ISABELLE MABBE (d.1597/8) (maiden name unknown)
Isabelle Mabbe was the wife of goldsmith John Mabbe (c.1515-1582). Their children were John, Robert, Richard, Stephen, and Edward (d. before 1597). When her husband died, Isabel inherited considerable property, including a life interest in the Tabard Inn in Southwark. The inn was in the hands of Robert Mabbe by 1584, but it was not until 1590 that Isabelle sold him the deed for £150. In 1593, she was probably the Widow Mabbe living in Bull Head Alley near the Bear Garden. At her death, Isabelle owned the six houses adjoining the inn but in her will, dated May 30, 1597 and proved December 15, 1598, she described herself as being of Totteridge, Herefordshire. Along with numerous bequests to family members, she left twenty shillings to her maid, Joan. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com/documents.html.
see ELEANOR FITZGERALD
ELLEN MACCARTHY (c.1574-1607+)
Ellen MacCarthy was the daughter and heir of Donal MacCarthy, earl of Clancare (d. before February 12,1597) and Honora Fitzgerald (d. August 1598+). According to “Ellen MacCarthy–The Survivor,” by John Dorney, she would have been known in Ireland as Eilean Ni Carthaigh. At fourteen, her father proposed to marry her to Nicholas Browne, son of Valentine Browne, a low-born Englishman. The English Lord President of Munster, Warham St. Leger, approved of this match, but Ellen’s mother did not. Instead, Lady Clancare arranged for Ellen to secretly marry her kinsman, Finian (known as Florence) MacCarthy (c.1560-1640). Florence was summoned to Limerick on July 1, 1588 to explain his actions and Ellen and her mother were also taken into custody. Ellen escaped in February 1589 and hid in Carberry. In June 1589, her husband was sent to England and confined in the Tower of London. In January 1589/90, he was released but obliged to live within three miles of London. Ellen joined him a short time later. In 1592, she gave birth to their eldest son, Teig (d. c. 1602). She and her son were sent home to Carberry and Florence followed in November 1593. Although they had three more sons (Donal, Cormac, and Finian), by 1594 Nicholas Browne was reporting that they were “at variance” and separated over “whether his men or hers should inhabit” certain lands. In 1599, Florence complained that his wife thought he was trying to take away her inheritance, even though, by tradition, her father’s lands and title passed to her husband. Ellen passed on information about her husband to the English and refused to come to his bed until he was reconciled with Queen Elizabeth. In 1602, when Florence and their sons were imprisoned in the Tower, Ellen was given a grant of land and money. In 1607, Florence wrote that he had sent away “the wicked woman that was my wife” and added that he had not seen her for almost a year before his arrest. On April 16, 1607, Ellen was granted thirteen quarters of land and an annuity of £150.
see HONORA FITZGERALD
FIONNUALA MACDONALD (d.c.1611)
Fionnuala MacDonald was the daughter of James MacDonald of the Isles (d. August 1565) and Lady Agnes Campbell (c.1515-c.1590). She was raised at the Scottish court. In August 1569 on Rathlin Island, Fionnuala married Hugh Dhubh O’Donnell, chief of Tyrconnell (c.1535-November 2, 1600) as his second wife. Their children were Nuala (d.1611+), Hugh Roe (1572-August 30, 1602), Rury (1575-1608), Manus (d. October 24, 1600), Mairghaed (d. 1608+), Máire (d.1662) and Cathbarr (d.1608). Her mother married Shane O’Neill’s successor, Turlough Luineach O’Neill (c.1530-1595) at the same time, as part of an alliance between Irish and Scottish clans. Their dowries were armed men rather than money. One account says 400-500 Campbells and 700 MacDonalds from Kintyre while another calls them 1200 Scottish mercenary troops. “By these two women,” an English agent in Ireland wrote, “arisith all mischief against the English in the Pale.” Certainly they were both active in the effort to preserve Ulster from English rule. Fionnuala became known as “Iníon Dhubh” (Dark Girl). In 1587, Sir John Perrott plotted to kidnap Hugh Dhubh, his wife, and their oldest son, but only Hugh Roe fell into English hands. He was imprisoned in Dublin Castle. This so angered Fionnuala that she vowed to restore him to all his rights as an Irish chieftain so that he might defeat the English. In 1588 she threatened to hire Spaniards to stir up trouble. That same year she arranged the assassination of Hugh Gallagher, who stood in the way of her plans. Donal, her husband’s son by his first marriage (some sources say illegitimate son) fell in battle against Fionnuala’s forces in 1592. In January 1592, Hugh Roe escaped from Dublin. It took almost a year for him to recover his health but in the meantime his mother persuaded her ailing husband to relinquish leadership to the younger man. On April 24, 1592, Hugh Roe became “the O’Donnell” in the last enkinging ever held in Ireland and then united with Hugh O’Neill, who had married his half sister Siobhan (d.1591) in 1574, to rebel against the English. His mother “joined a man’s heart with a woman’s thought” and the rising she fomented lasted until James I succeeded Queen Elizabeth in 1603. King James created Fionnuala’s younger son, Rury, earl of Tyrconnell, Hugh Roe having died the previous year. In 1608, Rury and other members of the family, including his sister Nuala, fled to Louvain and then to Rome. Fionnuala retired to Kilmacrennan. Biography: slightly differing versions of her life are found in three Oxford DNB entries, for her husband, her son, and her mother (“Campbell, Lady Agnes”).
ELIZABETH MACHESON (d. September 1565)
Elizabeth Macheson was born in Scotland. In the 1530s, she and her sister Agnes (1503-1589) sought refuge in England, seeking greater religious freedom. Elizabeth married Miles Coverdale (1488-January 20, 1569), who had translated the Bible into English. In 1540, the changing religious climate forced them into exile in Strasbourg. While there, Coverdale continued his work as a translator of religious texts. They returned to England in 1548, at which time Coverdale became Katherine Parr’s almoner. Later he was one of Edward VI’s chaplains and he was appointed Bishop of Exeter in 1551. In 1553, when Queen Mary took the throne and restored Catholicism as the state religion, Elizabeth, described as a “sober, chaste, and godly” woman, was able to save her husband from being burnt as a heretic because her sister Agnes’s husband, John Macalpine/Macbee, known as Maccabaeus, was able to prevail upon King Christian III of Denmark to write to the queen on Coverdale’s behalf. Coverdale, Elizabeth, their son Miles, and another child left England in 1555 and went initially to Wessel. By 1557, they had moved to Switzerland. In August 1559, they returned to England in the entourage of Catherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, and Coverdale took a position in her household as chaplain and tutor to her children.
CECILY MACWILLIAMS (June 1564-1627)
Cecily or Cecilia MacWilliams was the daughter Henry MacWilliams or MacWilliam of Stambourne Hall, Essex (1532-December 1586) and Mary Hill (1532-November 30, 1616). The queen was her godmother. She is mistakenly called Elizabeth MacWilliam in some lists of maids of honor. She was serving in that capacity by January 1589. In about 1590, she married Sir Thomas Ridgeway of Tor Abbey, Devonshire (1564-January 24, 1631/2), later created baron Ridgeway and earl of Londonderry. Their children were Robert (d.1639/40), Cassandra, Edward, Mary, and MacWilliam.
MARGARET MACWILLIAMS (c.1560-April 7,1640)
Margaret MacWilliams was the daughter Henry MacWilliams or MacWilliam of Stambourne Hall, Essex (1532-December 1586) and Mary Hill (1532-November 30, 1616). She was at court as a maid of honor from 1581-88. On May 6, 1589 she married John Stanhope (d.1621), who was created baron Stanhope in 1605. They had one son and two daughters.
see MARY HILL
URSULA MAIDENHEAD (c.1513-c.1583)
The parentage of Ursula Maidenhead is something of a mystery. The monument to her second husband, on which she also appears in effigy, calls her “the daughter of Lady Sands.” Various genealogy sites identify “Lady Sands” as Margaret Dixon of Witherslack (d.1548+), wife of William Sandys of Hawkshead, Furness Fells, Lancashire (c.1480-c.1548), where he had a house called Esthwaite Hall. Some of these same genealogy sites say Ursula was born at Colton Hall, Staffordshire, but they are unclear as to the identity of her father. Some also confuse Sandys with his uncle, the first baron Sandys. As far as I can tell, the William Sandys married to Margaret Dixon was not even knighted, let alone a lord, and he was not, apparently, Ursula’s father. Ursula married James Barnard of London (d.1540). Their children were Richard (d. by 1582), Edmund, another son, and two daughters. By 1543, Ursula had married Thomas Hungerford of Chelsea (1511-1581). Their children were Edward (d.1614), Anthony, another son, and Mary. In 1544, Hungerford claimed, in right of his wife as Barnard’s widow, “seven tenements or cottages with their appurtenances, containing by estimation one hundred acres of land, meadow and pasture . . . at a rent of fifty-four shillings and sixpence.” Ursula made her will in 1583. Included in it was a list of the portraits the Hungerfords had collected. Among them were likenesses of all the Tudor kings and queens, of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, of William Cecil, Lord Burleigh, and of Thomas and Ursula. Portraits: one extant in 1583; effigy on Hungerford monument in Chelsea Old Church.
FRANÇOISE de MAILLÉ (d.c.1535)
Françoise de Maillé (also called, in one source, Françoise de Maillé de la Tour Landry, dame de Châteauroux) was the daughter of Hardouin de Maillé and Antoinette de Chauvigny (d.1473). Her father was chamberlain to King Louis XI. According to Alison Weir (Mary Boleyn), Françoise was at one time in the service of the king’s daughter, Jeanne de France. In 1498, Jeanne, who was crippled from birth, was set aside and sent to a nunnery by her husband, Louis XII so that he could marry Anne of Brittany. In 1480, Françoise married François Beaujeu-Linières, seigneur de Linières, de Rezay, and de Thevét. On February 14, 1484, she married Jean d’Aumont, baron de Conches and d’Estrabonne (1458-February 19, 1523). Their children were Pierre (d.1548+), Claude (d.1554), Felix (d.1538?), and another Pierre. In 1513, she was appointed to replace Lady Guildford as chief lady of the household (dame d’honneur) of Mary Tudor, the new Queen of France, when most of Mary’s retinue was sent home. This was a short-lived appointment, as King Louis died shortly after his marriage, but while she held the post, she was in charge of the young Mary Boleyn and several other English girls. Later Françoise was governess to the children of King Francis I.
see JOAN HURSTE
ELIZABETH MALLERY or MALLORY
see ELIZABETH BRUYN
KATHERINE MALLORY (1540-1579+)
Katherine Mallory was the daughter of Sir William Mallory of Studely and Hutton, Yorkshire (1500-April 27, 1547) and Jane Norton (1500-1588), although some sources call her the daughter of Sir John Mallory of Studely. She married George Radcliffe of Derwentwater (1517-1579). They had at least one child, Francis (1562-December 23, 1622). She received a grant of market and lease in Keswick, Cumberland where, in May 1565, copper ore said to contain silver was found in the area and Queen Elizabeth brought in foreign workmen with mining experience to mine the ore. The first twenty German miners arrived in Keswick on September 20, 1565. The Radcliffes objected to this, in part because they claimed mineral rights the queen was attempting to usurp. Lady Radcliffe in particular opposed the opening of the mines. She refused to let any wood be cut down on her lands, either for props in the mines or for fuel. In July 1566, however, after an English mob attacked German workers, resulting in a German death, she intervened to save the leaders of the mob from the gallows. Documents reprinted in Elizabethan Keswick by W. G. Collingwood include the following records for 1569: Rent to Miladi Catharina Radclieff, paid through her Bailey Parsovel Radclieff, for the land on which the Smelthouses stand, due at Michaelmas, I/- a year, according to agreement made with (Sir) George Radclieff; three years‘ rent from Michaelmas 1566, 3/-. and We bought from Miledi Catharina Badclieff all her wood called Baras (Barrow) from the parks toward Borrowdale, containing 150 oaks, 300 ashes and about 800 birches; the agreement was signed by the trustees of her children, Mr. William Mallori and Thomas Thurland, in the presence of Jhon Tarston, Richardt Duedle (Dudley), Joris Lample (G. Lamplugh) and Mr. Sackhfield; and owe Ser Joris Radclieff £33 6 8.
ISABEL MALT (d.1568+) (maiden name unknown)
In around 1568, when a young man named Timothy Malt was aged thirteen and more, his mother, Isabel Malt, then living in Horn Alley in Aldersgate Street, London, told a strange story to a chronicler (some sources say Holinshed; some John Foxe). Timothy was born on Whitsuntide in the morning (June 11) in 1555, when the queen, Mary Tudor, was also reputed to be pregnant. At that time, mother and child (there is no mention of a father) lived in Old Fish Street. Shortly after the birth, Isabel was visited by two lords, one of whom said he was Lord North. They asked her to give them her child and to thereafter swear that she had never given birth. She refused. Later at least one woman also visited her, telling her she should have been the child’s rocker. The implication was that they intended to pretend that young Timothy had been born to the queen, thus providing England with a Catholic heir to the throne. Since the story was advanced as Protestant propaganda, however, it is probably a complete fabrication.
ANNE MALTE (d.1549) (maiden name unknown)
Anne Malte was the second wife of John Malte (d.1547), the king’s tailor. According to an inquisition post mortem taken August 17, 1547 of the estate of John Potkyn, gentleman (in Abstracts of Inquisitions Post Mortem for the City of London for the reign of Edward VI), “___ Malte, widow, late the wife of John Malte, deceased,” paid a yearly rent of 27s 4d on property in Bread Street in the parish of All Saints. It does not seem likely that she lived there. During her marriage, the Malte house was in Watling Street in the parish of St. Augustine at Paul’s Gate. In 1541, Malte’s worth was set at 2000 marks and he was assessed £33 6s. 8d. in the London Subsidy Roll for Bread Street Ward. On October 16, 1548, Anne Malte purchased the manor of Hickmans in the Hamlet of Haggerston in the northeast part of the parish of Shoreditch. The property included appurtenances and about 100 acres. Anne left this property to her daughter Elizabeth (d.1558+) and to Elizabeth’s husband, Thomas Hilton, who were named executors in her will in 1549. Elizabeth is not mentioned in the excerpt of John Malte’s will (proved June 7, 1547) given in William Fletcher King’s Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, Vol. 3, which suggests that she might have been Anne’s daughter by an earlier marriage. Anne is not mentioned in the excerpt, either, although Malte refers to his first wife in connection with their daughters.
BRIDGET MALTE (d. November 30, 1557)
Bridget Malte was the daughter of John Malte (d. 1547), the king’s tailor, and his first wife. Most accounts call her his youngest daughter. By 1545, she was married to John Scutt or Skutt (d. 1557), a widower with a young daughter, Margaret. Their children were Anthony (1545-January 7, 1588) and Edward. Scutt was probably the John “Soutt” who, in 1541, was listed directly after John Malte in the London Subsidy Roll for Bread Street Ward (parish of St. Augustine at Paul’s Gate). Both Malte and Soutt were declared to be worth 2000 marks and assessed £33 6s. 8d. According to “Skutt Notes” by F. J. Poynton of Kelston Rectory in Vol. 2 (1891) of Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, edited by Charles Howard Mayo, John Malte’s will was written in September 1546 and proved June 7, 1547. He left Bridget the manor of Uffington, Berkshire. Anthony Scutt received the parsonage at Woolstone, Berkshire and the reversion of rights to properties left to his cousin, William Horner, should William die without issue. Bridget and John Scutt were named overseers of the will. Scutt was a royal tailor from 1519-1547. He made clothing for all six of Henry VIII’s wives and also for private clients like Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle. He was master of the Merchant Taylors Company in 1536 and was granted arms on November 12, 1546. After the death of Henry VIII, Scutt retired to the manor of Stanton Drew, Somerset, where he was the tenant of Sir John St. Loe. The next part of Bridget’s story comes primarily from Mary S. Lovell’s Bess of Hardwick. Scutt had a reputation for mistreating his wife and when he died suddenly, there were whispers of poison. The whispers grew louder when Bridget remarried a fortnight after her husband’s death. Her second husband Edward St. Loe (c.1520-1578), one of Sir John’s sons. Before Edward married her, he had arranged for his brother, Sir William St. Loe, to purchase the wardship of Anthony Scutt. He also asked William to refuse their father’s proposal that he (William) marry Margaret Scutt. Later it came out that Bridget was three months pregnant with St. Loe’s child at the time of the marriage. Two months after the marriage, on November 30, 1557, Bridget died. Six months after that, Edward St. Loe married his stepdaughter, Margaret Scutt. There was an inquisition post mortem on August 9, 1558, at which time Anthony Scutt was said to be twelve years old. In the Chatsworth House Archives there is a document, “Sir Wm. and Dame Elizabeth Sentelow vs. Edward St. Loe,” which describes Bridget as “a verye lustye yonge woman” and hints that Edward St. Loe poisoned both John Scutt and Bridget Scutt. He came under suspicion again when his brother William died, but Edward was never charged with murder.
ELIZABETH MALTE (d.1558+)
Elizabeth Malte may not have been a Malte at all. She was certainly the daughter of Anne Malte (d.1549), second wife and widow of John Malte (d.1547), king’s tailor, because Elizabeth and her husband were executors of Anne’s will. Elizabeth is not, however, mentioned in John Malte’s will, written in September 1546, even though he does make bequests to his two married daughters, his two married stepdaughters by his first wife, his unmarried bastard daughter, and a foundling child left at his gate. By then, Elizabeth was probably already married to Thomas Hilton (Hylton/Hulton), usually identified as the illegitimate son of William Hilton (d.1518), who was king’s tailor before John Malte. The History of Parliament identifies this Thomas Hilton as the one who served as a messenger at the royal court from 1538-40. The Thomas Hilton living in the parish of St. Augustine at Paul’s Gate, near John Malte, in 1541, was probably the same man. His wealth was set at £50 in the London Subsidy Roll for Bread Street Ward. By 1545, according to the History of Parliament, Hilton was a servant of Sir John Harington of Exton and Harington’s tenant in Rutland. In September 1549, when Thomas and his wife Elizabeth were named executors of Anne Malte’s will, they were living in London. Thomas Hylton, skinner, was one of the citizens taking inventory of the property of William Rastell, gentleman, for the inquisition post mortem taken on February 27, 1551. Thomas and Elizabeth inherited the manor of Hickmans in the hamlet of Haggerston in the northeast part of the parish of Shoreditch, purchased by Anne Malte in 1548, and were in possession of that property on April 10, 1553. They also leased other properties in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. The History of Parliament suggests that Hilton had died by fiscal year 1565-6, when one of those leases was held by someone else.
ETHELREDA MALTE (d.c.1556)
Ethelreda Malte, also called Audrey and Esther, was probably the illegitimate daughter of John Malte (d.1547), Henry VIII’s tailor, and Joanna Dyngley or Digneley, although the late sixteenth century Nugae Antiquae claimed she was a natural daughter of the king. Alison Weir (Mary Boleyn) suggests a birth date on St. Ethelreda’s Day (June 23) in the late 1520s. She believes Ethelreda was the king’s child. Joanna Dyngley apparently took no part in her daughter’s life and was married to a man named Dobson at some point after Ethelreda’s birth. As for John Malte, he received a sizeable grant of land from the king in 1541, including the manors of Watchfield and Uffington in Berkshire, and another, with Ethelreda, in 1546. John Malte’s will is dated September 10, 1546 and was proved June 7, 1547. In it he called Ethelreda “Awdrey Malte, my bastard daughter, begotten on the body of Joane Dingley, now wife of one Dobson.” She was to inherit most of his property in Berkshire, Hertfordshire, and Somerset. At that time, according to The History of Parliament entry for John Harington, she was not yet fifteen and was betrothed to an illegitimate son of Sir Richard Southwell. At some point between September 1546 and November 11, 1547, however, Ethelreda married John Harington of Stepney (1525-July 1, 1582). At that time he was in the service of Thomas Seymour, Lord Seymour of Sudeley. Ethelreda and John had one child, a daughter they named Hester (d.1639). In 1554, Ethelreda appears to have been one of Elizabeth Tudor’s attendants during the princess’s incarceration in the Tower of London and may have served her earlier at Hatfield. In October 1555, she settled Kelston on her husband. Ethelreda was still living in early 1556. Her death occurred before April 1, 1559. Biography: Ruth Hughey’s John Harington of Stepney. NOTE: Philippa Jones’s The Other Tudors: Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards is an untrustworthy resource. She spends a good deal of time making the argument that Ethelreda’s mother was Joan Moore, daughter of Sir John Moore of Dunkelyn, Worcestershire, who married first Michael Ashfield, then James Dingley, and finally Thomas Parker of Notgrove, Gloucestershire. She goes on to explain that the name Dobson was an error in transcription for Dunkelyn. This makes no sense when Malte’s will refers to “Joane Dingley, now wife of one Dobson.” Jones doesn’t quote that section, but does state that Malte’s will left £20 “to Joan Dyngley, otherwise Joane Dobson.” She further suggests a date of June 23, 1535 for Ethelreda’s birth. This allows her to propose Joan as the mysterious mistress of 1534 who was a friend of Princess Mary’s and a member of Queen Anne’s court. Her theory appears to spring from the belief that the king would not consort with a lowborn woman like a laundress (Joan’s place in the royal household according to other sources). According to Jones, John Malte lived with his daughter, Bridget Scutt, and Ethelreda continued to live with the Scutts after his death, marrying John Harington somewhat later than Harington’s biographer believes. Jones also states that Ethelreda was always sickly (the excuse for her husband’s interest in Isabella Markham) and died in November 1555 at St. Catherine’s Court and that Harington had an earlier wife named Esther. She reports the existence of a portrait, sold in 1942 to an unknown collector, describing it as three-quarter length with the subject in an “embroidered dress.”
MURIEL MALTE (d. March 9, 1548)
Muriel Malte (also spelled Meryell, Muryell, Merial and Meriola) was the daughter of John Malte (d.1547), the king’s tailor, and his first wife. In 1545, she married John Horner (d.1587). In 1544, his father purchased Cloford, Somersetshire and John Malte purchased the manor of Podimore Milton, Somersetshire and these properties were given to the young couple on their marriage. Their children were William (b. before September 1546; d.yng.), Thomas (c.1547-1612), and Maurice (d. February 1621). Muriel did not receive a direct bequest in her father’s will, made on September 10, 1546, but her eldest son, William Horner, “son of my daughter Horner” was left the manors of Greenhall, Bramfield and Ewell in Hertfordshire. In accordance with Malte’s will, these properties were to revert to the eldest son of Muriel’s sister, Bridget Scutt, after William’s death.
see ANNE PERCY; ELIZABETH WILLOUGHBY
ANNE MANNERS (1523-1549)
Anne Manners was the eldest daughter of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She was one of the three child brides in the dynastic group wedding that took place on July 3, 1536. She married Lord Henry Neville, later 5th earl of Westmoreland (1525-February 10, 1564), son of Ralph Neville, 4th earl of Westmorland. Their children were Charles (August 18, 1542-November 16, 1601), Eleanor, Ralph, Mary (d.1563+), Catherine (c.1541-March 27, 1591), and Adeline (c.1547-1613). Two of her husband’s sisters were also married on July 3, 1536, one of them to Anne’s brother Henry. In early 1545, Anne’s husband was involved in a scheme to murder her by witchcraft. He was arrested in September 1546 and confessed, but in March 1547, after the death of Henry VIII, he was pardoned and released. If the date of birth for their last child is correct, the couple reconciled. Portrait: effigy on her husband’s tomb at Staindrop, Westmorland, a wooden monument erected in 1560.
see ANNE ST. LEGER
BRIDGET MANNERS (1577-July 10, 1604)
Bridget Manners was the daughter of John Manners, 4th earl of Rutland (d. February 24, 1588) and Elizabeth Charleton (d. March 1594). Bridget was eleven when her father died and her mother, who had other children still at home, agreed to let Bridget’s step-grandmother, Bridget Hussey (d. January 12, 1601), widow of the 2nd earl and by that time also countess of Bedford, take over the girl’s education. Young Bridget played the lute but was otherwise uneducated. She went to Woburn Abbey in June 1588, taking with her a maid named Mary Harding. Letters from Bridget’s mother and from Mary still exist, giving further details of the arrangement. After a year in the household at Woburn Abbey, Bridget went to court as a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth. There she was a great success, not only with the queen, who eventually made Bridget her carver, but also with the gentlemen. Barnabe Barnes wrote a poem “To the Beautiful Lady The Lady Bridget Manners,” in which he called her “fairest and sweetest of all those sweet, fair flowers.” She was courted by the earls of Southampton, Bedford, and Northumberland and by Lord Wharton. It was her mother’s wish, however, that she marry Robert Tyrwhitt of Kettleby, Lincolnshire (c.1573-1617), who was her (Elizabeth Charleton’s) ward. Bridget seems to have been happy with this choice. She took a month’s leave of absence from court and married him at Belvoir Castle in August 1594. Their children were William (c.1598-1642), Robert, Bridget (d.1614), and Rutland. Since the queen had not given her approval for the match, she was not pleased when she heard of it. The couple was separated by royal decree and Tyrwhitt was imprisoned in the Tower. Bridget returned to court in the hope of winning Queen Elizabeth’s forgiveness, which she eventually did. The fact that her brother, the young earl of Rutland, agreed to pay £1300 of her £2500 marriage portion to the Crown may have been a factor. According to the monument Bridget’s husband erected in Bigby Church, she was “of speech affable, of countenance amiable, nothing proud of her place and fortunes, and usynge her grace rather to benefit others than herself.” Portraits: effigy on her father’s tomb; headless effigy on her husband’s tomb.
see BRIDGET HUSSEY
CATHERINE MANNERS (July 1539-March 9, 1572)
Catherine Manners was the youngest child of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She was born at Belvoir Castle three months after her sister Gertrude’s wedding at Holywell, the family’s London mansion. She was named for Catherine, duchess of Suffolk. In August 1543, she married Sir Henry Capell of Little Hadham, Hertfordshire (d. June 22, 1588). Their children were Arthur (c.1544-April 1632), Frances (b.1548), William (September 14, 1556-before 1583), Edward (b. March 4, 1558), John (b. 1560), Gamahel (January 2, 1561-November 10, 1633), Agnes (b. January 1, 1562), Frances (b. March 18, 1564), Anne (b. June 8, 1566), Robert (b. February 19, 1567), and Mary (January 26, 1569-October 12, 1633). Catherine was at court during the reign of Mary Tudor. In March 1556, she and her husband brought charges against the wife of a London innkeeper, but no details of the case survive. In 1561, when the duchess of Suffolk had smallpox, Catherine sent a bed to the Barbican for her use.
see CECILY TUFTON
see DOROTHY VERNON
see ELEANOR PASTON
ELIZABETH MANNERS (c.1527-August 8, 1570)
Elizabeth Manners was the daughter of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She married Sir John Savage (c.1523-December 5, 1597). Their children were Margaret (1549-April 7, 1597), John (1550-1615), Mary, Eleanor (d.1604+), Thomas, Edward (1560-before November 29, 1622), Elizabeth, and Frances. Portrait: tomb effigy, Savage Chapel, St. Michael’s Church, Macclesfield, Cheshire.
ELIZABETH MANNERS (c.1576-May 1, 1591)
Elizabeth Manners was the only child of Edward Manners, 3rd earl of Rutland (July 12, 1549-April 14, 1587) and Isabel Holcroft (d. January 16, 1606). She was granted the title baroness Roos or Ros after her father’s death. In 1588, at age twelve, she married William Cecil (1566-1640). They had one child, also named William (May 1590-June 27, 1618).
see ELIZABETH SIDNEY
FRANCES MANNERS (c.1530-September 1576)
Frances Manners was the daughter of Thomas Manners, 1st earl of Rutland (c. 1492-September 20, 1543) and Eleanor Paston (d.1551). She married Henry Neville, Lord Bergavenny (1527-February 10, 1586/7). They had one child, Mary (March 25, 1554-June 28, 1626). As Lady Bergavenny, Frances wrote protestant prayers in both prose and verse that were published after her death in The Monument of Matrones (1582), edited by Thomas Bentley. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Neville [née Manners], Frances.”
see GRACE PIERREPONT
see ISABEL HOLCROFT
see MARGARET DYMOKE; MARGARET NEVILLE
see THEODOSIA NEWTON
MARGARET MANNING (1559-December 1633)
Margaret Manning was the daughter of Henry Manning of Downe, Kent (d.1583?), Marshall of the Household to Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I, and Katherine Kirkener or Kerkener (1535-February 4, 1594). Margaret was the fourth wife of Thomas Howard, Viscount Bindon (1520-January28, 1582). She married Edmund Ludlow of Hill Deverill, Wiltshire (d. November 9, 1624), after his first wife died in 1587. Their children included Henry (1592-1643), Edmund (1595-1666), and at least four others. Various lists online give the names Thomas, Benjamin, Jasper, William, Humphrey, Anne, Margaret, Jane, Mary, Ursula, Philippa, Joyce, Catherine, and Elizabeth. In 1595, Ludlow was living in London. He was knighted in 1601at Basing. His last years were spent in the country at Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire. Letters of administration were granted to his widow. Margaret was buried December 14, 1633.
MARGARET MANNOCK (1544+-1612)
Margaret Mannock was the daughter of Henry Mannock of Hemingford Grey, Huntingdonshire (d.1564) and Margaret Mundy (d.1564/5). By an earlier marriage, her mother was the stepmother of Queen Catherine Howard, but Margaret had not yet been born when Catherine was executed. In his will, her father disinherited both his wife and his son and left everything to Margaret, to be claimed when she turned twenty or married, whichever came first. By the following year she had married Francis Cromwell alias Williams of St. Neots, Huntingdontshire (c.1541-August 5,1598). They had one son, Henry (1565-1601). By 1586, Margaret and her husband were estranged and he was paying her an annuity.
see MARGARET MUNDY
see MARIA de SALAZAR
see CECILY DABRIDGECOURT
EDITH MANSELL (d.1520) (maiden name unknown)
Edith was the wife of Philip Mansell. They had a daughter named either Alice or Jane who married Matthew Craddock in 1489 and died before her mother. They also had two sons, Philip and Richard of Chicheley, Buckinghamshire (d. November 1543). Several sources say that Edith Mansell, former mother-in-law of Matthew Craddock, was murdered in 1520, but details are lacking and most genealogical tables give Mabel (Mary/Mabilia/Mabella) Nicolas/Nicholas as the wife of Philip and mother of his children. This Mabel is identified as the daughter of Sir Griffith ap Nicholas of Newton, Carmarthenshire and Jane ferch Jenkin ap Rees ap David and as the coheiress of her mother.
see ELIZABETH BACON; ELIZABETH ROPER; ELIZABETH WINGFIELD
see JANE POLE; JANE SOMERSET
MARY MANSELL (d. c. 1564)
Mary Mansell was the daughter of Sir Rhys/Rice Mansell of Oxwich, Glamorganshire (January 25, 1487-April 10, 1559) and Cecily Dabridgecourt (1506-September 20, 1558). She was one of Queen Mary’s maids of honor and was listed in January 1559 as one of Queen Elizabeth’s. She married Thomas Southwell of Woodrising Hall, Norfolk (c.1542-1568).
ANNE MANTELL (d. 1586+) (maiden name unknown)
John Nichols, in The Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth, calls Anne Mantell Sir Philip Sidney’s former wet nurse and governess, but in fact she was governess to Sidney’s sisters, Margaret (1556-1558), Elizabeth (1560-1567), Mary (1561-1621) and Ambrosia (c.1564-1576). Anne had charge of young Philip (1554-1586) in 1560, when she was paid £18 6s. 3d., of which £12 was for Philip’s board. Anne was the wife of Robert Mantell, who kept accounts for the Sidneys at Penshurst. Those accounts include a purple gown with lace and fringe for Anne. On February 22, 1576, Philip Sidney wrote a letter to a servant instructing him to pay £20, the sum owed for wages, to Anne Mantell, “my sister’s old governess.” The letter, still extant, is endorsed by Robert Mantell with the note that he received half that amount. In 1586, when Philip Sidney died, Anne Mantell was at Wilton, Wiltshire in the service of his sister Mary, who had married the earl of Pembroke in 1577.
see JANE HALES
see MARGARET WOOD
ELVIRA MANUEL (1444+-1506+)
Doña Elvira Manuel de la Cerda was the daughter of Juan Manuel de la Cerda, lord of Belmonte and Campos, and Juana de Figueroa. She traveled to England in 1501 as the duenna of Catherine of Aragon and immediately came into conflict with Henry VII by disapproving of his desire to inspect the Spanish princess before her wedding to Henry’s son Arthur. Elvira was married to Don Pedro Manrique, lord of Aldiscari, Catherine’s chamberlain. Their son, Inigo was the master of Catherine’s pages. They also had a daughter, Maria, a lady of honor of Juana the Mad, and a son Antonio. After Prince Arthur’s death, Elvira Manuel claimed that the marriage to Catherine had never been consummated, thus paving the way for a marriage between Catherine and Arthur’s younger brother, the future Henry VIII. Elvira was in contact with her brother, Don Juan Manuel, who was a diplomat in the service of Philip of Burgundy. In December 1505, for promoting Philip’s interests at the expense of those of Ferdinand of Aragon, Catherine’s father, Elvira was told to leave England. She departed on the pretext of visiting a doctor in Flanders about a disease that had already caused her to lose one of her eyes, but she knew that she would not be permitted to return. She had alienated both King Henry and Princess Catherine. Elvira spend the rest of the life among Spanish exiles at the court of Flanders. Catherine was said never to have spoken her name again.
ANNE MARBURY (July 20 1591-August 20, 1643)
Anne Marbury was the daughter of Reverend Francis Marbury of Alford, Lincolnshire (1555-February 12, 1610/11) and his second wife, Bridget Dryden (d.1645). On August 9, 1612, she married William Hutchinson of Alford, Lincolnshire (1586-1641) in the church of St. Mary Woolnoth, London. Their children were Edward, Richard, Francis, William, Samuel, William, Zuriel, Susanna, Faith, Bridget, Elizabeth, Anne, Mary, Katherine, and Susanna. In 1634, the family settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Anne, a midwife, gained notoriety for her religious beliefs and was forced to remove to Portsmouth, Providence, and finally what is now Westchester County, New York, where she and several of her children were massacred by Indians. Portrait: statue of Anne Hutchinson in Boston, Massachusetts.
ELIZABETH MARBURY (c.1525-1592)
According to Marion Colthorpe’s The Elizabethan Court Day by Day, Elizabeth Marbury was the daughter of Thomas Marbury and Agnes Lynn. Her surname is variously spelled Marberye. Marbry, Marberry, and Marbery. She married another Thomas Marbury (d. 1598), later sergeant of the queen’s pantry. Their children were Thomas (d.1620), George, and John. The latter, born in 1550, was Elizabeth Tudor’s godson. Older sources state that Elizabeth Marbury was the daughter of Sir William Venables of Kinderton (1480-1541) and Catherine Grosvenor (d.1558) and the wife of James Marbury (d. July 25, 1558), another member of Elizabeth Tudor’s household at Woodstock in 1554. When Elizabeth Sandes was sent away in June 1554, it is said that Elizabeth Marbury’s husband suggested that his wife be promoted to replace her instead of bringing in a new lady-in-waiting. Elizabeth Marbury was granted a pension of £20 per annum for life at the beginning of Elizabeth’s reign and received material for a livery gown (satin guarded with velvet) every Christmas. In 1562, the reversion of a lease on Warden Rectory in Bedfordshire was granted to Thomas, Elizabeth, and John Marbury for eighty years. The queen sent Elizabeth £30 on December 12, 1570 as a reward upon her departure from court. At that time she was identified as a chamberer. On January 7, 1571, she was granted an annuity of £50. One source says this was paid until 1591, when she and her husband exchanged it for a grant of lands, while another says she resigned the pension in 1574 in exchange for the lease on the manors of Warden and Southill, Bedfordshire, worth £9 10s. 4d. in rent, which she received with her son Thomas. On March 1, 1576, on the occasion of John Marbury’s marriage, Queen Elizabeth gave her godson a gilt bowl with a cover. Elizabeth Marbury was listed as a gentlewoman of the bedchamber in 1580, when she was given a black velvet gown and a black fan of feathers. She is buried in Old Warden, Bedfordshire.
see FRANCES ARDERNE
MARGARET OF AUSTRIA (January 10, 1480-December 1, 1530)
Margaret of Austria, also known as Margaret of Savoy, was the daughter of Maximilian I (1459-1519) and Mary of Burgundy (1457-1482). In 1497, she married Juan of Castile (d.1497), Catherine of Aragon’s brother. In 1501, she married Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (d.1503). She had no children. In 1507, she was appointed regent of the Netherlands and guardian of her brother Philip’s six children. With one short hiatus, she served as regent until her death. In 1513, she entertained Henry VIII, after his invasion of France, and was courted by Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. Margaret accepted his daughter, Anne Brandon, into her household. A very young Anne Boleyn was also part of Margaret’s household for a time. Biographies: Marian Andrews, The High and Puissant Princess Marguerite of Austria (1907); Jane Iongh, Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands (1953); Eleanor E. Tremayne, The First Governess of the Netherlands: Margaret of Austria (2010); Sarah Gristwood, Game of Queens (2016). Portraits: several exist.
MARGARET OF PARMA (December 28, 1522-January 18, 1586)
Margaret of Parma was the illegitimate daughter of Charles V (1500-1558) and Johanna van der Gheenst. She married Alexander de Medici, duke of Milan (d.1537), who was assassinated. On November 4, 1538, she married Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma (October 9, 1521-September 18, 1586). Their son was Alexander Farnese, duke of Parma (1545-1592). In 1557 (some sources say March-May and others May-June), Margaret was in England with Christina of Denmark, duchess of Lorraine, to help their cousin, Philip II, convince Elizabeth Tudor to marry the duke of Savoy. Margaret never met Elizabeth and their political interests were never aligned. In 1559, Margaret was appointed regent of the Netherlands. During the years she ruled there, thousands of textile workers fled to England to escape religious persecution. In 1563/4 the English privateers began to attack merchant shipping. Margaret banned the importation of English cloth in retaliation and Elizabeth responded by forbidding all imports from the Netherlands. Margaret countered by closing Netherlands ports to all English shipping. The ports soon reopened, but there was continued unrest. Philip II added to the tension by taxing the Netherlands heavily. In 1566, William of Orange was plotting a rebellion and armed conflict was imminent. In 1567, Margaret turned the regency over to the duke of Alva and retired to Ortona, Italy. Portrait: in the Prado, Madrid.
see JOHANNE TURNBULL
see ANNE ROOS; ANNE STRELLEY
GERTRUDE MARKHAM (1571-before 1607)
Gertrude Markham was the daughter of Robert Markham of Cotham, Nottinghamshire (1536-1606) and Mary Leake (1538-c.1597). She married Thomas Sadler of Standon, Hertfordshire (c.1536-January 5, 1607). Their children were Gertrude (d.1635) and Ralph (d. February 12, 1660). Portrait: effigy at Standon.
ISABELLA MARKHAM (March 28, 1527-May 20, 1579)
Isabella Markham was the daughter of Sir John Markham of Coltham, Nottinghamshire (d. 1564), Lord Lieutenant of the Tower of London, and his third wife, Anne Strelley (c.1495-October 12, 1554). By 1550), she was part of the household of Elizabeth Tudor. According to her son, she was removed from Elizabeth’s service by command of Archbishop Gardiner on the grounds that she was a professed heretic. After that even her own father did not dare take her into his house. This seems to be a reference to the fact that upon Elizabeth’s arrest in March 1554, Isabella went to stay with a Mr. Topcliffe. In January, if not sooner, Isabella had met John Harington of Stepney (1525-July 1, 1582). Harington’s wife, Ethelreda Malte, was one of Elizabeth’s attendants during her imprisonment, and he was arrested on February 8, 1554 on the basis of a compromising letter connecting him to the conspiracy of Sir Thomas Wyatt and held until January 18, 1555. Isabella returned to Elizabeth’s household in October 1554 and was appointed a lady of the privy chamber when Elizabeth became queen. She was the subject of a number of Harington’s poems, all of them written before his wife’s death.The date of their marriage is unknown, but it was after April 1, 1559. Their son, John, was christened on August 4, 1560 with Queen Elizabeth as his godmother. Their other children were Robert (d. December 6, 1601), Elizabeth (b.1559?), Francis (1564-January 22, 1639), and James (1565-1592). Isabella was rarely absent from court. She received the dedication of Thomas Palfreyman’s Divine Meditations in 1572. Biography: Most of the known facts about Isabella are included in Ruth Hughey’s John Harington of Stepney.
see MARY GRIFFIN
JOAN MARLER (d.1531) (maiden name unknown)
Joan married Richard Marler (by 1479-June 4, 1527), a grocer who was mayor of Coventry in 1509 and was the richest man in that city. She was his second wife and the mother of his son William (d.1537+). Marler wrote his will on January 12, 1527, naming Joan as one of his executors. After his death, Joan became a vowess. In her will, she left money to endow a sermon. She was buried with her husband in the Marler Chapel of Holy Trinity Church.
see BRIDGET WALDEGRAVE
CATHERINE MARNEY (c.1480-1535)
Catherine Marney was the daughter of Henry, 1st baron Marney (1457-May 24, 1523) and his first wife, Thomasine Arundell. Her marriage to Edward Knyvett of Suffolk (c.1486-1503) was childless but he had a daughter, Elizabeth or Isabel (d. February 1508) by his first wife. Catherine inherited a life interest in his lands, including the manor of Stanway, Essex and twelve other manors and lands in Essex, Kent, and Suffolk, greatly reducing her stepdaughter’s prospects. That young woman’s widower, John Raynsford (d.1559) brought several suits against Catherine in chancery and eventually succeeded in winning an annuity of £20 and a life interest in two of Knyvett’s manors. In 1509, Catherine married Thomas Bonham (1459-June 18, 1532). Their seven children included John (d. by 1532), William (1513-1547+), and Elizabeth. In her second widowhood, Catherine inherited a life interest in all of Bonham’s lands and goods. Her third husband was John Barnaby, who had been a servant of Bonham’s from as early as 1514.
CATHERINE MARNEY (1515-1539+)
Catherine Marney was the daughter and coheiress of John, 2nd baron Marney (1480-April 27, 1525) and Christian Newburgh (c.1497-August 7, 1517). She was the ward of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk. She was betrothed to two of the earl of Sussex’s younger sons in succession and in about 1528 married the second, George Radcliffe (d.c.1532). Before 1539 (one source says May 19, 1532), she married Thomas Poynings (c.1512-August 17, 1545), who was created baron Poynings on January 30, 1545. They had a son, christened in March 1539, but he died young.
ELIZABETH MARNEY (1517-1542+)
Elizabeth Marney was the daughter and coheiress of John, 2nd baron Marney (1480-April 27, 1525) and Christian Newburgh (c.1497-August 7, 1517). She was the ward of Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk. She was betrothed to his younger son, Thomas Howard (1520-1582), later viscount Bindon, and became the first of his four wives in about 1526. Their children were Henry (1542-January 16, 1590/1), Thomas (d. March 1, 1610/11), Francis, Giles, Elizabeth, and Grace (d.1568).
GRACE MARNEY (1487-c.1553)
Grace was the daughter of Henry, 1st baron Marney (1447-May 24, 1523) and Elizabeth or Isabel Wilford. As the wife of Catherine of Aragon’s custodian, Sir Edmund Bedingfield of Oxborough, Norfolk (1479/80-1553), she was with the imprisoned queen at Kimbolton when she died on January 7, 1536. Grace’s son, Sir Henry Bedingfield (1511-1583) was one of Mary Tudor’s supporters against the duke of Northumberland.
DOROTHY MARROW (d.1538+)
Dorothy Marrow was the daughter and heir of Thomas Marrow of Berkswell, Warwickshire and Isabel Brome. In c. 1516, she married Francis Cokayne of Ashbourne, Derbyshire (d. August 5, 1538). Their children were Thomas, (November 27, 1520-November 15, 1592), Francis, William, Alice, and Barbara. Dorothy purchased her eldest son’s wardship for £366. Her second husband was Sir Humphrey Ferrers of Tamworth, Staffordshire (d.1553). Her children, Thomas and Barbara, married John and Dorothy, his children by his first wife. Portrait: brass in Ashbourne Church to Thomas and Dorothy Cokayne, although she is not buried there.
ELIZABETH MARSHALL (1453-1496)
Elizabeth Marshall was the daughter of John Marshall of Upton, Leicestershire and Elizabeth Cheek. In around 1455, she married Ralph FitzHerbert of Norbury, Derbyshire (1428-March 2, 1481). Their children were Margaret, Dorothy, John (d.1531), Henry (d. before 1532), Thomas (d.1532), Richard, William, Anthony (1470-1538), Edith (1472-1511), Agnes, and Alice. It has been suggested that the Elizabeth Fitzherbert who was in the service of Elizabeth of York was her daughter, but it is also possible that this was Elizabeth herself. One account says she was buried October 20, 1490. Another says she died in 1496. Her will was made in 1490. Portrait: effigy in Norbury Church.
see DORCAS ECCLESTONE
see ELIZABETH CASTLYN
see MARGERY DENTON
MARY MARTYN (1557-1574)
Mary Martyn was the daughter of Sir Roger Martyn or Martin of Long Melford, Suffolk (d. December 20, 1573), a mercer and Lord Mayor of London in 1567, and his second wife, Elizabeth Castlyn (d.1583). She was baptized November 20, 1557. At the age of fifteen, Mary was painted by George Gower to commemorate her wedding to Alexander Denton of Hillesden, Buckinghamshire (1542-1576) on June 8, 1573 at St. Antonin, Budge Row, London. They had one child, Thomas (1574-1633). Portraits: by Gower; effigy in All Saints, Hillesden, erected by Alexander’s mother, Margaret Mordaunt, in 1576.
MARY I (February 18, 1516-November 17, 1558)
Mary Tudor was the only child of Henry VIII (June 28, 1491-January 28, 1547) and Catherine of Aragon (December 16, 1485-January 7, 1536) to live to adulthood. She succeeded her half brother, Edward VI, to the throne and married Philip II of Spain (May 21, 1527-September 13, 1598). She attempted to restore Catholicism to England but died childless and was succeeded by her protestant half sister, Elizabeth I. Biographies: among others, Bloody Mary by Carolly Erikson; Mary Tudor: A Life by David Loades; The First Queen of England: The Myth of “Bloody Mary” by Linda Porter; Mary Tudor, England’s First Queen by Anna Whitelock; others. Portraits: Numerous portraits exist, from girlhood on, although many once said to be Mary Tudor have since proven to be other ladies.
MARY OF HUNGARY (September 18, 1505-October 18, 1558)
Mary of Hungary was the daughter of Philip, archduke of Flanders and king of Castile (1478-1506) and Juana of Castile (November 16, 1479-April 12, 1555). She married Louis II of Hungary (1506-August 26, 1526) on January 13, 1522. They had no children. In 1530, upon the death of her aunt, Margaret of Austria, Mary’s brother, Charles V, appointed her regent of the Netherlands. She was generally pro-English, refusing to harbor Reginald Pole in 1537. In 1550, Roger Ascham, best known as Elizabeth Tudor’s tutor, wrote of Mary: “She is a virago . . . she is never so well as when she is flinging on horseback and hunting all the night long.” Once she made the seventeen day ride from Augsburg to Brussels in thirteen days. She was succeeded as regent by her niece, Margaret of Parma. Biography: Jane de Iongh,Mary of Hungary: Second Regent of the Netherlands (1959). Portraits: in addition to painted portraits, including a joint portrait with Louis of Hungary, there is a bust in the Kunthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS (December 8, 1542-February 7, 1587)
Mary Stewart was the daughter of James V (1513-December 14, 1542) and Marie of Guise (November 20, 1515-June 11, 1560) and the great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England. She was brought up in France and married to the dauphin, who became Francis II (January 19, 1544-December 5, 1560). Upon his death and the death of her mother, Mary returned to Scotland. There she married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (1545-1567) and gave birth to her only child, the future James VI and I (1566-1625). After Darnley’s murder, she married James Hepburn, earl of Bothwell (1536-1578), although this marriage was later nullified. Harried out of Scotland, she crossed into England on May 16, 1568, seeking the protection of her cousin, Elizabeth Tudor. Instead, she spent the rest of her life as Elizabeth’s prisoner and was eventually executed for conspiring to seize the throne. Biographies: There are several, but Antonia Fraser’s Mary, Queen of Scots is both engrossing and authoritative. Portraits: Many exist, dating from her girlhood in France through her captivity in England.
see MARGARET ELLERBEK
see BRIDGET BICKERDIKE
see ELIZABETH ISLEY
see DOROTHY HUSSEY
JENET MATHEW (d. 1535)
Jenet Mathew was the daughter of Thomas Mathew of Llandaf Court, Radyr, Glamorgan, Wales (d.1470) and Catrin Morgan. She married Thomas Stradling of St. Donat’s, Wales (1454-1480). Their children were Jane, Henry, Mary, Edward (1472-April 28, 1535), Katherine, and Siân. Numerous online genealogy sites give her date of death as 1485, but that is more likely when she remarried, since her second husband’s first wife was still living in 1484. He was Sir Rhys ap Thomas of Cantref, Carmarthenshire, Wales (1449-1525). His household in Wales included several Welsh poets. One, Ieuan Rudd, sang one of his poems at their wedding.They had no children. When Rhys married Jenet, he took charge of her son Edward, even though the boy’s wardship had been sold elsewhere. In 1488, he was charged with illegally assuming the wardship and keeping its profits—£208 over three years. Jenet went to court with her husband and was part of the entourage of Catherine of Aragon at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. Rhys was a very wealthy man. Between 1515 and 1525 his annual income exceeded 1000 marks and the value of his estate in 1525 was reckoned at over £638. He made his will on February 3, 1524 and died during the summer of 1525. This will specified that his widow be buried beside him in Greyfriars’ Church, Carmarthen. She was also charged with commissioning a silver cross for the parish church. She received almost all his holdings in Carmarthen, £100 in cash, linen and bedding, plate, and a life income from a third of the family estates, except those set aside as jointure for Rhys’ grandson’s wife. That income was protected when the grandson, Rhys ap Gruffydd, was attainted in November 1531. Jenet’s jointure in 1532 was worth about £91/year, £36 16s. 10d. from Carmarthen alone. Portrait: effigy on her husband’s tomb.
MARY OR MARIA MATHEW
see MARY OR MARIA WHITE
MARY MATHEWS (1517-1602)
Mary Mathews was the daughter of Thomas Mathews of Colchester, Essex. She married Thomas Langton of London (d.1551), a skinner. They had at least two daughters, Mary (d.1575) and Jane (d.1609). On February 7, 1551/2 she married Sir Andrew Judde (c.1490-September 7, 1558), who had been Lord Mayor of London the previous year. They had one daughter, Martha. Judde left his widow Ashford Manor and Esture, Kent (worth £73/year), Barden in Hertford, worth £40/year, and land in Surrey worth £28/year. Mary married James Altham (d.1583), another wealthy merchant, a former sheriff of London who was sheriff of Essex in 1570-1 and owned Mark Hall in Latton (now Harlow), Essex. Queen Elizabeth visited Mark Hall in 1571, 1576, and 1578. At her death, Lady Judde left some £2000 to be distributed in cash and a considerable number of household furnishings. She was buried with her third husband. Portraits: effigy on Judde tomb in St. Helen’s Bishopsgate; effigy on Altham tomb in St. Mary-at-Latton Church.
see FRANCES BARLOW
DOROTHY MAULEVERER (c.1526-March 1591)
Dorothy Mauleverer was the daughter of Robert Mauleverer of Woodsome (Wothersome), Yorkshire and Alice Markenfeld. On January 21, 1542, at sixteen, she married John Kaye of Woodsome (d. July 28, 1594). According to his entry in the Oxford DNB (he was a poet). Their children were Robert (c.1550-1620), Jane, Arthur, George (d. yng), John (d.yng), Anne (d.yng), Richard (d.1604), Edward, George, Anne, John, Dorothea, Beatrix, Francis (d.1601/2), Thomas, and Matthew (d.1610). In about 1587, John and Dorothy left Woodsome to their eldest son and moved to a smaller house at Slaithwaite. Ten of her sixteen children were still living when she died. She was buried at Almondbury, Yorkshire on March 31, 1590. Portrait: wooden panel, 1567, in the Tolson Museum, Huddersfield.
MARY MAUNSELL or MANSEL
see MARY DANIEL
JOYCE MAUNTSELL (d.1622)
Joyce Mauntsell was of Philliberts in the parish of Bray, Berkshire. She married William Goddard, citizen of London and member of the guild of fishmongers (d.1609). He was the founder of Jesus Hospital in Bray. Portrait: effigy in Bray Church.
ELIZABETH MAY (c.1565-June 1643)
Elizabeth May was the daughter of Richard May of Mayfield, Sussex (c.1530-December 30, 1588), a merchant tailor, and Mary Hillersdon (d. December 30, 1618). She married Sir Baptist Hicks (1551-October 18, 1629) on September 6, 1584 at All Hallows, Bread Street, London. He was a wealthy mercer and moneylender later created baron Hicks of Ilminster. Their children were Juliana (July 1586-November 26, 1680), Mary, Elizabeth, and three sons who died young. After 1608, they acquired Campden House in Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, from which he later took his title, viscount Campden. Campden left an estate valued at well over £100,000. Elizabeth wrote her will on February 14, 1642/3. She died before June 26, 1643. Portrait: effigy on the tomb Elizabeth erected to her husband and herself in the Church of St. James, Chipping Campden.
see JANE SONDES
see MARY HILLERSDEN
ALICE MAYE (d.1552+)
Alice Maye was the daughter of Robert Maye of Bocking, Essex (d. c.1514) and Alice Appleton (d.1538). Her name is given as “Lonzam” in the Visitation of Norfolk, but this is likely a mistranscription of Lavenham, home of her mother’s second husband, Thomas Spring. The will of her half brother, John Maye, dated August 12, 1517 and proved August 29, 1517, names Alice as his sister and leaves her £40, to be paid when she reached the lawful age of sixteen. Alice married Thomas Hayward or Heyword of Ipswich, Suffolk (d. January 1534), a merchant. Their children were William, Richard, Thomas (d.1567+), and Elizabeth. Elizabeth was left £26 13s. 4d. and two tenements in the parish of St. Nicholas by her father. Alice was one of his executors and inherited the house they lived in, another house occupied by Ralph Goodwin, all movable goods, and all debts owed Hayward, provided his were paid first. She was, however, subsequently sued by the bailiffs of Ipswich, who claimed that of £60 they delivered to Hayward for the fee farm of the town for 1532-3, he paid only £20 to the Crown and did not pay out the other £40, which was supposed to go to Queen Catherine as the widow of Arthur, Prince of Wales. By March 1539, Alice married Richard Fulmerson of Ipswich and (later) of Thetford, Norfolk (d. February 3, 1567). At the time of their marriage, he was understeward to Mary, duchess of Richmond and steward to Henry Howard, earl of Surrey. They had one daughter, Frances. Thanks to Nina Green at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com for much of this information.
see ALICE APPLETON
see FRANCES CAVENDISH
see SUSAN PEARSON
see JANE BUSSY
CATHERINE de’ MEDICI (April 13, 1519-January 5, 1589)
Catherine de’ Medici was queen, then queen mother of France. She was the daughter of Lorenzo, duke of Urbino (d. May 4, 1533) and Madeleine de la Tour d’Auvergne, countess of Boulogne (1516-April 28, 1533). After the death of her husband, Henri II (1519-1559) and that of her oldest son, Francis II (January 19, 1544-December 5, 1560), she served as regent for two younger sons, Charles IX (June 27, 1550-May 30, 1574) and Henri III (September 19, 1551-August 2, 1589). She hoped to convince Queen Elizabeth to become her daughter-in-law, and negotiations progressed as far as a visit to England in 1579 by François, duc d’Anjou and d’Alençon (March 18, 1555-June 19, 1584). Catherine herself never met Elizabeth Tudor. Her other children were Elizabeth, queen of Spain (April 2, 1545-October 3, 1568), Claude, duchess of Lorraine (November 12, 1541-February 21, 1575), Louis, duc d’Orleans (February 3, 1549-October 24, 1549), Marguerite, queen of Navarre and France (May 14, 1553-March 17, 1615), and twins, Victoria and Joan, born June 24, 1556, who died young. Biographies: Leonie Frieda’s Catherine de’ Medici: Renaissance Queen of France; R. J. Knecht’s Catherine de’ Medici; Irene Mahoney’s Madame Catherine. Portraits: numerous.
see MARGARET WOTTON
see MARY DANNETT
AGNES MELLORS (d.c.1514) (maiden name unknown)
Agnes Mellors was the widow of Richard Mellors of Nottingham (d.1507), a wealthy bell founder who was mayor of Nottingham in 1499-1500 and again in 1505-6 and had a house in Broad Street. After his death, she became a vowess and founded the Nottingham Free School in the parish of St. Mary. Although many online accounts say the school opened at Candlemas 1513, the letters patent from King Henry VIII are dated November 22, 1514 and were issued to Sir Thomas Lovell, treasurer of the household, and Dame Agnes Mellors, widow. She gave a tenement in St. Peter’s churchyard, let at £26 8s/year, with other tenements, to fund the school and she and the mayor chose the first schoolmaster. The family continued to leave bequests to the school for several decades and from these it appears Agnes and Richard were the parents of Robert (will dated July 16, 1515), Thomas (will dated August 16, 1535), Alice (John Heskay, her husband, wrote his will in 1558), and John (d.1558+). Elizabeth Gellestrope, probably another daughter, left two stables at the back side of Rotten Row to the use and maintenance of the school in 1543. Rebuilt in 1830, it continued to be used into the twentieth century. There have been numerous groups and places in Nottingham named after Agnes, including the Dame Agnes Mellors Pub.
DOROTHY MELTON (c.1506-September 21, 1557)
Dorothy Melton was the daughter and heiress of Sir John Melton of Aston (c.1470-February 26, 1545) and Catherine Hastings (c.1479-December 21, 1557). She married Sir George Darcy (1487-August 23, 1558). Their children were Thomas, Elizabeth (1537-December 26, 1577), John (1540-October 1602), Mary (c.1543-1588+),Agnes (d.c.1573), William, George, Edith (d. October 1585), and Dorothy. In early 1537, just after the Pilgrimage of Grace, Dorothy wrote to her husband, begging him to come home to her and their children because of the danger of further rebellion. He was created baron Darcy of Aston in 1548.
ELIZABETH MELVILLE (d.c.1640)
Elizabeth Melville was the daughter of Sir James Melville of Hallhill (1535/6-November 13,1617) and Christina Boswell. Her father wrote memoirs. Elizabeth wrote poetry and was also a deeply religious woman who supported exiled and excommunicated Presbyterian ministers. She married John Colville of Culros. Their children were Samuel, James, and Alexander (1620-1676). In his dedication to her of Hymnes, or, Sacred Songs (1599), protestant minister Alexander Hume makes reference to Elizabeth’s “copious” compositions. In 1603, her “Ane Godlie Dreame compylit in Scottish Meter bi M.M., Gentilwoman in Culros at the request of her freindis” was printed in Edinburgh. It was originally in Scots dialect but an English edition followed and the piece soon became a popular Calvinist tract. There were four editions by 1606 and it continued to be printed as late as 1644. An excerpt reads: “I looked up unto that Castle fair,/Glist’ring like gold and shining silver bright:/The stately towers did mount above the air;/They blinded me they cast so great a light./My heart was glad to see that joyful sight./My voyage then I thought was not in vain;/I him besought to guide me there aright,/With many vows never to tire again.” A number of her letters are also extant. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Melville, Elizabeth.”
see JANE KENNEDY
ANA de MENDOZA (June 29, 1540- February 2, 1592)
Ana de Mendoza de la Cerda was the only child and heir of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, duke of Francavilla (d. March 15, 1578) and his first wife, Catalina de Silva (d.1576). When her mother died, she left behind a library with three hundred books in Spanish, French, and Latin. In 1552, King Philip arranged for Ana to marry to Ruy Gómez de Silva, prince of Éboli (1516-July 29, 1573), a Portuguese nobleman living in Spain. They wed on April 18, 1553 in Madrid. The bridegroom accompanied King Philip to England in 1554 while Ana, still too young to consummate her marriage, remained in Spain. The story goes that, as a girl of fourteen, which would have been while her husband was in England, she lost the sight in her right eye in an accident while mock fencing with a page. Another version of the tale is that she wore a decorative eye patch because she was cross-eyed. In spite of the eye patch, which is shown in all of her portraits, she was considered one of the most beautiful women in Spain. Her children were Diego (c.1558-1563), Ana (1560-1610), Rodrigo (1562-1596), Pedro, Diego (1564-1630), Ruy, Fernando (1570-1639), Maria, and another Ana (1573-1614). She was at court during King Philip’s marriage to Elizabeth de Valois and was close friends with the queen. She had a number of titles, including princess of Éboli, countess of Mélito, duchess of Pastrana (her country estate), duchess of Francavilla, and countess of Aliano. After her husband died, Ana spent the next three years in a Carmelite convent. In 1576, she returned to court. There she became involved in various intrigues. Conflicting details make it difficult to sort out truth from fiction. One account has her attempting to place one of her children on the throne of Portugal. Another accuses her of an affair with Antonio Pérez (1540-1615), a protégé of her husband who was rumored to be his illegitimate son. Perez served as secretary to the king from 1566 and by 1576 was undersecretary of state. In 1578, Juan de Escobedo, secretary to Juan of Austria, the king’s illegitimate half brother, was murdered. On July 28, 1579, the princess of Éboli was arrested by order of Phllip II. Antonio Pérez was also arrested, but once again, stories vary. Was he arrested for the murder of Escobedo or for betraying state secrets or both? Was the princess arrested on either or both of those charges or was she accused of living an indecent lifestyle and mismanaging her money? Some accounts argue that her alliance with Pérez was entirely political. Whatever the truth, she was held in the castle at Santocray and later moved to a suite of rooms at Pastrana. Her youngest daughter, who later became a nun, shared her imprisonment, along with a few faithful servants. Pérez escaped from prison when his wife visited him and they exchanged clothes. He fled to England and later went to France and died in Paris. Ana spent thirteen years in confinement. Although she reportedly once accused her guards of trying to poison her, she died of natural causes. M. C. Bradbrook, in John Webster, susggests that Ana was the inspiration for Webster’s 1612/13 play, The Duchess of Malfi, set in 1504-1510 in the Italian state of Amalfi. Webster, who was born c.1580, could certainly have heard about the notorious princess of Éboli and her alleged lover and may have turned them into his duchess (who does not have a given name or surname in the play) and the man she secretly marries, a character named Antonio. Ana has appeared in other works of fiction, including the Verdi opera Don Carlos. Her great-great-granddaughter, Catherine of Braganza, married England’s King Charles II. Portraits: there are several, all showing her wearing an eye patch over her right eye.
see ELIZABETH FARTHING
BARBARA MERES (d.1642)
Barbara Meres was the daughter of Sir John Meres of Aubourn/Oldboro, Lincolnshire and Barbara Dallison. In 1603, she married Peter Eure or Evers of London and Washingborough, Lincolnshire (c.1549-June 12, 1612). Their children were Ralph (1604-1665), Edward, Thomas, Michael, and Barbara. Eure made his will on November 13, 1611, leaving his wife her jointure lands in South Langton, the manor of Washingborough, and household goods and plate. She continued to live at Washingborough until 1614, when she married Sir William Saltmarsh of Strubby (1578-16??). Their children were Edward, Thomas, William, Anthony, and Elizabeth. Barbara married William Godferey of Thoneoke (1577-October 4, 1657). Their children were William and Barbara.
see AMY CLARKE
see ELIZABETH MOMPESSON
LUCY MERVYN (c.1565-1609/10)
Lucy Mervyn was the daughter of Sir James Mervyn (Marvyn/Marvin) of Fonthill Gifford, Wiltshire (1529-May 1, 1611) and Amy Clarke (d.1575+). She married George Touchet, lord Audley of Heleigh (1551-February 20, 1617), who was created earl of Castlehaven in 1617. Their children were Mervyn, 2nd earl (c.1592-1631), Anne, Elizabeth, Mary (d.1611), Christian, Eleanor (d.1652), and Sir Ferdinand. Some of her correspondence is extant, including a letter to her half sister, Elizabeth Horne.
FRISWEDE METCALF (February 9, 1568/9-December 10, 1647)
Friswede Metcalf was the daughter of William Metcalf of Burford, Oxfordshire, who had one time served as mayor of New Woodstock. By 1597, she married William Bartholomew of Burford (February 1567-May 6, 1634), a successful dealer in silks and woolens. Their children were John (1598-1638), Mary (b.c.1599), William (1602-1680), Henry (c.1606-November 22, 1692), Richard (c.1610-1646), Francis (1614-before 1645), Thomas (1616-1645), Abraham (1620-1647), and Sarah (1623-1658). Friswede is buried in St. John’s Church, Burford. Portrait: a portrait traditionally identified as the Bartholomew family of Burford shows three generations: Friswede and William, his parents, John Bartholomew of Warborough, Oxfordshire (c.1527-1578) and Margaret Joyes (c.1531-1578), and seven children.
see ELIZABETH CLIFFORD
see ALICE HUTCHEN
FRANCES MEWTAS (d.1600+)
Frances Mewtas was the daughter of Sir Peter Mewtas (d.1562) and Jane or Joan Ashley (c.1517-c.1551?), both of whom served at the court of Henry VIII. She was at court, probably as a maid of honor, from 1558-1565. Her sister Cecily may have been a maid of honor at the same time. Frances was courted by Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford, before he made a secret marriage to Lady Catherine Grey in 1561. On February 10, 1566, she married Henry Howard (1542-January 16, 1591). They had a daughter, Douglas (January 29, 1571/2-1590). In 1578-80, as recounted in “The Privy Council and Private Morality,” by Lamar M. Hill (in State, Sovereign, and Society, edited by Charles Carlton), Robert Barbott of Dorchester and his wife were rebuked by the Privy Council for having used “some dishonest practices to brede discorde betwene Mr. Henry Howard and his wife.” There was apparently trouble in the marriage unrelated to their interference. Howard promised to reform his conduct, but did not do so. In September 1580, his father, Thomas Howard, viscount Howard of Bindon, was ordered by the Council to send Henry to court, accompanied by Frances, unless “his Lordship shall thincke she cannot convenientlie come in his company.” In that case, he was arrange for her to travel separately. Hill adds that Henry, who succeeded his father in 1582, “continued for another decade to visit on the Council his tortured relationship with his wife.” Before June 2, 1595, she married Edmund Stansfield of Stansfield.
FRANCES MEWTAS (d.1627)
Frances Meautas was the daughter of Hercules Mewtas (Meautas/Meautys) of West Ham, Essex (c.1548-1587), and Philippa Cooke. She was one of the last of the maids of honor of Queen Elizabeth’s reign. She married Edward Shute (some sources say Robert Shute of Hockington, Cambridgeshire). As a widow, she became the mistress of Robert Radcliffe, 5th earl of Sussex (June 12, 1569-September 22, 1629) and gave birth to his illegitimate daughter, Jane, in 1609. According to Charlotte Merton’s The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, Frances offered Mathias Evans £50/annum if he would use witchcraft, backed up by poison, to dispose of the countess of Sussex and two others. She threatened to shoot or stab Sussex if he attempted to reconcile with his wife, revealing that she carried a stiletto for this purpose. The plot was foiled when the countess brought charges of sorcery against Frances, but Frances does not appear to have been arrested. Although it was the last wish of Sussex’s estranged wife, Bridget Morrison, that he not marry his “concubine,” Sussex married her in December 1623 on the day after Bridget died.
JANE MEWTAS (1581-May 8, 1659)
Jane Meautas was the daughter of Hercules Meautas (Meautas/Meautys) of West Ham, Essex (c.1548-1587), and Philippa Cooke. She was a lady of the bedchamber to Anne of Denmark. To celebrate her marriage to Sir William Cornwallis of Brome Hall, Suffolk and London (c.1549-November 13, 1611) in 1608, Queen Anne gave Jane a jewel of gold with diamonds valued at £60. Jane and Sir William had a son, Frederick (1610-1661). Although Cornwallis’s entry in the History of Parliament states that he died with debts of nearly £4000, to be paid by selling off five manors, Jane was a wealthy widow. As his executrix, she had complete control of her property and her son’s upbringing. After a lengthy correspondence with Sir Nicholas Bacon of Redgrave, Suffolk, establishing her right to continue to manage her own affairs and retain control of an independent income. she married his youngest son, Nathaniel Bacon (1585-1627), in the spring of 1614. Nicholas was granted the Bacon family estate at Culford, Suffolk. Their children were Anne (b.1615), Nicholas (b.1617), and Jane (February 1624-1627). Later in life, Jane was named guardian of her brother Thomas’s son and her son Frederick’s children. Her private correspondence for the years 1613-1644 was published in 1842. A more recent edition of the letters was published in 2003, edited by Joanna Moody. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Bacon, Jane.” Portrait: full length portrait, artist unknown. NOTE: Oxford DNB entry (written by Joanna Moody) suggests that this sitter might be Jane’s mother-in-law, Anne Thornage, Lady Bacon, rather than Jane.
JANE or JOAN MEWTAS
see JANE or JOAN ASHLEY
see MARGARET BABTHORPE
MARGARET MEYRICK (d.c.1628)
Margaret Meyrick was the daughter of Gelly Meyrick or Merrick of Gellyswick, Hascard, Pembrokeshire (c.1556-x.March 13, 1601) and Margaret Lewys. Her father arranged her marriage to Sir John Vaughan of Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire (c.1575-May 6, 1634). They had at least two children, Richard (c.1600-December 3, 1686) and Elizabeth (d.c.1641). A few weeks before the earl of Essex’s rebellion, Margaret conveyed her father’s plate and chattels to her husband’s house. For having possession of this “treasure” she was included in her father’s attainder. He was executed. She and her surviving brother were restored in blood and name in 1606. Vaughan was created Baron Vaughan in 1621 and earl of Carbery in 1628. The date of Margaret’s death is uncertain but her husband had taken a second wife before his death in 1634.
see ALICE BROCK
MARGERY MIDDLECOTT (d. February 1588)
Margery or Margaret Middlecott was probably the daughter of Richard Middlecott of Bishopstow, Wiltshire (d. 1569), a wealthy clothier, and Margaret Stokes (d.1584). She married Thomas Burges (Bruges/ Bridges/ Brydges) of Leigh upon Mendip, Somerset (d.1543), who left money in his will to his weavers. Their children were Thomas (d.1622), James, and Elinor (d.1607). Margery married Phillip Cottington of Lydney, Gloucestershire (d.1562), another clothier, and lived with him in the same house she’d shared with Burges. Their children were John (d.1597), Phillip (d.1615), Edward (d.1608), James (d.c.1605), and Silvestre (d.1593+). Margery had a reputation as a shrewd businesswoman. It appears that she also favored her second family over the first and made certain agreements with her sons in an attempt to avoid future disputes over their inheritance. John was to be the only heir to his father’s estates. Phillip was to receive £1,700 to buy Godminster from Edward in return for Phillip renouncing any further claim on the mother’s estate. In 1573, she deeded that manor to Phillip and bought the parsonage of Shepton Montacute for her daughter Silvestre, by then the wife of Robert Dackombe (d. May 12, 1621). Silvestre apparently suffered from poor health and eventually went blind. In her will, Margery named her third son by Cottington, Edward, as her heir. At one point, Margery told Edward that his eldest brother John and his heirs were not to inherit any of her estate as John was “troublesome and contentious with many and especially with her.” After Edward died, Margery’s eldest son from her first marriage, Thomas Bridges, inherited her estate, including the mansion house at Leigh. Margery was buried in Leigh upon Mendip churchyard. My thanks to a member of the Bruges family, who kindly provided me with most of this information.
MARY MIDDLEMORE (d. January 3, 1617/18)
Mary Middlemore was the daughter of Henry Middlemore of Enfield, Middlesex (d. before 1594) and Elizabeth Fowke or Fowkes (d. December 1623). Her father, a groom of the chamber to Queen Elizabeth, leased Enfield in Middlesex from the queen in 1582 for fifty-one years. By 1595, Mary’s mother married Vincent Skinner (d. February 28,1616), who took over the lease (NOTE: Skinner’s entry in the History of Parliament calls Elizabeth the widow of Edward Middlemore of Enfield). By February 2, 1603/4, Mary was at court as one of the maids of honor to Queen Anne and served in that capacity until her death. Her brother Robert was an equerry to the king. In 1608, she received a grant of 1000 marks from King James. In 1610, a memorial was erected to her parents in Enfield even though her mother was still living. In 1617, Mary was granted a license to search by deputy for treasure trove and books in St. Albans, Glastonbury, St. Edmondsbury, and Romney. One third of anything she found was to go to the king. She was buried in Westminster Abbey on January 4, 1617/18.
ALICE MIDDLETON (c.1501-1563)
Alice Middleton was the daughter of John Middleton of Hitchin, Hertfordshire (1471-October 1509), a London mercer, and Alice Harpur (c.1474-1536). In 1511, her mother married Sir Thomas More, bringing Alice into the circle of More’s highly educated daughters. She was treated as his daughter “in other things and learning both.” In 1517, Alice married Thomas Erlington or Elrington of Willesden, Middlesex (1490-January 1523), a marriage arranged by More. Their children were Thomas (c.1520-1566), Simon, and John. In 1524, Alice married Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire (June 1499-August 22, 1586). Their four sons and six daughters included Elizabeth, Joan, and Sir Richard. Correspondence from 1534 between Alice Alington and Margaret More Roper is extant. Alice was buried with her second husband in Horseheath Church.
see ALICE HARPUR
HESTER MIDDLETON (d. January 26, 1614/15)
Hester Middleton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Middleton or Myddelton (1550-August 12, 1631), a wealthy merchant who was Lord Mayor of London in 1613 but had roots in Denbighshire, and his second wife, Jane (or Elizabeth) Danvers (d.1598+), although she seems to have been named after Myddelton’s first wife, Hester Saltonstall, who was buried on July 21, 1586 in St. Dunstan’s in the East, London. After 1595, the family lived in a house called The Bear in Tower Street. Hester married Sir Henry Salusbury or Salisbury (d. August 2, 1632). They had at least one child, Thomas (d.1643). Portrait: effigy in St. Mary’s Church, Stansted Mountfitchet, showing her in hunting clothes.
MAGDALEN MIDDLETON (d. November 30, 1591)
Magdalen Middleton may have been the daughter of Sir Robert Middleton of Leighton Hall, Arnshed, Westmorland, and Anne Betham, or of Robert Middleton, alderman and bailiff of Colchester, Essex (d.c.1579). She married Thomas Colt (1517-June 29, 1559), younger half brother of Sir Thomas More’s wife. Their six sons and four daughters included Catherine and John. In 1576, Magdalen erected a monument to her husband and herself in Waltham Abbey, Essex. According to David McKeen’s A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, Magdalen made several unsuccessful attempts between 1579 and 1587 to collect on a loan made to Lord Cobham by her late husband.
MARGARET MIDDLETON (1552/3-x. March 25, 1586)
Margaret Middleton was the daughter of Thomas Middleton (d.1567) and Jane Turner (c.1515-1585). She married John Clitherow on July 1, 1571. Their children were Henry (b.1572), Anne (1574-August 3, 1622), a daughter b.c.1576, and a son b.c.1581. In 1574, Margaret converted to Catholicism. From 1576, her husband paid regular fines for her recusancy. She was imprisoned in York Castle from August 1577-February 1578, again from October 1580-April 1581, and a third time from March 1583-winter 1585. While in prison, she learned to read. On March 10, 1586, she was arrested again, this time for harboring a priest, which had been made a treasonous offense in 1581. She was arraigned on March 14 and condemned to be pressed to death. The sentence ws carried out in the toll-booth on Ouse Bridge. Although some of her contemporaries suggested that she was insane, Margaret Clitherow became a martyr and a role model for other recusants. She was canonized in 1970. Biographies: K. Longley’s Saint Margaret Clitherow (1986); Oxford DNB entry under “Clitherow [née Middleton], Margaret.” Portraits: engravings showing her martyrdom; likenesses made after her death.
see MARGARET PRATT
BLANCHE MILBORNE (d.1557)
Blanche Milborne was the daughter of Simon Milborne of Tillington, Herefordshire and Jane Baskerville. She was bilingual, born in England but living in a Welsh environment. In 1494, she married James Whitney of Whitney and Pen-cwm (c.1466-June 30, 1500). Her dowry was the manor of Ilcomb in Gloucestershire. Their children were Robert (c.1495-1540/1), Elizabeth, James, Watkin or Walter (d. yng) and Anne (d. yng.) She married William Herbert of Troy Parva (d. April 1524). Their three sons included Charles (c.1501-1557) and Thomas (d. October 8, 1588). In August 1502, they entertained King Henry VII and Elizabeth of York at Troy House near Monmouth. They were frequent guests of the duke of Buckingham at Thornbury. In 1516, William Herbert was knighted. In the late 1520s and early 1530s, Blanche was probably part of the countess of Worcester’s household and may have acted as governess to the earl’s children. She may have been put in charge of Princess Mary’s household as early as 1531, when Mary was separated from her mother, Catherine of Aragon. Sometimes referred to as Lady Herbert and other times as Lady Troy, Blanche was the one charged with giving both Princess Elizabeth and Prince Edward their earliest lessons. In each household in turn she became Lady Mistress when Lady Bryan relinquished that post. She carried Elizabeth’s train at the christening of Prince Edward in 1537. She was still in the Lady Elizabeth’s household as late as 1545 but had left by the time King Henry died in 1547. Lady Troy retired to Troy House, living there into her late seventies. Biography: The information above is condensed from the account in the biography of Blanche Milborne’s niece and goddaughter, Blanche Parry, Ruth Elizabeth Richardson’s Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth’s Confidante. Other sources tend not to mention Blanche Milborne in connection with either Mary or Elizabeth.
see JOAN HILL
CHRISTIAN MILDMAY (1580-1627)
Christian Mildmay was the daughter of Sir Walter Mildmay of Apethorpe, Northamptonshire (1520-May 31, 1589) and Mary Walsingham (d. March 16, 1576). On June 12, 1578, she married Charles Barrett of Belhus or Bellhouse, Essex (1555-August 8, 1584). Their children were Anne (b. 1579), Edward (June 21, 1581-December 1644), Walter (b. 1583) and Dorothy. On July 9, 1586, she married Sir John Leveson of Haling and St. Anne’s Blackfriars (d. November 7, 1615). Their children were Rachel, John, Thomas, Elizabeth, Richard, Mary, Christian, Frances, Henry, and Francis. Rachel, Richard and Francis were mentioned in their father’s will, made on August 4, 1615 and proved on November 10, 1615. He left them each £3000 and left his wife £200/year. Christian also left a will.
see FRANCES RADCLIFFE
see GRACE SHERRINGTON
MARY MILDMAY (1582-1640)
Mary Mildmay was the daughter and heir of Sir Anthony Mildmay of Apethorpe, Northamptonshire (c.1549-September 2, 1617) and Grace Sharington (1552-July 27, 1620). Her worth as an heiress was £3000/year and she could anticipate inheriting another £1200/year from her mother. In 1599, she married Francis Fane of Badsell, Tudeley, Kent (1580- March 23, 1629). Their children were Mildmay (January 24, 1602-February 12, 1666), Thomas (d.yng.), Francis (c.1611-1681?), Anthony (1613-1643), George (c.1616-1663), William, Robert, Grace, Mary, Elizabeth, Rachael, Frances, and Catherine. Their principal residence was in Mereworth, Kent. Fane was created earl of Westmorland in 1624 and succeeded to his mother’s title as Baron le Despenser in 1626. In his will, dated December 8, 1628, he named his wife as executor. He left each of his two unmarried daughters a portion of £3000. Portrait: unknown artist, unknown date (part of pair with her husband).
THOMASIN MILDMAY (c.1512-May 20, 1579+)
Thomasin Mildmay was the daughter of Thomas Mildmay of Chelmsford, Essex (d.c.1547) and Agnes Read (d.1557). In about 1540, she married Anthony Bourchier of Barnsley, Gloucestershire (d. July 13, 1551), auditor to Queen Kathryn Parr. Their three sons and one daughter included Thomas (c.1542-before January 29, 1579/80) and Edward (d.1554+). Thomasin married William Thomas of London and Llanthomas, Wales (x. May 18,1554) as his second wife. They had one daughter, Anne (d.1566+). On March 31, 1553, he was granted her eldest son’s wardship. In December of that year he was alleged to have committed treason by discussing Queen Mary’s death. In February 1554, his property was seized and he was in the Tower. On the night of February 25/26, he tried to kill himself with a bread knife. He was tried on May 9 and executed nine days later by being hanged, drawn, and quartered. On December 13, 1554, Queen Mary granted Thomasin all her late husband’s goods and the manor of Garway and other lands in Herefordshire, including the prebend of Nunnington. She was later sued in Chancery by Henry Welsh, the Lord Chancellor’s chaplain, who claimed he’d been promised the next vacancy there.
BRIDGET MILL (d.1546+)
Bridget Mill was the daughter of John Mill or Mills (c.1475-May 3, 1551), town clerk of Southampton, and his wife Alice. In 1539, she married John Huttoft (d.1542/3) of Southampton. They had three daughters. When Huttoft’s brother-in-law, Antonio Guidotti, left the country owing enormous debts, the entire family was condemned to years of financial difficulties. Because of this, Bridget did not prove her husband’s will until 1561. In 1543, she married Nicholas Thorne (d. August 19, 1546), benefactor of the Bristol grammar school, as his second wife. Their children were Bridget and John. Her third husband was James Paget. Portrait: memorial brass with her second husband and his first wife, now in Bristol Grammar School.
AVICE MILLITON (c.1537-1600+)
Avice Milliton was one of the six daughters of Job Milliton (Milton/Myllayton/Myliton) of Pengerswick Castle (d.1547+) and Avice Dennis (d.1551). When her only brother, William, died in 1565, the estate was divided among his sisters. Avice married Richard Erisey of Erisey House in the parish of Grade, Cornwall (c.1531-April 6, 1570). Their children were James (June 18, 1555-February 3, 1601), Julian, Alice, and Anne. On January 26, 1600, she married Sir Nicholas Parker (d.1603), governor of Pendennis Castle. Her sister, Elinor Milliton (1545-January 20,1628), was married to a later governor of Pendennis Castle, Captain John Bonython.
ELIZABETH MILLS (d.1610)
Elizabeth Mills’s mother’s first name appears to have been Bridget. On April 12, 1539 in St. Pancras, Soper Lane, Elizabeth married Richard King (d. 1545). Their children were Catherine (b.1540), Mary (b.1542), and John. In 1545, she married Thomas Worthington (d.1547) in St. Margaret’s, Westminster. On November 16, 1547, she married Walter Fish or Fyshe (d.1585), citizen and Merchant Taylor of London. Their nine children included Richard (d.1555), Cornelius (d.1626), Philip (d.1578+), and Elizabeth (November 19, 1558-1578+). Fish was the queen’s tailor from 1558-1582. He made his will in September 1578, leaving his widow occupancy of their dwelling house in Blackfriars for life along with a life interest in a lease in Shalford, Essex. The wording of this document indicates that Fish had Puritan leanings. He was buried in St. Antholin on July 26, 1585. Probate was granted to Elizabeth on November 27, 1585. On June 29, 1589, she married Henry Jay (d.1601) as his second wife. Elizabeth was buried at St. Antholin on June 21, 1610.
see AGNES HOWE
see ALICE SQUIRE
see ELIZABETH DONNE
MARY MIRFYN (d.1542)
Mary Mirfyn was the daughter of Sir Thomas Mirfyn (d.1523), Lord Mayor of London in 1518, and (probably) his first wife, Alice Marshall, although some genealogies say her mother was his second wife, Elizabeth Don or Donne. By 1523, she was already married (or at least betrothed to) Sir Andrew Judde (c.1490-September 4, 1558). Their children were John, Richard, Andrew, Thomas, Elizabeth and Alice (c.1533-1592/3). Mary is sometimes confused with Sir Andrew’s third wife, Mary Mathews. November 14, 1550, the alternate date of death sometimes given for Mary Mirfyn, is more likely to be the date of death of Sir Andrew’s second wife, Agnes.
see ANNE AUCHER
MARGARET or ELLEN MITCHELL (d.1545+)
Margaret (called Ellen or Helen by the Oxford DNB) Mitchell was the daughter of William Mitchell and Margaret Cromwell (genealogies) or of John Mitchell of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire (DNB and History of Parliament). She married Ralph or Matthew (DNB) Barré or Barr, a London tradesman who abandoned her and their two children. Some accounts say that she worked as a laundress in the household of Thomas Cromwell, later earl of Essex, but as he may have been her cousin (Margaret Cromwell was his aunt), she it is more likely she was his dependent. It was there that she met Sir Ralph Sadler/Sadlier/Sadleir of Hackney, Middlesex and Standon, Hertfordshire (1507-March 30, 1587). Since Barré had gone abroad and was presumed dead, she married Sadler around 1533. Their children were Thomas (1534-January 5, 1606/7), Edward (1537-April 4, 1584), Henry (1539-March 17, 1618), Anne (d.1576), Mary, Dorothy (d.1578+), and Jane (d.c.1587). When her first husband turned up, inconveniently alive, it required a private act of Parliament in 1546 to legitimize them.
see ALICE BENTLEY
see DOROTHY CHUDLEIGH
EDITH MOHUN (1566-1628)
Edith Mohun was the daughter of William Mohun of Hall and Bocconoc, Cornwall (c.1540-April 6, 1588) and his first wife, Elizabeth Horsey. She married Sir Ralph Horsey of Clifton Maybank, Dorset (1550-November 11, 1612). They had five sons and three daughters, including George (1577-1640) and Grace. Peter Coles (or Colse) dedicated his Penelope’s Complaint to Lady Horsey in 1596, also praising Sir Ralph and Grace, but there was more than the hope of a reward behind the gesture. Although facts are scarce after all this time, the rumor persists that there was a scandal involving Rafe Horsey and Sir Walter Raleigh, and that the entire Horsey family had been offended by an earlier poem by Henry Willoughby, another Oxford scholar. Willobie his Avisa (1594) may have used Sir Ralph, who was Lord Lieutenant of Dorset, as the model for the “nobleman” who tries and fails to win Avisa, the virtuous innkeeper’s wife.
see MARTHA DORSETT
see AURELIA FLORIO
see MARY CARYLL
see ELIZABETH SOUTHWELL
see CATHERINE PAKINGTON
ELIZABETH MOMPESSON (d. September 25, 1581)
Elizabeth Mompesson was one of the four daughters of John Mompesson of Bathampton, Wiltshire (d. May 3, 1511) and Alice Lye or Leighe (d. between 1513 and 1516). In about 1525, she married Sir Richard Perkins or Parkyns of Ufton Robert Manor and West Court Manor, Berkshire (1500-1560). She was responsible for saving his life on June 10, 1534, when a hot-tempered neighbor, Sir Humphrey Forster of Aldermaston House, burst into Ufton Robert Manor and assaulted him. Forster had already assaulted Francis Perkins, Richard’s brother, and taken him prisoner, and had drawn his sword, threatening Richard, when Elizabeth intervened and somehow persuaded him to leave. He took Francis with him, however, and imprisoned him overnight at Aldermaston. Richard and Francis’s wife brought suit against Forster but the results are not known. More details can be found at http://www.berkshirehistory.com/villages/padworth.html. The court transcripts indicate that Elizabeth and Richard had young children in 1534, but they had died before January 26, 1558/9, when Richard made his will. He left Elizabeth custody of two of his late brother William’s children, Francis and Dorothy. Elizabeth married her second cousin, Sir John Mervyn of Fountell-Gifford, Wiltshire (1501-June 19, 1566) as his second (or possibly third) wife. Their children were Jane and Eleanor, both of whom died young. Sir John’s will left Elizabeth all she had brought to their marriage plus the manors of Fountell Stoppe, Stop Fountell, and Compton Basset. His oldest son, James, claimed it had been written by Elizabeth and a priest, William Gyll and brought suit against them for forgery. Elizabeth’s witnesses were “servingmen, handmaidds, ladds, and girles.” At the time Sir John died, there was a “wooing” in progress between his daughter, Margaret Mervyn, and Francis Perkins (c.1549-1615), Lady Mervyn’s nephew and ward. They later married. In her lengthy will (dated July 24, 1581 and proved September 27, 1581), she made them her heirs. She also left instructions, contrary to those in Sir John’s will, that she be buried beside her first husband at Ufton. In addition, she left what is known as the Ufton Dole, which is still distributed today. This is said to have been given in gratitude for finding her way back home after becoming lost in the woods.
see ELIZABETH OGLETHORPE
see MARY HOWARD
DOROTHY MONK (1564-1633+)
Dorothy Monk was the daughter of Sir Thomas Monk or Monck of Potheridge, Devon (c.1515-before August 20, 1583) and his second wife, Elizabeth Patswell or Powell. Some online genealogies give her name as Elizabeth Smyth. Before 1582, Dorothy married John Killigrew of Arwennack (c.1554-August 12, 1605). They had nine sons and five daughters, including John (1582-1633), Thomas, Henry, Grace, Peter (1593-1617), Walter, Maria, Simon, Dorothy, Odelia, and William (1600-1665). Killigrew was a somewhat notorious character who ran through her fortune, had dealings with pirates, and was involved in other nefarious activities. In 1582, Dorothy received stolen goods after a raid orchestrated by her mother-in-law on a ship at anchor in Falmouth harbor (see the entry for Mary Wolverston for details). In 1587, Dorothy’s husband was charged with robbery of a Danish merchant ship that had taken refuge in Falmouth to escape a French corsair. His uncle, Sir Henry Killigrew, made restitution for him. In 1595, John was summoned to London to answer charges of piracy and debt and in 1598, at a time when he kept a London house in Canon Row and had another house in Falmouth, he was sent to Fleet Prison on charges of piracy and treason, although some accounts say he remained there for debt. On September 7, 1599, Dorothy visited Dr. Simon Forman the astrologer. In his notes he recorded that she was thirty-five and pregnant. In 1601, Dorothy complained to the Privy Council that Sir Nicholas Parker, captain of Pendennis Castle, had cut down their woods while her husband was in prison. Killigrew died there four years later. Dorothy was still living in 1633 when she was named in the will of her son John.
see FRANCES PLANTAGENET
see MARGARET STEWART
see ELEANOR ROPER
see ELIZABETH HARINGTON
see LORA BERKELEY
see ROBERDA LORGES
KATHERINE de MONTOYA (d.1520+) (maiden name unknown)
The name Katherine de Montoya is on the list of Spanish ladies who remained in England with Catherine of Aragon in 1501. She may be identical with Catalina de Cardones/Katherine Cardenas, sometimes said to be one of Catherine’s maids of honor and frequently confused with her slave, Catalina, but in a list of those remaining in England in 1500, Katherine Cardenas is listed in Elvira Manual’s household as chief lady in waiting and Katherine de Montoya is listed separately as part of Catherine of Aragon’s household. Katherine de Montoya held a post equivalent to that of Mother of Maids. She is listed as Catherine Mountoria among Catherine’s ladies at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, together with one woman servant. Her son, Juan de Montoya, who had lived in England all his life, joined the household of Eustace Chapuys, ambassador of Charles V, when Chapuys arrived in England in 1529. He had previously been a gentleman usher to the queen.
see DEBORAH DUNCH
see DOROTHY SOUTHWELL
JANE MOORE (d.1558+)
Jane Moore was one of three daughters of John Moore of Dunclent, Worcestershire (d.1535) and Eleanor Milborne. By 1534, she was married to James Dingley and the lease on property at Northleach, Gloucestershire had been settled on them as part of her jointure. By 1539, this belonged to Jane and her second husband, Michael Ashfield (d.1540/1), a gentleman from Hetrop, Oxfordshire. By 1546, Jane was married to Thomas Parker of London (d.1558). In April of that year they acquired the lease on the manor of Northleach. By the following year, he had purchased nearby Notgrove Manor. In his will, made August 15, 1558 and proved December 15, he named Jane as executor, to enjoy the revenues of his lands for life, and left bequests to their three sons, Edmund, Thomas, and Michael, and his stepchildren. They also had a daughter, Mary. The notoriously speculative The Other Tudors: Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards by Philippa Jones, offers the theory that Jane (or Joan) Moore was the Joanna Dyngley whose illegitimate daughter, raised as Ethelreda (or Audrey) Malte, was actually one of the king’s bastards. She also speculates that Jane was the royal mistress who so infuriated Anne Boleyn that she tried to send her away from court. Jones’s argument, in which she mistakes James Dingley for Jane’s second husband, is that Dingley had recently died when his widow began an affair with the king c.1534. Jones then gives Eltheleda’s birth date as June 23, 1535. To overcome the difficulty of the will of John Malte, which clearly states that Joanna Dyngley, Ethelreda’s mother, was married to a man named Dobson in 1547, Jones explains that the person who copied the will misread “alias Dobson” as a reference to a husband when it was, in fact, a reference to the Moore family’s lands, variously spelled Douklin or Dunkelyn. This seems a stretch, especially when Jane Moore’s life is so well documented otherwise. Jones provides no explanation for how she might have come to the king’s attention. It does not seem likely that she’d have been at court, even if she was in London before her marriage to Parker.
ODELIA DE MORADA (c.1563-1590+)
Odelia de Morada is said by most sources to be the daughter of John de Morada, Marquis of Bergen Op Zoom. Searching online for this name I encountered a number of frustrations. Lists of those who ruled this district did not use the name Morada at all. A Maria Margaretha, of “House Merode,” was listed by Wikipedia as Margrave from 1577-88, but that didn’t seem quite right, either. According to the entry in Carole Levin, et al, editors, A Biographical Encyclopedia of Early Modern Englishwomen, Odelia was being pressured to marry a Spanish Catholic cousin in around 1588 but was already romantically involved with Thomas Knollys (c.1558-c.1596), an Englishman serving in the Netherlands. She took matters into her own hands by arranging for herself and her sister to be abducted from Dordrecht on January 3, 1589. Knollys’cousin, Thomas Morgan (c.1542-1595) assisted in the kidnapping and married the sister, Anna (January 9, 1565-October 8, 1634). The Biographical Encyclopedia goes on to say that Odelia’s mother sent a warship after them and complained to the States-General but that English emissaries from Queen Elizabeth defended the runaways and that Thomas and Odelia remained in Bergen until after the christening of their daughter, Penelope, in June 1589. Thomas Morgan’s entry in the History of Parliament gives his wife’s father’s name as Jan, baron von Merode. A search for that name yielded information (in translation) that appears to solve the mystery. Jan was Johan IX or IV Walraet of Merode-Pietersheim (d. August 20, 1601). His first wife was Mencia van Glymes van Bergen (d.1561), daughter of Anton van Glymes van Bergen, marquis of Bergen op Zoom. It would appear that Jan claimed the title through his wife after her childless brother died in 1567. It was his second wife, Margaretha van Pallant (d.1593), to whom he was married in 1563, who was Odelia and Anna’s mother. Anna’s second husband was Justinus van Nassau Dillenberg (1559-1631).
see EDITH LATIMER
see JOAN FERMOR
MARGARET MORDAUNT (c.1509-1576+)
Margaret Mordaunt was the daughter of John Mordaunt, 1st baron Mordaunt of Turvey (1490-August 18,1562) and Elizabeth de Vere (c.1491-before 1584). In about 1526, she married Edmund Fettiplace of Besselsleigh, Berkshire (c.1505-April 1, 1540). Their children were John (1526/7-December 25, 1580), Thomas (1540-February 15, 1616), George (1534-July 21, 1577), Edward or Edmund, William, Elizabeth, Jane , Anne (d. August 16, 1568), and Dorothy. By 1542, she married Thomas Denton of Hillesden, Buckinghamshire (d. October 3, 1558), a lawyer and MP. Their children were Alexander (1542-76) and Alice. According to Denton’s will, dated July 20, 1557, Margaret was to have Hillesden for life. Alexander would inherit it upon her death, along with his father’s library. His wardship was granted to his mother in November 1559. When Alexander died, his mother erected a monument to him in Hillesden Church. Portraits: brass with her first husband in All Saints, Marcham; marble effigy with her second in All Saints, Hillesden.
see AGNES HUSSEY
ALICE MORE (d.1544/5)
Alice More was the daughter of Sir John More of Loseley and his wife Isabel. She married William Huntingdon of Exeter. Her second husband was named Clarke. She married Sir John More (1451-1530), Sir Thomas More’s father, and his fourth wife. Dame Alice More was left the manor of Gobions in North Mimms, Hertfordshire, but she was expelled from the property in 1534 when her stepson was arrested. She died at Northall, Hertfordshire.
see ALICE HARPUR
ANNE MORE (1584-August 15, 1617)
Anne More was the daughter Sir George More (November 8, 1553-October 16, 1632) and Anne Poynings (d.1590). In 1600, she was part of the household of her aunt, Lady Egerton (Elizabeth More), when that lady died. Unsupervised, the girl fell in love and eloped with Egerton’s secretary, John Donne (1573-March 31, 1631) in early December 1601. They were married by Donne’s friend Rev. Samuel Brooke and Brooke’s brother Christopher witnessed the ceremony. Keeping the marriage secret, she returned to her father’s house at Loseley until Donne’s letter of February 2, 1601 to his father-in-law announced the true state of affairs. Donne was briefly imprisoned in the Fleet and lost his position with Egerton. This supposedly inspired the epigram “John Donne—Anne Donne—undone.” After the Archbishop of Canterbury ruled the marriage legal, More allowed his daughter to join her husband but did not release her dowry. They were taken in by Anne’s cousin, Francis Wolley (Lady Egerton’s son by an earlier marriage), and lived in his house at Pyrford. Later they moved to Mitcham, Surrey. Their twelve children included Constance (b.1603), John (1604-1662/3), Francis (b.1607), Lucy (1608-1627), Bridget (b.1609), and Mary (1611-1614). In November 1611, Donne went abroad, leaving his wife and children behind. Anne went to stay with a younger sister on the Isle of Wight. On Donne’s return, the family lived in London, where Anne died after giving birth to a stillborn child.
see ANNE CRESACRE
see CATHERINE PAKINGTON
CECILY MORE (1507-1540+)
Cecily More was the daughter of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) and Jane Colte (1488-1511). She is best known for having been given an unusually fine education and for her presence in various More family portraits. Her father is the subject of numerous biographies, most of which say little about his daughters beyond praising their scholarship. In 1525, Cecily married Giles Heron (x. August 4, 1540) who, like her father, was executed for treason. Their children were Thomas, John, and Alice. Some sources say Edmund and Jane instead of John and Alice. C. J. Sisson in The Boar‘s Head Theatre (1972), says that Heron was granted the manors of Stepney and Hackney by the Bishop of London, which meant they probably lived in Shacklewell House in Stepney until it was lost upon Heron’s attainder. Herbert Berry, in a note in his The Boar‘s Head Playhouse (1986) maintains that Heron did not own either manor, only a house and lands in the manor of Hackney. Portraits: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1526/7, in which she is pregnant; family portraits by Holbein and Rowland Lockey.
CECILY MORE (d.1607+)
Cecily More was the daughter of John More of Crabbet Worth, Sussex and Canon Row, Westminster (d. January 19, 1580/81) and Agnes Moulton (1530-February 28, 1557). By 1572, she married Henry Audley of Knighton, Dorset and Fawley, Hampshire (d. November 12, 1606). They had two daughters. In 1605, he settled most of his lands in Dorset on Cecily and in his will, dated November 6, 1616, left her his Hampshire property, including Fawley, as well. She was named sole executor. Her surviving daughter contested the will, but on November 13, 1607 the judgment went in Cecily’s favor.
see DOWSABELL PAGET
ELIZABETH MORE (September 12, 1482-1538)
Elizabeth More was the daughter of Sir John More (c.1451-1530) and Agnes Graunger (d.1499) and the sister of Sir Thomas More. By 1504, she married John Rastell of London (c.1475-1536). Their children were John (d.1536+), Joan (1504-1574), William (1508-1565) and another daughter. Her husband was absent for two years when he attempted to sail to the New World. He only got as far as Ireland. Later, he set up as a printer in various locations. In 1519, he was at Paul’s Gate in Cheapside. From 1515, the family had a country house at Monken Hadley, near Elizabeth’s father’s house. In 1524, they built a house in Finsbury Fields. Rastell also built a stage for plays, the first such in London. In 1536, he was arrested for denying the clergy’s right to tithes. He wrote his will on April 20 and it was proved July 13.
ELIZABETH MORE (1506-1564)
Elizabeth More was the daughter of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) and Jane Colte (1488-1511). She is best known for having been given an unusually fine education and for her presence in various More family portraits. Her father is the subject of numerous biographies, most of which say little about his daughters beyond praising their scholarship. Elizabeth married William Dauncey (Dauntesey/Daunce/Dauncer) (c.1505-May 28, 1548). Their children were John (b.1525), Thomas, Bartholomew, William, Germain, Alice, and Elizabeth. They lived at Canons Park, Middlesex and in London. After1543 the were at Cassiobury, Hertfordshire. Portraits: drawing by Hans Holbein the Younger (inscribed “Lady Barkley”); family portraits by Holbein and Rowland Lockey.
ELIZABETH MORE (April 28, 1552-January 21, 1600)
Elizabeth More was the eldest daughter of Sir William More of Loseley, Surrey (1527-July 1600) and his second wife, Margaret Daniell (d. before 1595). She married Richard Polstead of Albury, Surrey (June 24, 1545-March 31,1576) in Blackfriars, London on November 3, 1567. Accounts of the wedding expenses can be found in an article by John Evans, “The Wedding of Richard Polsted and Elizabeth, Daughter of William More of Loseley, Surrey,” in Archaeologia 36 (1855), pp. 35-53. The wedding festivities lasted from November 3 until November 17. They had no children. Elizabeth was her husband’s principal heir and executor. Early in her widowhood, she was courted by Tobie Mathew, later Archbishop of York, but she married Sir John Wolley of Thorpe and Pyrford, Surrey (d. February 28, 1595/6), Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth. She was his second wife. They had at least one son, Sir Francis Wolley (1583-November 7, 1609). Wolley was a member of the Privy Council from 1586. In the 1590s, Elizabeth was a lady of the privy chamber. The queen nicknamed her “sweet apple.” Loseley was built during the period 1562-8 and Elizabeth’s father entertained the queen there on at least four occasions, in 1569, 1576, 1583, and 1591. Although these dates were after his daughter married, she was likely present. The queen frequently sent messages to Sir William through Elizabeth when she lived with her second husband at court and some of this correspondence is still extant. In 1594, when her father suddenly fell gravely ill, Elizabeth left court. An undated letter, probably written before 1595 and quoted in the entry for More in the History of Parliament, indicates that Elizabeth’s mother had died.He had given the queen a gown as a gift and when she wore it she took occasion to speak to Elizabeth of her father, saying “ere long I should find a mother-in-law [stepmother], which was herself; but she was afraid of the two widows that are there with you that they would be angry with her for it, and that she would give ten thousand pounds you were twenty years younger, for she had but few such servants as you are.” Another letter from1595 was written after the queen heard that More had not been able to find lodging at court, which was then on progress, and had been obliged to make a night journey home. She sent him three partridges by way of apology. Unfortunately, as Elizabeth tells her father, a hawk belonging to Sir Robert Cecil killed the birds before they could be delivered. She begs him to pretend to the queen that he received them. In the same letter she tells him that the queen has asked her to send for her son to come to court but that she intends to ignore the command. The boy was apparently with Sir William because Elizabeth also asks her father to make sure his tutor makes him practice his French, lest the royal command be renewed. In 1597, according to the History of Parliament, she “privately” married Sir Thomas Egerton of Lincoln’s Inn, York House and Harefield, Middlesex (1540-March 15, 1617) as his second wife. At the time of Elizabeth’s death, the earl of Essex was being held in York House and was thought to be dying. He recovered. The History of Parliament states that Lady Egerton’s “early loss” was “a crushing blow” to her husband. She was buried with her second husband, but there is a monument to her memory in the Loseley Chapel of St. Nicholas’s Church, Guildford. Her son, Francis Wolley, left £4000 in his will for a monument to his parents and himself in St. Paul’s Cathedral, London and made provision for their bodies to be moved there.
FRANCES MORE or MOORE
see FRANCES BROOKE
KATHERINE MORE (1586-June 1622+)
Katherine More was the youngest daughter of Jasper More of Larden Hall, Shropshire (1547-January 27, 1613) and Elizabeth Smale or Small. According to her later claims, Katherine entered into a precontract with one of her father’s tenants, Jacob Blakeway of Brockton (1583-1620). On February 5, 1610, however, to keep control of an inheritance, she married her seventeen-year-old cousin, Samuel More of Linley Hall, Shipton, Shropshire (September 9, 1594-May 3, 1662). Over the next few years, Katherine gave birth to four children—Ellen or Elinor (May 1612-November 1620), Jasper (August 1613-December 1620), Richard (November 1614-April 30, 1696), and Mary (April 1616-1620/1)—who all looked like Jacob Blakeway. By a deed dated April 20, 1616, Samuel disowned the children and broke the entail on the Larden estate. Katherine responded by claiming a precontract to Blakeway and asking that her marriage to Samuel be annuled. This was denied, but Samuel was granted a separation in 1619 which was confirmed on appeal in 1620. That was as close to a divorce as was possible under the law at that time. Katherine kept her dower rights, but neither party could remarry in the lifetime of the other. Samuel, as the children’s legal father, was granted custody. At first he housed them with his tenants. Katherine made several unsuccessful attempts to get them back while lived with Blakeway at Larden. Blakeway was forced to leave when Samuel charged him with trespass. Samuel was awarded £400 in damages, an amount Blakeway could not pay. Katherine had to be granted a royal pardon in March 1617 to avoid the punishment for adultery. It may have been as late as early 1622 before she learned what had happened to her children. In 1620, through the connivance of Lord Zouche, who employed him as a secretary, Samuel arranged for them to be delivered to Thomas Weston, agent for the Merchant Adventurers for the Mayflower voyage. Weston placed them, as servants, in separate Pilgrim households. All but Richard died their first winter in Plimoth Plantations. The last mention of Katherine in surviving records is in June 1622. Samuel More remarried on June 11, 1625, but in February 1626 he received a pardon, suggesting that his first wife might still have been living at the time of his marriage.
MARGARET MORE (1505-1544)
Margaret More was the eldest daughter of Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) and Jane Colte (1488-1511). She is best known for having been given an unusually fine education. Her scholarship was praised by contemporaries and successive generations alike. She is also known for having rescued her father’s head when it was removed from the spikes at London Bridge. She is said to have kept it until her death and passed it on to one of her daughters. Her father is the subject of numerous biographies, most of which say little about his daughters beyond praising their scholarship. Margaret married William Roper (1498-1578). Their children were Elizabeth (1523-1560), Mary (d. March 20,1572), Margaret (1526-1578), Thomas (1533-1598), and Anthony (1544-1597). Biographies: E. E. Reynolds, Margaret Roper; John Guy, A Daughter’s Love: Thomas More and His Dearest Meg (2009); Oxford DNB entry under “Roper [née More], Margaret.” Portraits: miniature by Hans Holbein the Younger; the original 1527 Hans Holbein painting of the More family is lost, but a preliminary drawing still exists, as does a copy made by Rowland Lockey c.1592. Lockey also painted two versions of the descendants of Sir Thomas More, adding successive generations.
see MARIA or MARY SCROPE
MARY MORE (May 1582-1615)
Mary More was the daughter of Sir George More of Loseley, Surrey (November 8, 1553-October 16, 1632) and Anne Poynings (d.1590). In May 1596, Lord Cobham proposed a marriage between Mary and his grandson and ward, Francis Coppinger (c.1579-1626+). The young man was sent to Loseley to meet his prospective bride and after the visit sent her a pair of gloves as a love-token. Plans were made for a second visit, but on May 28, 1596, Francis secretly married another woman, his cousin Elizabeth Randolph. Although this marriage was later annulled, there was no more talk of Mary marrying him. On January 17, 1597/8, she wed Nicholas Throckmorton of Paulerspury, Northamptonshire (1562-February 1643/4). Their children were Elizabeth, Anne, Mary (1601-July 31, 1631), Francis (1602-April 9, 1649), Nicholas, George, Edmund (1609-September 10, 1654), and Oliphe (1611-March 25, 1670). In May 1611, after her husband inherited Beddington, Surrey from his uncle, Francis Carew, he changed their surname to Carew.
SUSAN MORE (c.1583-1608+)
The story of Susan More is told in considerable detail in Eleanor Hubbard’s City Women: Money, Sex, & the Social Order in Early Modern London (2012), gleaned from court records dated 1608. Further excerpts from the court case can be found in Women’s Worlds in Seventeenth Century England by Patricia M. Crawford and Laura Gowing. Susan was not yet twenty when she came to London from Cambridge and found employment as a servant with a Mrs. Lynsey in the parish of St. Peter Cornhill. She was there for about two years before she went to a Mrs. Lambert in the parish of St. Margaret, New Fish Street, where she stayed about a year. She spent another year in the household of Arthur Goodgame in St. Lawrence Pountney, and then three months in Holy Trinity Minories with a Mrs. Long before she was employed by Randall Berk, a bookseller, and his wife, Anne, in St. Giles Without Cripplegate. Anne Berk was in the business of weaving silk points. In lieu of wages, Susan was paid five shillings and fourpence a gross for her contribution to the enterprise. Unfortunately for Susan, a printer named Thomas Creede (c.1554-1617) took an interest in her. He told Berk that she looked like his first wife. By Easter 1607, he had gotten her drunk, taken her to a chamber in an alehouse run by a certain Widow Grimes, had his way with her, and then threatened to expose her sin if she did not continue to have sex with him. It was not long before Susan was with child. By the end of 1607, the Berks, their kitchen maid, Blanche Howell, and Creede’s wife, Margery, were all aware of the situation. The two wives made an attempt to send Susan to friends in Cambridge, but although she took the money they gave her to leave London, she turned back at Ware. Sir Stephen Soame ordered Creede to pay Susan’s keep for one month before and one month after her delivery. During her three month confinement, she stayed with the family of Edward Handby in Westminster and continued to weave points for Anne Berk. After the baby was born, Margery and Thomas Creede took charge of it. Creede claimed the child had been left on his doorstep and paid for sending it to a nurse in the country. One account says it died soon after. Creede was prosecuted for “fornication and bastardy,” but Susan appears to have escaped punishment. The last that is heard of her comes from court records dated June 18, 1608. At that time she had been the servant of a stationer named Hugh Jackson in St. Bride’s, Fleet Street, for six weeks.
see ELEANOR ROPER
ANNE MORGAN (1529-January 19, 1606)
Anne Morgan was the daughter of Sir Thomas Morgan of Arkestone, Herefordshire and Elizabeth Whitney. On May 21, 1545 she married Henry Carey (March 4, 1526-July 23, 1596), later created baron Hunsdon. As Lady Hunsdon, Anne was a lady of the privy chamber. She had ten sons and three daughters, including George, 2nd baron Hunsdon (1547-September 9,1603), Henry (d.1581), John, 3rd baron Hunsdon (d.1617), William (d.1593), Catherine (d. February 24, 1603), Philadelphia (c.1552-February 3, 1627), Edmund (d.1637), Robert (1560-April 12,1639), and Margaret (1567-1605). In 1568, she left court for Berwick-upon-Tweed when Hunsdon was appointed governor there. According to Charlotte Merton’s The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, she had to pay domestic staff and even some staff officers out of her own pocket. When Lord Hunsdon died, he left the family in debt, thanks to the expense of serving the queen. Elizabeth Tudor paid Hunsdon’s funeral expenses (£800) and granted the widow an outright gift of £400, a pension of £200 per annum from the Exchequer, and the keepership of Somerset House for life. Lady Hunsdon used some of the money to erect a monument to her late husband in Westminster Abbey. Portrait: while another copy is elsewhere identified as Mary Hill, Mrs. MacWilliam, the portrait at Hatfield c.1585-90 by a follower of George Gower is called Lady Hunsdon.
LUCY MORGAN (d.1598+)
Lucy Morgan was a gentlewoman at the court of Queen Elizabeth from 1579 to 1582, as evidenced by gifts to her from the queen’s wardrobe. She may have married a man named Parker and been the Lucy Parker who, at Yuletide 1588/9, gave the queen a box of cherries as a New Year’s gift. This is the contention of Leslie Hotson in Mr. W.H., his attempt to solve some of the mysteries surrounding Shakespeare’s sonnets. Hotson theorized that Lucy Morgan later became “Lucy Negro, Abbess of Clerkenwell” and was also the “dark lady” of the sonnets. The records of Bridewell for May 3, 1598 include charges brought against Lucy for living at the house of Edward Tilsley at Pichet Hatch at the upper end of Aldersgate, where she was visited by Tilsley once a fortnight and also visited by friends of his. Tilsley gave her three shillings a week for her maintenance and paid the rent on the house. There is no record that she was imprisoned for immoral behavior, perhaps because the testimony also revealed that Sir Matthew Morgan gave her an allowance of ten pounds when he was in England and had sent her five pounds at Christmas. Sir Matthew (c.1563-1602+) was undoubtedly a relative, although the connection is unclear. He was the third son of Edward Morgan of Pencarn, Monmouthshire (1530-1585) and Frances Leigh. Given his life dates and those of the fourth son, Charles (1575?-1643?), it is possible Lucy was their sister.
ANNE MORICE or MORRIS
see ANNE ISAAC
see MARY CASTELL
ALICE MORIN (d.1602)
In about 1566, Alice Morin married Swithun Wells (c.1536-December 10, 1591). Her name is usually spelled Morin or Moran, but research done by James Randal Dunavan on the Tattershall family suggests that she may have been an undocumented daughter of Nicolas de Marini/Nicholas de Marinas (d.1544), an Italian merchant originally from Genoa who settled in Woolston, Southampton, and his wife Anne Knighte (d.1552/3+). Marini made his will in March 1539. It mentions an unborn child and, since he did not die until 1544, it is possible more than one daughter was born after that will was written. Nicolas de Marini’s widow married Thomas Wells, father of Swithun, as his second wife. Gilbert Wells, another son, married her daughter, Isabel de Marini. In 1591, Swithun sent a letter from prison to de Marini’s son, Gerard de Maryne, his “brother-in-law,” but whether he addressed him that way because he had married another of Gerard’s sisters or simply because of the relationship with Gilbert is unclear. Swithun Wells ran a secret school for Catholic boys in Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire from c.1576-1582. During that time, Alice’s routine included saying the rosary after the evening meal with her young daughter, Margaret. In about 1585, the family moved to London, where Swithun was employed at Southampton House as tutor to Henry Wriothesley, later 3rd earl of Southampton. By 1591, the family lived in a house in Gray’s Inn Lane, Holborn. It was raided in November 1591 and Alice was arrested for hearing Mass. Swithun was away from home but arrested later. They were tried in December and condemned to death. A maid, possibly their daughter, was also tried. Swithun Wells was hanged opposite their house, but Alice received a last-minute reprieve. Instead of being hanged, she was kept in prison (some sources say Newgate; other the Tower) until her death. Swithun Wells was later canonized.
BRIDGET MORISON (March 1575-December 1623)
Bridget Morison was the daughter of Sir Charles Morison of Cassiobury, Hertfordshire (1548-April 1599) and Dorothy Clarke (1550-May 1618). In 1592, Bridget married Robert Radcliffe (June 12, 1569-September 22, 1629). Their children were Elizabeth (May 31, 1594-December 6, 1618), Henry (August 1, 1596-1620), Thomas (July 15, 1597-1619), and Honora (August 27, 1598-1613). As Lady Fitzwalter and later as countess of Sussex, Bridget received dedications from Robert Greene (1592), Thomas Kyd (1595), George Chapman (1598) and others. Bridget was described by a contemporary as “of very goodly and comely personage and a rare wit” but her husband was not faithful to her. He kept a mistress, Mrs. Sylvester Morgan, Bridget’s former waiting gentlewoman, and set her up as a rival countess at Mr. Daylies’ house. He hired Captain Whitlock to tell Bridget how much he was spending on his mistress’s clothing. In 1601, Bridget left her husband. She and her children were granted an allowance of £1700 a year and probably went back to Cassiobury to live with her mother. Later, Sussex took up with another woman, Frances Meautas, widow of Edward Shute, by whom he had a daughter, Jane. Frances plotted to poison Bridget but failed. Bridget’s dying wish, that her husband not marry his concubine, was ignored.
see BRIDGET HUSSEY
ELIZABETH MORISON (1545-1611)
Elizabeth Morison was the daughter of Sir Richard Morison (1510-March 12, 1556) and Bridget Hussey (c.1514-January 12, 1601). Her father was a diplomat and her parents were abroad from 1551-1553. Elizabeth remained in England. They returned briefly at the start of Mary Tudor’s reign, collected their family, and returned to the Continent as exiles. Elizabeth married William Norris (d. December 25, 1579). Their son was Francis, 2nd baron Norris (July 6, 1579-January 28, 1622/3). On October 20, 1586, she married Henry Clinton, 2nd earl of Lincoln (1540-September 29, 1616). Their children were Henry (1587-1641), Robert, and possibly Elizabeth (1589-1636). According to Joan Barbara Greenbaum Goldsmith’s unpublished PhD dissertation, All the Queen’s Women: the changing place and perception of aristocratic women in Elizabethan England, 1558-1620, Elizabeth and her second husband separated in the 1590s. This may have been the case, or Goldsmith may be confusing Elizabeth with her sister-in-law, Mary Tyrrell, who separated from the earl’s brother by 1590. In 1600, reports surfaced that Elizabeth was being held prisoner by her husband in Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, guarded by Theodore Paleologus, a man described by Elizabeth’s son, Francis Norris, as “an Italian murderer.” In a letter to Sir Robert Cecil, written May 14, 1600, Norris reported that his mother “has resolved, how vilely so ever he [Lincoln] uses her, to live with him for ever, in respect of the tenderness she bears to the children she has by him whom he threatens to abandon if she makes any means to depart his house,” but he went on to say that “she has just cause hourly to fear the cutting of her throat.” The widowed Bridget, Lady Norris (née Kingsmill) also wrote to Cecil, mentioning the “long bondage” the countess had endured. Soon after, a warrant was issued for the arrest of the earl for non-payment of debts. After his wife died, Lincoln brought suit against Francis Norris, charging that she had misappropriated his property for the benefit of her son. He failed to prove his case, but the testimony included many depositions concerning his mistreatment of her. Some of these are quoted in the biography of Theodore Paleologus (Elizabethan Assassin by John Hall).
JANE SYBILLA MORISON (1551-July 1615)
Jane Sybilla Morison was the daughter of Sir Richard Morison (1510-March 12, 1556) and Bridget Hussey (c.1514-January 12, 1601). She was born in Augsburg while that city was under siege. She returned with her parents to England when Mary Tudor became queen, but then went into exile with them until Elizabeth Tudor took the throne. In c.1571, she married her stepbrother, Lord Edward Russell (1551-1572/3). Some accounts give them a daughter, Laetitia while others say they had no children. In 1574, she married Arthur, 14th baron Grey de Wilton (1536-October 14, 1593). Their children were Thomas (October 21, 1575-July 9, 1614), Bridget (1577-July 28, 1648), and William (1579-1605). Because she had been born abroad, Jane Sybilla was naturalized by Act of Parliament in 1576.
see JANE THROCKMORTON
MARGERY MORLEY (c.1416-1503)
Margery Morley was the daughter of William Morley, Esquire (d.1416). She married John Yelverton of Rachheath, Norfolk (d. July 9, 1481). Their children were William (c.1452-c.1500), John, and a daughter who predeceased her mother. Margery made her will on June 4, 1501 and it was proved in 1503. She left a bequest to her son John, a monk, and left the manor of Castle St. Edmonds to her son-in-law, Richard Walter for a period of fourteen years in order to repay her debts, after which it was to go to her grandson, William Yelverton (c.1471-1548), and his sister Amy. She referred to their father as “recently deceased,” which distinguishes these two William Yelvertons, father and son, from another pair living at about the same time and based at Rougham. Margery asked to be buried in Austin Friars, Norwich with her husband.
see ANNE PUTTENHAM
ELIZABETH MORS (d.1514+)
Elizabeth Mors was the daughter of William Mors/Mores/Morris, sergeant of the hall to Henry VII. In 1483 she was a servant, probably a waiting gentlewoman, in the household of Sir Richard Delabeare (De La Bere/Delabere/Delaber) of Kinnersley, Herefordshire (c.1440-July 15, 1514). At that time he was married to Anne Touchet, daughter of Lord Audley. When Henry Stafford, 2nd duke of Buckingham rebelled against Richard III, he sent his son and heir, Edward, to Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers, at Woebley, Herefordshire, where he was entrusted to Sir Richard Delabeare. Delabeare took the six-year-old boy to his own house at Kinnersley and placed him in the care of Elizabeth Mors. It is not clear what happened to the twenty or so retainers who accompanied the young Lord Stafford, but when the king offered a reward of £1000 for his capture, he was in great danger. He was twice smuggled out of Kinnersley when it was about to be searched. Sir Richard was arrested, as was Edward’s mother, the duchess of Buckingham (Katherine Woodville). During a third search of Kinnersley, Elizabeth Mors took Edward into the park and sat there with him on her lap for four hours until it was safe to go back to the house. To protect Edward while they took him to another location, Elizabeth shaved his head and dressed him like a girl (shaved heads were in fashion then for women). He rode seated sideways on a pillion and was taken to the house of one of Elizabeth’s friends. The journey was made openly, during the day, and apparently kept him out of King Richard’s hands. There is no further mention of him until he reappears (as 3rd duke of Buckingham) after Henry VII became king in 1485. Some twenty years after these events (c.1503), Elizabeth told the story so that it could be written down for the duke. By then, she had married Sir Richard and is referred to in the account as Dame Elizabeth Delabeare. The date of Elizabeth’s marriage is unknown, but she and Delabeare had ten sons and six daughters. According to the memorial brass in the cathedral church in Hereford, Delabeare had twenty-one children altogether, eleven sons and ten daughters. After his death, Elizabeth married Thomas Baskerville.
AVISE MORTELMAN (d. October 1554)
Avise or Avis Mortelman was the daughter of Henry Mortelman (d.1515+) and his wife Joan. Mortelman owned Ram’s Head in Petty Wales, London at the time of his death and left it in equal parts to his widow and his daughter. His widow married Nicholas Jenyn (d.1532), the king’s skinner, and Avise was prevented from claiming her inheritance until twenty-seven years after her mother’s death. Avise married Nicholas Gibson (d.1540), a grocer who was also an alderman and sheriff of London. Gibson founded a free school at Radcliffe/Ratcliff (now Stepney), Middlesex in 1536, providing £50 for that purpose. His will, dated September 23, 1540, left his wife a house in Stepney. In 1541, Avise married Sir Anthony Knyvett, a member of Henry VIII’s court. He had accumulated serious debts by 1536. One account suggests that he put aside his first wife, Matilda, widow of John Dennis, to marry Avise for her money. Knyvett made his will in June 1548 and it was proved in July 1549. Also in 1549, the Cooper’s Company became Lady Knyvett’s tenants at Radcliffe. In 1552, she asked them to take over the school her first husband had founded. She was probably buried with him in the Stepney Parish Church of St. Dunstan. She appears to have had no children by either marriage.
see ELEANOR CORNWALL
see ELEANOR FINCH
see MARGARET WOODFORD
ELIZABETH MOTON (1438-1504+)
Elizabeth Moton was the daughter of Sir Reynald or Reginald Moton or Motton of Peckleton, Leicestershire (1409-March 31, 1445) and Margaret Brugge (1411-April 15, 1474). She married Ralph Pole or de la Pole of Radburne or Radbourne, Derbyshire (1435-May 31, 1492). Their children were Margaret, John (1460-1490), Thomas, Alban (d.1515+), and others. Upon her son John’s death, she became the guardian of her grandson, German Pole (1482-1552). He married Anne Plumpton, daughter of Sir Robert, in 1499, which is why two letters from Elizabeth have been preserved in the Plumpton Correspondence. In 1502, German and his wife were living in Derbyshire, probably with his grandmother. He was apparently content to have her remain there after he was of age to inherit, but in a letter written on July 10, 1504, Elizabeth revealed that she had taken a house “within the Freres at Derby.” There she intended “to dispose myselfe to serve God dilygently, and kepe a narrow house and but few of meany . . . it is tyme for me to get me into a litle corner, and so wyll I doe.”
see ANN RADCLIFFE
see MARY HILL
ALICE MOUNTAGUE (d. 1581+) (maiden name unknown)
Mrs. Mountague was the queen’s silkwoman and also provided silks to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. She gave Queen Elizabeth her first pair of knitted silk stockings as a New Year’s gift in 1577. They were plain black but so delighted the queen that she would never wear cloth stockings again. Alice is first found in royal accounts as Alice Smythe, silkwoman, in 1558, providing “gold, sylver, sylke, and sylkework of diverse sortes” for the coronation. A marriage license was granted on June 10, 1562 to Alice Smithe, widow, of the City of London, and Roger Mountague (Montagu/Montague). From Michaelmas 1562 onward, Alice Mountague appears as royal silkwoman in the queen’s accounts. From Michaelmas 1581, Roger Mountague is listed as the queen’s silkman and Alice disappears. Roger continued in this post until the end of the reign in 1603. It seems most likely that he was Alice and Roger’s son.
see ANNE VACHELL
MARIE MOUNTJOY (c.1567-October 1606) (maiden name unknown)
Marie Mountjoy was a Frenchwoman, although she might have been born in England of immigrant parents. At around age sixteen, she married Christopher Mountjoy (before1564-1620), a London tiremaker (he made wigs and headdresses). In 1582, they were living in the household of John Dewman, tailor, in St. Martin le Grand. They had one child, a daughter named Mary. By 1596, the family was living in a house on the corner of Silver and Monkwell Streets in Cripplegate. On February 27 of that year, “Mrs. Monjoyes childe” was buried. From this wording Charles Nicholl (in The Lodger Shakespeare, His Life on Silver Street) concludes that Marie was having an affair and bore an illegitimate child and further suggests that the father was Henry Wood (August 18, 1566-1598+) a cloth trader and a married man. On September 10, 1597, Marie “lost out of her purse . . . a gold ring, a hoop ring & a French crown.” On November 22, she consulted the astrologer, Simon Forman, who had a reputation for finding lost items. On December 1, 1597, she consulted Forman again, this time in his capacity as a physician. She believed she was pregnant. He predicted that she would miscarry. She was there again on March 7, 1598. Henry Wood and his wife (separately) also consulted Forman. On one occasion, Mrs. Wood was apparently considering a partnership with Marie Mountjoy. In 1604, Mary Mountjoy, probably Marie rather than her daughter, made a helmet and trimmings for Queen Anne to play Pallas Athena in The Vistion of the Twelve Goddesses by Samuel Daniel, performed at court on January 8. That same year, William Shakespeare lodged with the Mountjoy family and lent a hand in arranging the marriage of their daughter to her Mountjoy’s apprentice, Stephen Belott, in November. Marie died less than two years later and was buried on October 30, 1606 at St. Olave’s.
MARY MOUNTJOY (d.1612+)
Mary Mountjoy was the daughter of Christopher Mountjoy (before 1564-1620) and his wife Marie (c.1567-October 1606). In November 1604, when she married her father’s apprentice, Stephen Belott or Bellott, she was promised a dowry of £50. William Shakespeare, who lodged with the family in Silver Street, had a hand in negotiating the match. At first, Mary and Stephen lived in a chamber in the house of George Wilkins in St. Giles, Cripplegate. Later they moved in with Mary’s father. In 1608, they were again living in St. Giles, where their daughter Anne was baptized on October 23. Another daughter, Jane, was baptized on December 17, 1609. In 1610, Mary worked with Dorothy Speckard to make masque costumes for Tethys’ Festival. On May 11, 1612, the Court of Requests in Westminster remanded a case brought by Mary’s husband against her father to the overseers of the Huguenot church in London. Belott charged that her dowry had never been paid and asked for that sum and the promise of an additional £200 when Mountjoy died. Among the witnesses deposed was William Shakespeare. The overseers awarded Belott £6 13s. 4d.
see AGNES HAMMOND
BARBARA MOWBRAY (c.1559-July 31,1616)
Barbara Mowbray was the daughter of John Mowbray, laird of Barnbougle, and Elizabeth Kirkcaldy. By 1584,she had joined the English household of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1585, she married Gilbert Curle (1546-1609), the queen’s secretary. The marriage was arranged by Queen Mary. They had a large family of eight children, including a child born in early 1587, the year Mary was executed. After the execution, Mary’s ladies were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary’s funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England. The entire Curle family, including Gilbert’s sister Elizabeth, went to the Continent, settling first at Douai (some accounts say Paris) and later in Antwerp. Two of Barbara’s sons, James (d.1615) and Hippolytus (1592-1638) became Jesuit priests. The latter commissioned a monument to his mother and his aunt in St. Andrew’s Church, Antwerp, although the figures are of their patron saints, not the women themselves. One of Barbara’s daughters was named Mary and was probably the queen’s goddaughter.
see ELIZABETH TALBOT
GILLES MOWBRAY (d.1587+)
Gilles Mowbray was the daughter of John Mowbray, laird of Barnbougle, and Elizabeth Kirkcaldy and the sister of Barbara Mowbray. In 1585, a month before her sister married Gilbert Curle, Gilles joined the English household of Mary Queen of Scots. After Mary was executed, her ladies were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary’s funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England. The queen had left Gilles 1000 francs and asked her aunt, the abbess of the convent of St. Pierre in Rheims, to take her in. Instead, Gilles returned to Scotland and married Sir John Smith of Barnton.
see JOAN STRETE
KATHERINE MOYLE (d. February 1587)
Katherine Moyle was the daughter and coheir of Sir Thomas Moyle of Gray’s Inn, London, Clerkenwell, Middlesex, and Eastwell, Kent (d. October 2, 1560), surveyor of the court of augmentations, and Catherine Jorden (d.1560+). In 1547, she married Thomas Finch of The Moat, Canterbury, Kent (d. March 1563). Their children included Anthony (d.1568), Moyle (c.1550-1614), and Henry (1558-1625). In 1559 and 1560, her father started to divide his property between his daughters, but this division was incomplete when he died. By his will, dated August 1, 1560 and proved on November 14, 1560, he divided his lands in Devon, Kent, and Somerset between Katherine and Thomas Kempe, son and heir of her younger sister Amy (sometimes called Anne) and Sir Thomas Kempe. It is unclear when Amy died. Among the half dozen properties that went to Katherine was the mansion of Eastwell, Kent, which then became the main residence of the Finch family. Finch drowned in the wreck of the Greyhound, when the ship was caught in a storm on its way to the war in France and ran aground near Rye. Some 200 lives were lost. Katherine was granted administration of the estate on March 31, 1563. She married Sir Nicholas St. Leger (Sellenger) of Ulcombe, Kent (d.c.1589). They lived at Eastwell Place and at Beamstone, Kent, another manor she had inherited from her father.
MARGARET MULSHO (d.c.1530)
Margaret Mulsho was the daughter of John Mulsho of Finedon, Northamptonshire and Eleanor Stukeley. She is probably the Margaret Mulsho listed as a chamberer to Catherine of Aragon in November 1514. Her marriage settlement with Sir George Gresley of Drakelow, Derbyshire (1495-April 21, 1548) is dated February 8, 1523. Their children were William (May 12, 1525-May 23, 1573) and Katherine (d. April 22, 1572+).
MARY MULSHO (c. 1581-1653)
Mary Mulsho was the only daughter and heir of William Mulsho of Gayhurst (Gothurst/ Gotehurst), Buckinghamshire. In 1596, she brought Gayhurst House to her marriage to Everard Digby of Stoke Dry, Rutland and Tilton, Leicestershire (May 16, 1578-January 30, 1606). Their children were Kenelm (July 11, 1603-June 11, 1665) and John (1605-July 16, 1645). Digby was described by a contemporary, Father John Gerard, as being handsome, 6′ tall, skilled at riding and at arms, an accomplished musician and a generous patron. Although Mary came from a staunchly Protestant family, Father Gerard, a Jesuit, converted both husband and wife to Catholicism in about 1599. In August 1605, after the birth of her younger son, Mary joined a group of some thirty devout Catholics on a pilgrimage to St. Winifred’s well in Wales. With her was John Percy, a Jesuit then living at Gayhurst. Two months later, Mary’s husband was recruited by those plotting the death of King James. Mary was at Coughton, home of the Throckmortons, in early November when the Jesuit priest Henry Garnett received a letter from Digby dated November 9. She overheard a part of the discussion about it. Garnett later wrote: “What did shee? Alas what but cry.” As Jessie Childs points out in God‘s Traitors: Terror and Faith in Elizabethan England, that was not all she did. She also sent four horses “ready furnished for service” to the rebels at Huddington. The Gunpowder Plot, however, was doomed to failure and Digby was arrested and charged with treason. During the two and a half months between his arrest and trial, he managed to smuggle letters and poems out of the Tower to his wife and sons and these have been preserved. Meanwhile, in Buckinghamshire, the sheriff ransacked Gayhurst, taking everything down “to the very floor of the great parlour” and including Mary’s underwear. She called herself “wholly destitute” when she wrote to the earl of Salisbury for relief. The sheriff was reprimanded but according to Everard Digby’s entry in the Oxford DNB, assistance was “ineffectively implemented.” After her husband was executed, Mary continued to live at Gayhurst. Her sons were raised there in their early years. At thirteen, under an alias, the younger boy, John, was sent to the English College at St. Omer in Flanders. Mary’s companion at Gayhurst was Dorothy Habington. John Percy ministered to her spiritual needs. Childs lists the household at Gayhurst as part of his “church” in 1609. In 1614, Mary was one of the benefactors of the Benedictine convent in Brussels. In 1620, Mary’s son Kenelm, then seventeen, wanted to marry Venetia Stanley. Mary did not approve and sent him abroad. They finally wed in 1625, but not until after Venetia had an affair with a married man, Edward Sackville, 4th earl of Dorset. Kenelm later claimed that his mother had been reconciled with Venetia before Venetia’s death in 1633.
ELIZABETH MUNDEN (d.1555+)
Elizabeth Munden was the daughter of Thomas Munden of Watton at Stone, Hertfordshire. She married Robert Burgoyne of Sutton Bedfordshire (c.1485-October 21, 1545), an auditor. Their children were Robert (December 21,1540-May 2, 1613), Dorothy, Elizabeth, and George. When Burgoyne died, there was money due him that, as executor, Elizabeth had to collect. Some genealogies have her married to Robert Lytton (1513-March 1551), but before the end of the reign of Edward VI in 1553, she had married Edward Twyneho (Twinio/Twyne) (by 1518-1577), who was M.P. from Old Sarum in 1554. With him, she pressed for the payment of £40 owed by Sir Fulke Greville, which resulted in Greville being declared an outlaw. He surrendered himself in 1555 and was pardoned.
MARGARET MUNDY (d. 1564/5)
Margaret Mundy was the daughter of Sir John Mundy of St. Peter’s, Cheapside, London (d. 1537), a goldsmith who was Lord Mayor in 1522-3. Some accounts say her mother was his first wife, whose name is not known. Others list her as the child of his second wife, Julian Browne (d. September 1537). In 1526, Margaret married Nicholas Jennings/Jenyns/Jennyns of Preston, Lancashire and All Hallows, Barking, London (d.1532), as his second wife. Their children were Bernard (d.1552), Juliana (d.1595), and Anna. Her second husband was Lord Edmund Howard (c.1478-March 19, 1539), a younger son of the 2nd duke of Norfolk and half brother to the 3rd duke and the countess of Wiltshire (Anne Boleyn’s mother). Margaret was his third wife. They married after 1532 and before June 12, 1537. One of her stepchildren was Catherine Howard, who was also, briefly, queen of England. Howard was Comptroller of Calais during most of their marriage. Lady Howard is mentioned three times in The Lisle Letters, although she is misidentified there as Howard’s second wife, Dorothy Troyes. She was on her way to Calais on April 8, 1535. On January 5, 1537, she and Sir Edmund were in London, where he had been ill, but they expected to return to Calais shortly. And in an undated letter that the editor suggests is from 1535, Sir Edmund thanks Lady Lisle for the medicine she gave him, which “caused the stone to break” but “made me piss my bed this night, for the which my wife hath sore beaten me, and saying it is children’s parts to bepiss their bed.” The author of The History of Parliament entry for Sir George Howard (d.1580) states that George was not married to Margaret Mundy by 1537, but does not seem to be aware that Margaret was married to George’s father. By 1547, Margaret married Henry Mannock or Mannox of London and (later) Haddenham, Cambridgeshire and Hemingford Grey, Huntingdonshire (d.1564). The marriage was not successful. In his will, made on March 18, 1564 and proved September 4, 1564, he disinherited Margaret for “unnatural behavior” and their son for “naughty, light and lewd behavior.” His heir was their daughter, Margaret Mannock, who would inherit when she reached her twentieth birthday or upon her marriage. Margaret Mundy was not the Lady Howard at the court of her stepdaughter. That was Catherine Howard’s aunt. Margaret was buried at Streatham, Surrey on January 22, 1565.
see ELIZABETH DENT
see AGNES WHARTON
see ELIZABETH CURWEN; ELIZABETH DENKARING
ELIZABETH MUSTON (1478-October 1543)
Elizabeth Muston was the daughter of William Muston of Cropwell, Nottinghamshire (d.1486). In about 1491, she married Sir Richard Whetehill, (c.1466-November 1536), mayor of Calais in 1533-4. His surname was also spelled Wheathill, Wheathell, Whethill, Whettyll, Whethil, Whetthyll, and Whettles. Their children included Elizabeth (1504-1542), Robert (c.1507-1563+), Nicholas (d. March 1546), Margaret (d.1572), Gilbert, Katherine, and Margery (1519-1552). In 1531, Elizabeth’s oldest son, Robert, was promised the coveted post of a Calais Spear, but the appointment had to wait upon a vacant room. When he was still waiting in March of 1534, his mother went to England and persuaded the queen to ask the king for a particular room held by one John Highfield, who had been on his deathbed since the previous October. Highfield, however, had been restored to health by January 1535. In April 1536, Elizabeth was so distraught by the situation that, in the words of Lord Lisle, the Lord Deputy of Calais, she “came upon my poor wife, in Pilate’s voice railing upon me, many slanderous words and untrue, as shall be proved . . . which did not a little grieve me, seeing that I did her no wrong.” The incident apparently took place in church. In the first week of November of that year, Elizabeth’s husband died. He wrote his will on October 26, 1536, giving his wife control of all lands and rents set aside for the marriages of four daughters and two sons. The sons were to have five marks a year until they married and the girls were to receive 200 marks each upon their marriages. Robert’s marriage, to Jane Grenville, had already been negotiated, and took place the next year. At the same time, Lady Whetehill was obliged to write at least two letters to Lord Cromwell to ask for his assistance. Robert had contested his father’s will, in the process reducing Elizabeth and her other children to poverty. In the letter written from Calais on April 20, 1537, she states that she was married to Sir Richard for forty-six years and bore him fourteen children. The second letter, written on November 7, 1538, indicates some progress but reveals a new sticking point. Elizabeth was content to take a hundred marks a year and let Robert have £10 more per annum than his father’s will provided, but Robert wanted a share of the house she had been living in since her husband died, “a little house in the country with a little farm . . . the which farm my husband hath given me by his will.” Robert wanted to move in with his wife and take over half the house. Elizabeth “will not agree, considering his unnatural handling of me that am his mother . . . he driveth me unto extreme trouble and poverty.”
ANNE MYLNER (c.1547-1565+)
On March 23, 1564, John Fisher of Chester sent “Maister J. D.” (probably Dr. John Dee) a “true discourse” concerning the possession of one Anne Mylner, who became known as “the Maid of Chester.” It was on October 18, 1563 that Anne, age eighteen, while returning to her home in Chester, suddenly found herself surrounded by “a white thing” that subsequently caused her to stop eating and to develop a swollen belly and go into convulsions. This condition had continued for some four months when John Lane, formerly of Christ’s College, Cambridge heard about her case. Accompanied by local gentry, including Sir William Calverley and his wife Elizabeth (née Sneyd), Lane visited Anne’s bedside on February 16, 1564/5. Following an examination, Lane declared her to be possessed and called for everyone to pray. He secretly recited the fifty-first Psalm. Later he put vinegar in her mouth and blew it up her nostrils. After some hours, this method of exorcism proved successful. Anne was dressed and fed and the following day she attended Lane’s sermon in St. Mary’s parish church. Fisher asked his correspondent to put the account into print, which was subsequently done. What happened to Anne Mylner afterward is unknown. For a more detailed account of this case, see Chapter Two of Demon Possession in Elizabethan England by Kathleen R. Sands.
see DOROTHY CURZON
see KATHERINE HYDE
see HELEN NICOLSON
see CECILY DELVES