber. One online genealogy gives her a second husband, John Massingbird (d.1580).

ELIZABETH HUSSEY (c.1510-January 23, 1554)
Elizabeth Hussey was the daughter of John, Lord Hussey of Sleaford (1466-x. June 29, 1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1545), although some accounts say she was the daughter of his first wife, Margaret Blount, and was born c. 1506. In October 1532, she married Sir Walter Hungerford (1503-x. July 28, 1540). Their children were Eleanor and Edward (c.1533-December 5, 1605). The marriage was not a happy one. A letter from Lady Hungerford to Lord Cromwell complained that her husband had kept her prisoner in Farleigh Castle for three or four years and tried to poison her. She wanted a divorce. So, apparently, did Hungerford, but when he learned that obtaining one would not permit him to remarry, he dropped the suit. In 1536, Hungerford, who had Lutheran leanings, was created Baron Hungerford of Heytesbury. Elizabeth’s father, Lord Hussey, participated in the Pilgrimage of Grace and was attained for treason and executed in 1537. In 1540, her husband was arrested and charged with shielding a traitor (his chaplain), conjuring to determine how long the king would live and whether the Pilgrimage of Grace would succeed, and committing unnatural acts—“the abominable and detestable vice and sin of buggery.” He was held in the Tower of London until he was executed by being beheaded. In October 1542, Elizabeth married Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton (c.1510-February 12, 1581). Their children were Anne (d.1605+), Elizabeth, Temperance, Muriel, Robert, George, and another son.

Elizabeth Hussey was the daughter of Sir Robert Hussey of Linwood, Lincolnshire (d. May 20, 1546) and his second wife, Jane Stydolf (d.1561). In 1553, she married Anthony Crane of Rochampton, Surrey (1510-August 16, 1583). They had a daughter, Mary (d.1606). Crane supported Puritan reforms in religion. He left her his thirty-one-year lease to East Molesey, Surrey. In 1588, she permitted Robert Waldegrave and his wife, whose printing press had been destroyed for printing an unauthorized book, to bring what they could salvage of the type to her house in Aldermanbury. Soon afterward, they set up a new press at the house at East Molesey, where they printed the first of the Martin Marprelate tracts. By October, they’d moved the press to Fawsley Priory in Northamptonshire, a house owned by George Carleton of Overstone, Northamptonshire (1529-January 1590). By early 1589, Elizabeth married Carleton. They continued to hide the printing press from the authorities. In October, Elizabeth was fined 1000 marks and imprisoned in the Fleet for refusing to take the ex officio oath. She was still there when Carleton died. He named her as executor of his will, but during her imprisonment “a great part” of his goods and household stuff at Overstone had been stolen. On May 17, 1590, she appeared before the Star Chamber and was fined £500 for sheltering a secret press. It is not clear how much longer she remained in prison, nor is it certain when she died. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Crane, Elizabeth.”

KATHERINE HUSSEY (c.1462-December 1507)
Katherine Hussey was the youngest daughter and co-heir of Nicholas Hussey of Harting, Sussex (c.1417-January 15, 1470/1). In around 1475, at about the age of thirteen, she married Sir Reginald Bray (c.1440-August 5, 1503). Her dowry included estates in Berkshire, Sussex, and Hampshire. She was part of the household of Margaret Beaufort and she and her husband continued to keep rooms in Margaret’s London house, Coldharbour, even after Katherine joined the household of Elizabeth of York. At some point after 1485, Bray bought Chelsea Manor in Middlesex. He was very wealthy and influential and, as he and Katherine had no children, he named the sons of his brother, John, as his heir. Katherine was friends with humanist John Colet and named Colet as the executor of her will, dated December 15, 1507. It was proved February 7, 1508. She was buried in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor.



MARY HUSSEY (d. 1563+)
Mary Hussey was the daughter of John, Lord Hussey of Sleaford (1466-x. June 29, 1537) and Anne Grey (1493-1545). Because of her father’s treason, she lost her social standing and whatever dowry might normally have been provided for her. At the end of May 1539, she went to Calais to become a waiting gentlewoman to Honor, viscountess Lisle, wife of the Lord Deputy. As a result, she was part of the household a year later when Lord and Lady Lisle were arrested and charged with treason. All the Lisle correspondence was seized. A number of letters survive concerning Mary’s coming to Calais, along with the depositions she gave concerning the destruction of certain love letters by Lady Lisle’s youngest daughter, Mary Bassett. Mary Hussey seems to have remained with Lady Lisle during her enforced stay in the house of Francis Hall, a gentleman of Calais. Lady Lisle was freed and returned to England after Lord Lisle’s death in March 1542. Mary married Humphrey Dimock or Dymock. Their children were Francis, Henry, Thomas, Mary, and Catherine. On March 4, 1563, the House of Commons passed a Bill of Restitution for the heirs of Lord Hussey that listed Mary Dymmocke among those restored in blood.

URSULA HUSSEY (c.1528-1586)
Ursula Hussey was the daughter of Sir Anthony Hussey of London (c.1496-June 1, 1560), judge of the Admiralty, and Catherine Webbe (1500-1555). Her first husband appears to have been Michael Roberts of Neasden in Willesden, Middlesex (1519-c.1544), by whom she may have had issue. In 1544, Ursula Roberts, widow, was granted a thirty-year lease to the manor of Neasden. Eamon Duffy, in Marking the Hours, suggests that, in 1553, the Roberts family Book of Hours passed from Ursula to her brother-in-law, Edmund Roberts. She appears to be the same Ursula Hussey who married Benjamin Gonson (of Gunston) of Much Baddow, Great Warley, Essex (c.1515-November 26, 1577), Treasurer of the Navy from 1549-77. Their children were Katherine (c.1549-1591), Benjamin, Thomasine (1564-1638), William, Anthony, Elizabeth, Mary, Margaret, Lucretia, Ursula, Benett, Anne, Avice, and Vincent. Ursula was buried in St. Dunstan-in-the-East in 1586.


ALICE HUTCHEN (c.1513-November 21, 1574)
Alice Hutchen (Huchen/Hutchin), called Anne in some older sources, was the daughter and coheir of Thomas Hutchen, mercer of London. She married Hugh Methwold, another mercer. Their nine children included William and Anne. She married John Blundell of Hadleigh, Suffolk and St. Laurence Jewry (d. September 20, 1559), another mercer. Their children were Philip (d. before 1559), Elizabeth, Mary, Theodora, Anne, Susanna, and three other daughters who died before 1559. Blundell acquired property in Oxfordshire, including Steeple Barton, where the family settled and where he died. He left all his lands to his widow and his five surviving daughters. In 1570, Alice gave the Mercers’ Company £100 to be used for loans to two young men. Her own son, William Methwold, was the first to receive one of the loans. In return for the £100 and another £10 to be used to pay for a dinner in her honor when she died, she was to be invited to all company dinners at which women were in attendance and was to be buried “as a sister of this fellowship.” She made her will on September 29, 1570 confirming this and instructing that 13d. in bread be given every Sunday morning to the poor of St. Laurence Jewry. On October 22, 1570, just before his term of office ended, she married Sir Alexander Avenon or Davenant (d.1578+), Lord Mayor of London, an ironmonger. Alice was buried at St. Laurence Jewry. Biography: Anne F. Sutton, The Mercery of London, Appendix 2.




Dorothy Huttoft was the daughter of Henry Huttoft of Southampton (d.c.1542), mayor of that city in 1525 and 1534, and his wife Joan (d.1542+). She married a Florentine merchant, Anthony Guidotti (1492-November 27, 1555). He arrived in England during the second decade of the sixteenth century and was granted letters of denizenship on February 8, 1533. A joint venture to increase exports from Southampton led Dorothy’s father and husband into debt the following year, including debts to the Crown amounting to £753 and £587 in customs duties. In 1535, Anthony fled back to Italy, leaving Dorothy and their three sons, Giovanni (John), Pier Francesco, and Andrea behind. In 1537, Guidotti wrote to Lord Cromwell from Naples to propose that twenty-four silk weavers from Sicily be permitted to establish their industry in Southampton. In 1540, he returned to England and was imprisoned in the Fleet for debt. By one estimate, in 1542, when King Henry granted him protection from his creditors for one year, he owed £6657, of which Huttoft had guaranteed £2327. Apparently, he again left England, but in 1550 he was back and employed by King Edward as a messenger to France. He was knighted in April and given 1000 crowns reward and a pension of £250. In May he was buying property in Florence, where he already owned a house on the Via Larga. He returned to Florence in 1553 and was appointed commissioner of Volterra, where he died. In December 1557, Dorothy married John Harman, a gentleman usher in the household of Anne of Cleves. The inscription on the memorial plaque of Anthony Guidotti in Florence calls Dorothy Ann and gives her date of death as 1563. She was certainly deceased by March 1569 when the house they had lived in in Southampton, referred to in the records as “late called my lady Guidotte’s,” was badly in need of repairs.

Ursula Huttoft was the daughter of Henry Huttoft of Southampton, Hampshire (d. c.1542), mayor of that city in 1525 and 1534 and his wife Joan (d.1543+). By 1510, Ursula had married Edmund Cockerell of Guernsey (d. between September 1559 and October 1560). They moved to London, where Cockerell was admitted to the freedom of the city as a grocer on November 23, 1531. Four years later, the entire family’s fortunes were ruined when Ursula’s sister Dorothy’s husband, a Florentine named Antonio Guidotti, fled abroad and left behind a mountain of debts. He returned to England in 1540 and was imprisoned in the Fleet, but the money was still owed to creditors. When Ursula’s father died, John Mill (d.1557), father-in-law of her brother John (d.1542/3) and one of those to whom Guidotti owed money, seized Henry Huttoft’s goods and books of account. He still held them as late as 1547 and there were still unsettled debts as late as 1561. As a widow, Ursula was allowed to remain in the house in London Wall she and her husband had occupied, but only after the intervention of William Paulet, marquess of Winchester. He had to request permission for her to do so from the Lord Mayor of London. Ursula and her husband do not seem to have had any children. He did not leave a will.

ELIZABETH HUTTON (c.1480-May 11, 1550)
Elizabeth Hutton was the daughter and coheiress of John Hutton or Hoton of Tudhoe, Durham (c.1455-August 22, 1485) and Margaret Chaurton. As early as 1500, she was married to Sir William Hansard of South Kelsey, Lincolnshire (c.1479-January 11, 1521/2). Their children were Robert, William (1501-April 25, 1522), Thomas, Elizabeth, and Bridget (c.1508-December 20, 1552). By a marriage settlement dated May 2, 1522, she married Sir William Askew or Ayscough of Stallingborough, Lincolnshire and Nuthall, Nottinghamshire (c.1479-August 6, 1540) as his third wife. Their children were Christopher (d. 1543) and Thomas. Almost at once a dispute arose over the wardship of Elizabeth Hansard (d.1559), daughter of Elizabeth’s son William, who had died a few months after his father. This went to Askew but was contested by the infant’s maternal grandfather, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt. Later (c.1541/2) Elizabeth Hansard married Askew’s eldest son and heir, Francis (d.1563). In his will, Askew named his widow and his eldest son as executors, with the provision that if Elizabeth did not want to serve in this capacity she should have the £100 she had brought to the marriage and her room in the house at Stallingborough. In 1543, she petitioned Chancery over the failure of the escheator to hold an inquisition post mortem, despite having paid him four marks for this service. Elizabeth is probably the Lady Askew mentioned in the will of Elizabeth Barton, a London widow who was the servant of the widow of a former Lord Mayor of London. It was written on September 30, 1543 and proved on October 10 and indicates that Lady Askew owed her £10. In 1546, Elizabeth’s stepdaughter, Anne Askew, was executed for heresy. Elizabeth was buried in St. Martin’s, Lincoln on May 12, 1550.



ALICE HYDE (c.1455-before 1511) (maiden name unknown)
Alice Hyde was the widow of a wealthy clothier named Hyde who lived in Newbury, Berkshire when she married one of his apprentices, John Smallwood or Smalewoode of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire (c.1465-February 15, 1519/20). He subsequently went by the name John Winchcombe and was popularly known as Jack of Newbury. Details of their courtship, as fictionalized in 1597 in Thomas Deloney’s Pleasant History of John Winchcomb, can be found at http://www.berkshirehistory/legends/jofn02.html. Although the History of Parliament says that John Winchcombe (1488/9-December 2, 1557), son of Jack of Newbury, was probably the child of his second wife, Joan, most other sources list Alice as his mother. The family fortune came from the manufacture and export of kerseys. At one time, 160 looms were set up in the house, which was built of brick and timber and took up an entire block. A small portion of this house still exists and the remains show the rooms were paneled with oak wainscotting. The date of her Alice’s death is unknown, but took place before Jack entertained King Henry VIII during a royal visit to Newbury said to have taken place in either 1516 or 1518. One online genealogy (no sources given) says Jack’s son Robert, by his second wife, was born around 1512, which would put Alice’s death before 1511. She was buried in Our Lady Chancel in St. Nicholas, the parish church of Newbury. In his will, dated January 4, 1519/20, Jack asked to be buried beside her and provided for “a stone to be laid upon us both.” A memorial brass still exists.


Elizabeth Hyde was the fourth daughter of Oliver Hyde of Denchworth (1462-October 4, 1516) and Agnes Lovingcott (1467-May 5, 1523). She married Sir Thomas Unton of Wadley in Faringdon, Berkshire (1475-August 4, 1533) as his second wife. Their children were Alexander (c.1508-December 16, 1547), Thomas, Edith (d.1562), and Anne. Elizabeth made her will on April 21, 1536 and it was proved June 16, 1536. Portrait: alabaster effigy in Unton Chapel, Faringdon Church.


KATHERINE HYDE (c.1520-May 7, 1589)
Katherine Hyde or Hide was the daughter of Sir John Hyde of Aldborough or Hyde, Dorset. She married Nicholas Mynne of Barsham, Norfolk. In January 1547, she married Sir Nicholas Lestrange of Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk (1515-February 19, 1580) as his second wife. They had no children. After the 1572 execution of Lestrange’s patron, the duke of Norfolk, he relocated to Ireland, selling Hunstanton Hall to his son by his first wife, Hamon (c.1533-1580). Katherine remained in England, living at King’s Lynn. Portrait: by the monogramist H. W.

LUCY HYDE (d.1604+)
Lucy Hyde was the daughter of William Hyde or Hide of Throcking, Hertfordshire (c.1530-1580) and Elizabeth Shipman. Her mother was the Mrs. Hyde who was Mother of Maids c. 1575-c.1581. In The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, Charlotte Merton identifies Lucy as a chamberer from 1593-1603. Her livery was black satin guarded with black velvet lined with black sarcenet. She married Sir Robert Osborne of Northamptonshire. On June 13, 1597, they paid £100 for the grant of the lease of Godmanchester parsonage in Huntingdonshire for twenty-one years. In 1604, they had the lease confirmed by a bill in Parliament.



SAGE HYGONS (1529-1559+)
Sage Hygons was the wife of Gryffydd Hygons of New Carmarthen (d. April 8, 1559). According to his entry in the History of Parliament, her father was named Lewis ap Thomas. Since the usage of Welsh surnames was inconsistent during this period and can be confusing, I have listed her here under her married name. In 1543, Rhys Gwyn accused Hygons, his wife, and others of occupying land that belonged to him. The outcome of the case is not recorded. In 1546, Hygons and Sage took a twenty-one year lease on lands and houses at a rent of £22/year. They could afford it. Two years earlier, Hygons’ lands had been valued at £50/year and his goods at £80. Hygons left Sage the “lower mill” and other bequests in his will, made on March 29, 1559. By the time of the inquisition post mortem, she was identified as the “now wife to Mr. William Morris Gwyn.” In April 1559, “Sage Hygons alias Gwyn” and William Morris Gwyn were jointly granted administration of the estate. In a second inquisition post mortem, Marion Hygons, an aunt of the deceased, replaced Sage as his heir.

ANNE HYLTON (d. 1547)
Anne Hylton was the daughter of Nicholas Hylton of Cambridge and Elizabeth Salisbury. Between August 22, 1508 and April 21, 1509, in St. Andrew’s Holborn, London, she married John Newdigate or Newdegate of Harefield, Middlesex (January 4, 1490-June 19, 1545). Their children were George (b.1511), Amphilia (February 23, 1512-d. yng.), John (October 9, 1514-August 16, 1565), Anthony (May 24, 1516-July 6, 1568), Thomas (November 13, 1517-1568+), Amphilis (November 27, 1518-1550),  Francis (October 25, 1519-January 26, 1581/2), Nicholas (December 6, 1520-1559+), Anne (June 8, 1523-1580+), Joan (b. April 25, 1525), Robert (September 14, 1528-March 20, 1585), and Rose (b&d October 25, 1531). Anne was buried in St. Mary, Harefield, Middlesex on March 9, 1547. Portrait: memorial brass.

Elizabeth Hynde was the daughter of John Hynde of London, a clothworker. She was an “orphan of the city” after her father died. On August 1, 1572, Elizabeth was lodged in the household of Francis Barnham, a draper, and his wife, Alice (née Bradbridge). Elizabeth came with the specific instruction that no suitors be allowed to visit her. On August 28, this was amended to allow Randall Hurleston, who claimed to be a relative, to spend time with her, but they were strictly chaperoned. The restrictions were loosened a bit on September 9, but Hurleston was forbidden to mention marriage to her. Apparently there were two claims of a precontract with Elizabeth, one by Samuel Knowles and another by a man named Appleby. A man named Crowley also wanted to pay court to Mistress Hynde. On October 7, Hurleston petitioned to remove Elizabeth from the Barnhams’ custody. This request was denied. On November 25, Knowles was mentioned by name as someone who was not permitted to see her. On November 27, Elizabeth went to the Guildhall to be examined by the Lord Mayor and the highest ranking aldermen, representing the Court of Orphans. On January 25, 1573, Knowles was given permission to visit Elizabeth, but was bound in the amount of £200 not to marry her within two years of that date. On January 28, however, he obtained a ‘general license for marriage’ with Elizabeth and on April 14, the couple informed the Court of Orphans that they were married. My thanks to Lena Cowen Orlin for updating the information on Elizabeth Hynde in her Locating Privacy in Tudor London.