ALICE IBBOT (x. April 5, 1593)
Alice Ibbot is better known as Alice Samuel, accused of being a witch in 1589 and hanged for using witchcraft to commit murder in 1593. Philip C. Almond, in The Witches of Warboys (2008), presents a convincing argument that Alice Samuel, alleged to be eighty years old in 1593, was really the much younger Alice Ibbot who married John Samuel in Upwood, a village near Warboys and about ten miles from Cambridge, on May 5, 1561. He suggests she was about twenty-five at the time, making her around fifty-seven when she was executed. In Tudor times, “an old body” was anyone fifty or older and “old age” was age fifty-six to death. For women it might begin earlier, with the “cessation of the flowers.” Almond argues that Alice could not have been much older than fifty-seven because her daughter, Agnes Samuel, was described as “young and a maid” and therefore was unlikely to have been much older than twenty-five in 1593. Almond also cites examples in the records of John Samuel’s violent nature. On one occasion, he beat Alice with a cudgel for revealing that he had lied to his neighbor, Robert Throckmorton. In November 1589, nine-year-old Jane Throckmorton, ailing daughter of Robert Throckmorton of Warboys, accused Alice, who was visiting the sick girl, of being a witch. Within two months, Jane’s four sisters and seven of the family’s female servants had begun to imitate Jane’s symptoms, most likely in order to share the attention Jane was getting. They forced Alice to move in with the family as a servant. In 1590, Lady Cromwell (Susan Weeks) visited the Throckmortons and had an exchange of words with Alice during which Alice uttered the fatal sentence “I never did you any harm as yet.” Soon after, Lady Cromwell fell ill. She died in July of 1592. At Christmas that year, when Alice, at last fed up, ordered the Thockmorton girls to stop their erratic behavior, they surprised her by obeying. The local vicar, Francis Dorrington, who was also the girls’ uncle, convinced Alice that she should confess to witchcraft. She did so, but retracted her confession the next day. The retraction did her no good. She was taken before the William Wickham, Bishop of Lincoln where, once again, she was coerced into confessing. This time she admitted to having three familiars—chickens named Pluck, Catch, and White. While Alice was in prison in February 1593, some seven months after Lady Cromwell’s death, Joan Throckmorton accused Alice’s daughter Agnes of murdering Lady Cromwell with witchcraft. Alice was accused of the same crime in late March. For witchcraft, she’d have been sentenced to a year in prison. This new charge carried the death penalty. The Throckmorton children also accused her husband. All three were tried at Huntingdon on April 4, 1593, found guilty, and hanged the next day. Their property was confiscated by Lady Cromwell’s husband, Sir Henry, who used the proceeds to pay for an annual sermon against witchcraft to be preached in Huntingdon in perpetuity. A pamphlet (The Most Strange and Admirable Discovery of the Three Witches of Warboys), published later than same year, memorialized the trial and added an account of the discovery of a witch’s teat on Alice’s body while it was being prepared for burial.
ELEANOR IDEN (x. July 16, 1593)
Eleanor Iden of Battle, Sussex was identified as a “spinster” but whether this was her marital status or her profession or both is unclear. The Battle liberty coroner, John Downton, held an inquest into the death of Thomas Iden on April 2, 1592 and determined that Eleanor had given him milk mixed with arsenic to drink on March 28 with the intention of poisoning him. He died on March 30. Edmund Pelham, J.P. sent her to gaol and she was tried at the next assizes. She pled not guilty but was convicted. She then claimed she was pregnant and this was verified by a jury of matrons. She remained in gaol until the next assizes, on February 26, 1593, when she was judged to be not pregnant. The fact that she was hanged suggests that Thomas was not her husband. The charge when a wife murdered her husband or a servant killed his or her master was petty treason rather than murder and the punishment for that was to be burnt at the stake.
AGNES IFIELD (d.c. 1562)
Agnes Ifield was the daughter and heir of John Ifield and the stepdaughter of Sir Robert Brandling. Her first husband was Matthew Baxter of Newcastle, by whom she had a son, John. After March 1545, when his third wife died, Agnes became the fourth wife of Sir Thomas Hilton of Hilton, Durham (d. March 1559), who served as sheriff of Northumberland in 1549/50 and was the patron of Dr. William Bullein, a physician who dedicated his Government of Health to Hilton in 1558. Bullein left for London shortly before Hilton died of a fever. In his will, made on November 8, 1558 and proved January 17, 1561, Hilton named Agnes as executrix and left her, among other bequests, a life interest in half of his goods and the lease of Tynemouth. His principal heir was his brother William. The sequence of events is a bit unclear but two things happened soon after that. Bullein married Agnes and William Hilton accused Bullein of murdering his brother. The case went before the duke of Norfolk and was dismissed. In June 1560, Bullein and Agnes were living in a house in Grub Street in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, where Bullein’s brother, Richard, was rector. William Hilton, however, was determined to cause trouble. He brought suit at the assizes for debt, claiming that Bullein had owed Thomas 350 marks. He won this case. Bullein sought to overturn the decision in chancery but in the interim, both he and Agnes were imprisoned for debt. They were not released until sometime in 1562 and Agnes died soon after.
see JANE VERDON
see MARY SEYMOUR
see ELEANOR CONSTABLE
KATHERINE INGLEBY (d.1600+)
Katherine Ingleby was the daughter of William Ingleby of Ripley (1494-July 12, 1528) and Cecily Talboys. She married Sir William Ardington and had two children, Cyril and Jane (sometimes called Anne) (1556-1606). At some point before Michaelmas 1586, Dame Isabel Whitehead, formerly a nun at Arthington Priory, Yorkshire came to live with Katherine, who by then was probably a widow. At Michaelmas, Ardington Hall was searched for Catholics. Katherine and her daughter, the wife of Sir Ralph Grey, were taken into custody. The searchers badgered Dame Isabel, who lay sick in her bed, threatening her with swords and saying that they would kill her if she did not tell them were David Ingleby (Katherine’s brother) and a Mr. Winsour were. Winsour was Edward Windsor, son of the 3rd Lord Windsor, who was David Ingleby’s co-conspirator in the Babington Plot. The searchers finally arrested Dame Isabel and took her off to prison in York Castle to join Katherine and her daughter. Isabel died there the following March. It isn’t clear how long Katherine spent in prison, but part that time was in the company of a distant kinwoman, Ursula Wright (née Rudson). Ursula spent a total of fourteen years imprisoned for her religious beliefs, dying in 1594. Katherine was out of prison by 1597, when she had as her houseguest Ursula’s granddaughter, Mary Ward (January 23, 1585-January 20, 1645). Mary probably remained with Katherine at Harwell Hall until she moved on to another Catholic household in 1600.
ESTHER INGLIS or LANGLOIS (1571-August 30, 1624)
Esther Inglis was the daughter of Nicolas Langlois (d.1611) and Marie Prisott or Presot. Her parents were Huguenot refugees who came from Dieppe, France to London. The DNB gives the date of their arrival as 1569, so that Esther would have been born in England. Other sources say 1572 and give her birthplace as Dieppe. The family had moved to Edinburgh, Scotland by 1574. Esther’s mother was a calligrapher, a not uncommon profession for women in Europe, and she taught her daughter the trade. In 1596, Esther married Bartholomew Kello (d. March 15, 1638), a minor government official. They moved to London by 1604 and lived in Essex from 1607-1614, where Kello was rector of Willingale Spain. Esther was patronized by both Elizabeth I and James I and many of the manuscripts she illuminated still survive. She had four children, including Samuel (d.1680), Elizabeth, and Mary. They returned to Edinburgh in 1615. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Inglis[married name Kello], Esther.” NOTE: the DNB gives Kello’s date of death as 1631; Tricia Bracher, “Esther Inglis and the English Succession Crisis of 1599” in Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1540-1700, edited by James Daybell. Portraits: A portrait done in 1595 was the basis for a self-portrait which appears sixteen times in her extant manuscripts.
IPPOLYTA THE TARTARIAN (d.1569+)
Most writers who mention Ippolyta speculate that she was a child, a dwarf, or one of Queen Elizabeth’s fools. The queen stood as godmother at her christening in 1561 and gave her a “baby of pewter” as a gift in 1562. However, in 1564 Ippolyta is referred to as “our dear and well beloved woman.” The explanation? In the spring of 1559, Anthony Jenkinson of the Muscovy Company returned to Moscow from a trip to Bokhara bringing with him a Tartar girl he would later present to Queen Elizabeth. I believe Ippolyta was that girl. She’d have been christened because she’d just converted to Christianity, not because she was a small child. As for the pewter baby, many grown women collected dolls, including Queen Jane Seymour. Giving royalty a person as a gift was not unheard of. Aside from the case of Mary Radcliffe, there is that of three savages from the New World presented to Queen Elizabeth’s grandfather, Henry VII, by men of Bristol. They were kept at court and dressed in English clothing for quite a number of years. In Ippolyta’s case, there are numerous records of livery, shoes, and other clothing paid for by the queen. In 1564, even excluding the most costly items—two gowns and a kirtle—these expenses totaled more than £15 for the year. The last record for Ippolyta is in 1569 when a skinner was paid for five dozen black coney skins to fur her short damask cloak. In one reference she is recorded as “Ipolita the Tartarian, alias Lynnet.” Ippolyta’s entry in Carole Levin, et al, editors, A Biographical Encyclopedia of Early Modern Englishwomen, confirms my reasoning, adding that she is the “Aura Soltana” referred to in a letter written from Moscow by Jenkinson on September 18, 1559. He stated that her value as a Tartar slave was equal to a sixpence loaf of bread. When Hakluyt published Jenkinson’s letter in 1599, he added the note “This was a young Tartar girle which he gave to the Queene afterwarde.”
see ANNE HILL
ANNE ISAAC (d.1560+)
Marion Colthorpe, “Women at Court: Royal Household” in The Elizabethan Court Day By Day (2017) (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Anne Isaac, daughter of Mr. Isaac and Margery Wroth (d.1540), as the Mrs. Morice or Morris who was Mother of Maids from January 1559 until 1560/1. Her husband was William Morice of Chipping Ongar, Essex and London (c.1500-January 17, 1554). They had married by 1539 and had two sons and one daughter. Their son James (1539-1597), like his father, was a Member of Parliament. Her brother, Edward Isaac of Well, Kent, and Morice were active in promoting the New Religion. Morice left all his goods to his wife. According to the History of Parliament entry for Morice, the Privy Council ordered an examination of Anne Morice and the inhabitants of Ongar on June 7, 1554 “that without authority of their own heads attempted lately to pluck down the church walls there.”
see ELIZABETH BARKER
ELIZABETH ISLEY (1510-1592+)
Elizabeth Isley was the daughter of Sir Thomas Isley of Sundridge, Kent (1485-1518) and Elizabeth Guildford (before 1489-1532+). She married Richard Hill of Hartley Wintney, Hampshire (c.1500-1539), wine merchant and master of Henry VIII’s wine cellar, by whom she is said to have had ten or eleven children. Among them were Mary (1532-November 30, 1616), Margaret, Frances (wife of Robert Byng), Anne (wife of John Bellingham and Thomas Lewknor), and Richard. “Mrs. Hillis” is listed as one of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in January 1534 and it is tempting to think that this may have been Elizabeth Isley. On June 4, 1538, Henry VIII granted lands to Richard Hill and Elizabeth, his wife, and on February 6 and November 29, 1540, to Elizabeth Hill, widow. In c. 1540, Elizabeth married Sir John Mason of Abingdon, Berkshire (1502/3-April 21, 1566), who served in a number of civic posts, including ambassador to the court at Brussels under Mary Tudor. Elizabeth was with him when he served in France. They had one son, Thomas (before 1558-before 1566). In 1557, Philip and Mary granted the reversion of Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire to Sir John Mason and Elizabeth his wife in exchange for the manor of Timsbury in Hampshire. In 1558, they resigned the grant in favor of their son. At his death, Mason held the post of Treasurer of the Chamber. Queen Elizabeth appointed his widow to fill out his term. Elizabeth erected a monument to Mason in St. Paul’s. The queen visited Lady Mason at Hartley Wintney, Hampshire in September 1569 and granted the lease of the demesnes and mills at Sutton Courtenay to Dame Elizabeth Mason for twenty-one years from 1574. Elizabeth’s son-in-law, Robert Byng, served as her steward on the estate. According to a footnote in The Victoria County History, History of the County of Berkshire, Vol. 4 (1924) as reprinted in British History Online, Elizabeth was still alive in 1591/2. After her death the manor reverted to the Crown. Elizabeth is said to have died in Croft, Leicestershire but the exact date is unknown.
ANNE IVE (d.1503+)
Anne Ive was the daughter of John Ive of Boynton Hall, Great Finborough, Suffolk and his wife Alice. Her first husband was Nicholas Timperley of Buxhall (d. May 20, 1489), by whom she had four sons: Nicholas, Thomas, John, and William (c.1480-April 1, 1528). She inherited considerable land in Suffolk to pass on to them. Her second husband was Richard Gowle of Stowmarket (c.1440-c.1503), a wealthy merchant. She was his second wife. They married in about 1490, when he retired to Suffolk, and had one son, John, and five daughters. He left her lands in Great Finborough for life and named her executor.
ROSE IVE (1557-November 13,1632)
Rose Ive was the daughter of Richard Ive of Kentish Town, St. Dunstan’s Parish, Middlesex (c.1535-February 8, 1558/9) and Elizabeth Agmondesham (d.1592), daughter of Henry Agmondesham of West Horsley. Widowed, Rose’s mother married William Hammond of Guildford (d. April 10, 1575). Hammond made his will on March 4, 1575, leaving the bulk of his estate to his wife for life and the remainder to his stepdaughter Rose. This included land in East Horsley, Surrey, Rayleigh, Essex, and Billingshurst, Sussex, together estimated to be worth between £4000 and £5000. On April 23, 1575, Rose married Laurence Stoughton of Stoughton, Surrey (November 12, 1554-December 13, 1615). On the death of her mother, Rose also inherited the house Hammond had lived in, called Leaden Porch, in Guildford. In the 1590s, Stoughton sold East Horsley, Effingham rectory, and the lands Rose had inherited in Essex and bought Stoke-next-Guildford manor. He also enlarged Stoughton, and King James visited there in 1611. Rose and Stoughton had eleven sons and six daughters, including Laurence, Thomas, George (1581-1624), Henry, John, Richard, Nicholas, Adrian, Anthony (April 7, 1598-January 14, 1643/4), Israel (1603-1644), Elizabeth, Anne, Mary, Katherine, Sarah, and Rose.
ELIZABETH IWARDBY (August 24, 1474-c.1549)
Elizabeth Iwardby was the daughter of John Iwardby of Quainton Mallet (October 12, 1449-August 22, 1485) and Joan Brudenhall (1455-1522). Her first husband was William Elmes of Woolfox, Rutland (1465-1503), by whom she had children, including John (1495-February 1545). Her second husband, to whom she was married c.1504 as his second wife, was Thomas Pigott of Whaddon, Buckinghamshire (c.1460-1520), reader at the Inner Temple. He purchased Doddershall Manor in Quainton, Buckinghamshire on November 25, 1504 as a wedding present for Elizabeth. He’d had five children by his first wife and with Elizabeth had six more: Thomas, Robert, Roger, Francis, Margery (1509-1587), Elizabeth, and Joan. Pigott was a justice of assize. His will is dated February 26, 1519/20 and it was proved in November 1520. On December 10, 1539, Elizabeth was licensed to alienate the tenement called Colwyks and certain lands in Waddesden, Quainton, and Colwycks, Buckinghamshire which had belonged to the former priory of Woborne, Bedforshire. On July 8, 1540, on surrender of a formal lease granted to her with William Pigott(her stepson) in 1537 by the late queen, Jane Seymour, she was granted the lease of the site and demesnes of the manor of Whaddon, together with the herbage of the queen’s park there. She was granted an annuity of £37 19s. in consideration of the manor of Whaddon, sold to the king. Her will is dated November 20, 1548 and was proved November 6, 1549.