O

ROSE O’BYRNE
see ROSE O’TOOLE

MARY O’CONNOR
see MARY FITZGERALD

ODELL
see WOODHULL

EDITH ODINGSILLS
see EDITH WILLIAMS

FIONNUALA O’DONNELL
see FIONNUALA MACDONNLL

ANNE OFFLEY
see ANNE BESWICK

JOAN OFFLEY
see JOAN NICHOLLS

CATHERINE OGLE (c.1566-April 18, 1629)
Catherine Ogle was the daughter and coheiress of Cuthbert, 7th baron Ogle (c.1540-November 20, 1597) and Catherine Carnaby. On June 11, 1591, she married Sir Charles Cavendish of Welbeck Abbey, Nottinghamshire (1553-April 4, 1617) as his second wife. In 1592, a critic of Cavendish wrote that Catherine was “thought to be no better” than his first wife, who had been “a papist by birth.” The couple had three sons, William (December 6, 1592-December 25, 1676) and two unnamed boys, one of whom died before his father. Catherine was executrix of  her husband’s will and inherited for life all his personal estate less 1500 marks and 1000 marks that went to his two surviving sons. The Cavendish chapel, part of St. Mary & St. Lawrence Church in Bolsolver, Derbyshire was built in 1618 to house the tomb of Charles and Catherine Cavendish, which suggests that Catherine supervised the work. In 1628, after the death of her sister, she was created Baroness Ogle. The title had been in abeyance since her father’s death. The inquisition post mortem taken after Catherine died at Bothall (“worth £10 clear”) states she was in possession of 200 acres of land, ten acres of meadow, and twenty acres of pasture in Gesmond, Northumberland and of land in Castle Leyes. Her son William inherited as Baron Ogle of Bothall. Catherine may have been the subject of the Scottish air, “Katherine Ogle” (and variant spellings) if it was composed by Irish harper Rory dall O’Cahan, who was at the court of James VI and I in Scotland, but the tune cannot be conclusively dated earlier than 1686. Portrait: effigy in Cavendish Chapel, Bolsover.

ELIZABETH OGLETHORPE (d.1609)
Elizabeth Oglethorpe was the daughter of John Oglethorpe of Newington, Oxfordshire (d.1579) and Alice Goodwyn. Her first husband was Robert Rokes of Fawley, Buckinghamshire (d.1580). They had one child, Elizabeth, who became the queen’s ward. Elizabeth’s second husband was John Alford of Holt Castle, Denbighshire (d.1600). Their children were John (d. yng) and Henry (d.1645). According to the History of Parliament entry for Alford, there was an attempt in 1586 to marry Elizabeth Rokes to one of his relatives but it came to nothing. By February 1601, the widowed Elizabeth Alford had married Richard Mompesson of Salisbury, Wiltshire (d.1627), who was knighted in 1603, as his second wife. They had no children.

MARY OGILVY
see MARY BEATON

OLD CHATTOX
see ANNE WHITTLE

OLD DEMDIKE
see ELIZABETH BLACKBURN

GRACE O’MALLEY (1530-c.1603)
Grace or Grania O’Malley, legendary female pirate, was the daughter of Owen Dubhdara O’Malley and Margaret, daughter of Conchobhar O’Malley. Grace married Donal O’Flaherty. Their son was Owen (d. 1586). She married Richard Burke (d.1583), who became chief of the Burkes of Mayo in 1582. Their children were Theobald (d.1629) and Margaret. Grace’s activities harried the English authorities in Ireland for decades. In the 1570s she kidnapped young Christopher St. Lawrence, Lord Howth’s heir. A painting at Howth Castle depicts the incident. In 1576/7, she greatly impressed the young Philip Sidney, whose father was Lord Deputy, when he visited Galway. She spent two years in prison in 1578-9. In 1586, she was tried for plundering Aran Island and was almost executed. In 1593, Sir Richard Bingham called her “a notable traitress and nurse to all rebellions in the province for forty years.” Sir John Perrott secured a pardon for her from Queen Elizabeth. In 1595, she petitioned Lord Burghley for the return of her jointure lands. Although it was long said that she did not speak English and never visited England, recent biographers assert that she did go to the court of Elizabeth I in 1593 and again in 1595. By tradition, she is said to have died in great poverty and been buried on Clare Island. Biographies: Anne Chambers, Granuale: The Life and Times of Grace O’Malley; sections of  Joan Druett’s She Captains; Barbara Sjoholm’s The Pirate Queen: In Search of Grace O’Malley and Other Legendary Women of the Sea; Jo Stanley, ed., Bold in her Breeches; Oxford DNB entry under “O’Malley, Grainne [Grace].”

MABEL O’NEILL

see MABEL BAGENAL

ELIZABETH ONLEY
see ELIZABETH ROLLESTON

JANE ONLEY (d.1585)
Jane Onley was the daughter of John Onley of Catesby, Northamptonshire (1463-1538) and Jane Smyth (d. before 1537). Her father wrote his will on November 11, 1537 and it was proved on May 16, 1538. In it, he expressed his hope that his daughter Jane would marry his ward, Edward Browne, but later in the same document indicated that Richard Cotton of Warblington and Bedhampton, Hampshire (d. October 2,1556) was his second choice. Jane was to receive £200 on her wedding day. Shortly after her father’s death, she married Cotton, a gentleman who was at one time comptroller of the household of the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth, daughters of Henry VIII. Their six sons and three daughters included George (1538-1610), a recusant, and Henry (c.1545-1615), a godson of Queen Elizabeth, who became Bishop of Salisbury. In her will, proved on November 17, 1585, Jane mentions a ring given to her by Marie of Guise, queen of Scotland.

CORDELL ONSLOW
see CORDELL ANNESLEY

MARY ORCHARD
see MARY AUCHER

JANE or JOAN ORMOND (d.1540/1)
Jane Ormond was the daughter of John Ormond of Alfreton, Derbyshire (d. October 5, 1503), an illegitimate son of the 6th earl of Ormond, and Joan Chaworth (d. August 29, 1507). She married Sir Thomas Dynham or Dinham of Ashridge, Hertfordshire and Eyethorpe, Buckinghamshire (d.1519). Their children were John, George, Oliver, Edward, Roger, Thomas, Charles,  Eleanor, Catherine, Anne, Mary, and Elizabeth. In his will, written September 18, 1519 and proved February 13, 1519/20, he left her 1000 marks and all his movables. She then married Sir Edward Greville of Milcote, Warwickshire and Drayton, Oxfordshire (d. June 22, 1528). Her third husband, married c.1529, was Sir William Fitzwilliam of Milton and Gains Park, Essex (1460-August 9, 1534), as his third wife. In his will of May 28, 1534, proved September 5, 1534, he leaves “my right dear and well beloved wife, Dame Jane Fitzwilliam, for term of her life, the manors Henninalles, Maydelles, Marshalles, Arnewayes, in the county of Essex . . . a cross of diamonds which I gave to her,” and other bequests, including his messuage in the parish of St. Thomas the Apostle in London, where they were then living. Jane made her will on January 17, 1540/1 and it was proved October 25, 1542. She asked to be buried in the church of St. Thomas the Apostle. In addition to bequests to her surviving children and other relatives, the will names her maid, Agnes Jenys, and her chaplain, John Fox.

ELIZABETH ORTELIUS (d.1594)
Elizabeth Ortelius was the daughter of Leonard Ortelius (c.1495-1535), a wealthy merchant of Antwerp. Her brother was cartographer Abraham Ortelius (1527-1598). She married Jacob Cole (d.1591), a cloth merchant specializing in silk production and the silk trade. They were part of the Dutch-Walloon refugee community in London, living on Lime Street. Their son, James Cole, also known as Jacob Cool and Jacobus Colius Ortelianus (1563-1628) became a famous naturalist.

ANNE ORWELL (1583-1608+)
Anne Orwell was the daughter of Edward Orwell of London and Lancaster (d. January 5, 1591), a gentleman who was registrar of the court of arches, and his wife Mary (d.1591+). Although one online genealogy gives her date and place of birth as December 5, 1572 in Thaxted, Essex, she is almost certainly the Anne, daughter of Edward, who was christened in Christ Church, Greyfriars, Newgate, London on May 11, 1583. Her father left a will indicating that he owned land in Barking, Essex and Brenchley, Kent, as well as property in London. On April 16, 1604, at Mitcham, Surrey, Anne married John Overall (1559-May 12, 1619). He was at that time dean of St. Paul’s but later became Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1614) and Bishop of Norwich (1618). They had no children. According to Aubrey’s Brief Lives, Anne had “the loveliest eyes that were ever seen” but was “wondrous wanton. When she came to Court, or to the Play-house, the Gallants would . . . flock about her.” She committed adultery with Richard Sackville, 3rd earl of Dorset (d. March 27, 1624), a notorious womanizer, and then, in 1608, began an affair with Sir John Selby of Twizel, Northumberland (c.1574-1636). She ran off with him in July of that year, but her husband sent men to fetch her back and apparently forgave her. Scurrilous verses were written about her. Some praised her beauty: “Her face had a filbert hue/and bosoms like a swan./She had a back of bended ewe [yew?]/and waisted by a span.” Others made fun of the cuckolded husband: “The Dean of St. Paul’s did search for his wife/And where do you think he found her?/Even upon Sir John Selby’s bed/As flat as any flounder.” Selby went abroad soon after Anne returned to her husband.

JANE ORWELL (d.1596+)
Jane Orwell was the daughter of Sir Lewis Orwell or Orrell of Ashwell, Hertfordshire and Mary Ludlow. She was the longtime mistress of Edward Grey, 3rd baron Powis or Powys (1503-July 12, 1551). Their children were Edward (c.1543-1624), Anne, Jane, Walter, Andrew, Cecily, and (possibly) Thomas. The first three are mentioned in the will Powis made on July 11, 1544, when Powis was married but had separated from his wife (Anne Brandon) and Jane was expecting their fourth child. The will leaves his holdings to any legitimate heirs, but “in default of issue of my body lawfully begotten” leaves everything to Edward, his son by Jane. Provision is made for succeeding sons to inherit if Edward died childless and for his daughters by Jane to inherit should the male line fail. To Jane herself, he left the castle and manor of Charlton and the manor of Pontysbury for life. At an undetermined date, possibly shortly before Powis died, Jane married John Herbert of London and Montgomery Castle (c.1515-1596+). He had three sons and a daughter, but they were probably the children of his first wife, Elizabeth Derwas. Through his marriage to Jane, Herbert acquired Buildwas, Salop, which was part of the estate that passed to her son, Edward Grey. On Edward’s behalf, Herbert contested claims made by Thomas Vernon to the barony of Powis. In 1568, Herbert was styled as “of Red [Powis] Castle” A record of 1580 refers to “Jane called Jane Herbert, widow; otherwise Jane Kemp, otherwise Jane Orwell, called Lady Powys.” The Kemp appears to comes from a misreading of a lawsuit involving her half brother, Jasper Pount. Herbert was thought to have died “not long after 1583” but in fact was still alive on April 8, 1596 when he and Jane both signed a letter to Edward Kynaston. She signed herself “Jane Powys.”

MARY ORWELL
see MARY LUDLOW

JOAN ORWIN (d. 1599+) (maiden name unknown)

Joan married John Kingston (d.1584), a printer. They had a son, Felix, born about 1575. Her second husband was one of Kingston’s apprentices, George Robinson (d.1587). Following his death, Joan printed books on her own at least. In 1588, she married Thomas Orwin (d.1593), a stationer. Between 1593 and 1597, Joan printed sixty-five works and acquired three apprentices of her own. A year after her son officially took over the business, she took one more apprentice. Biography: entry in Carole Levin, et al, editors, A Biographical Encyclopedia of Early Modern Englishwomen.

ANNE OSBORNE
see ANNE BLYTH; ANNE HEWETT

KATHERINE OSBORNE (d. February 11, 1615)
Katherine Osborne was one of the twenty-two children of Peter Osborne of Tyld Hall, Lachingdon and South Fambridge, Essex and Chicksands, Bedordshire (1521-June 7, 1592) and Anne Blyth (d.1615). Dates for her birth vary from 1575 to 1578. By the mid-1590s (one genealogy says before March 2, 1594), she married Sir Thomas Cheke of Pirgo, Essex (January 7, 1570-1659), her second cousin. They had one daughter who died young. Katherine was one of two Lady Chekes at court under King James. The other was Mary Hill. Katherine died after a botched bleeding by the queen’s physician.

LUCY OSBORNE
see LUCY HYDE

MARGARET OSBORNE
see MARGARET PRATT

THOMASINE OSTLER
see THOMASINE HEMINGES

ELIZABETH OSTRICH
see ELIZABETH CABOT

ROSE O’TOOLE (d.1597+)
Rose O’Toole was the daughter of Turlough O’Toole, who was assassinated in the 1540s. She married Feagh MacHugh O’Byrne (c.1544-1597) as his second wife. O’Byrne, known as the “firebrand of the mountains” was a rebel leader. In 1580, Rose was captured and questioned about her husband’s activities. She blamed the earl of Kildare for involving O’Byrne in treason. Eventually, a truce was reached. The O’Byrnes were noted for their hospitality at their home at Ballincor, but even during peaceful times they were plotting against the English. In January 1591, they contrived the escape of Red Hugh O’Donnell from Dublin Castle and arranged for him to be sheltered by Rose’s brother, Phelim O’Toole, at Castlekevin. In 1594, the truce expired and the Nine Years War (1594-1603), also known as the Rising of the Northern Chiefs, the last great Irish rebellion against the government of Queen Elizabeth, began. In January of 1595, Ballincor was attacked. O’Byrne was almost taken prisoner and Rose was wounded in the breast. The family retreated to Dromceat. O’Byrne’s death did not keep Rose from working for the rebel cause. Sir Thomas Lee believed that she was the mistress of Thomas Butler, 10th earl of Ormond (1532-November 22, 1614) and acted as a go-between, taking messages from Butler to the rebel earl of Tyrone. For this crime, she was arrested and sentenced to be burnt as a traitor. She was pardoned by Queen Elizabeth in return for her promise to work against her stepson, Turlough O’Byrne, but Rose did not keep her word. A second pardon became necessary at a later date.

MARGERY OTWELL (d. 1536+) (maiden name unknown)
Margery Otwell was part of the household of Catherine of Aragon, joining it well before April 23, 1521, when Sir John Peche of Lullingstone (c.1473-1521) made a will leaving her a bequest of £10 and identifying her as “one of the queen’s chamberers.” The will was proved in October 1522. Margery remained with the queen until December 1533. She was dismissed for refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy. An Elizabeth Otwell left at the same time. When she was dying, Catherine asked that Margery be given a bequest of £40 and also remembered Margery’s daughter, Isabel. As Isabel is the Spanish version of Elizabeth, it is possible she was the Elizabeth Otwell in Catherine’s service in 1533.

ELIZABETH OUGHTRED
see ELIZABETH SEYMOUR

BRIDGET OVER (d.1574+)
Bridget Over was the daughter of Henry Over (alias Waver) of Coventry, Warwickshire (d. June 26, 1567) and his wife Catherine. Over was mayor of Coventry in 1554/5 and a grocer or mercer. In his will of June 24, 1567, proved November 24, 1567, he named a long list of relatives, including the children of his daughters. By a marriage settlement dated November 18, 1550, Bridget married John Nethermill of Coventry (d. October 31, 1559), a draper and mayor of Coventry in 1557/8. They had one son, also named John. His will left Bridget life interest in a house at Exhall, Warwickshire and named her one of his executors. Before 1561, Bridget married Stephen Hales of Gladbury, Worcestershire, Tottenham, Middlesex, and Coventry (d.1574), a merchant taylor. His four sons and one or two daughters were probably the children of his first wife. In his will of February 17, 1574, he appointed Bridget one of his executors.

ANNE OVERALL
see ANNE ORWELL

ALICE OWEN
see ALICE WILKES

ANNE OWEN
see ANNE DEVEREUX; ANNE RAWLEY

ELIZABETH OWEN (d.1551+)
Elizabeth Owen was the daughter of Sir David Owen (1459-1535) and Anne Devereux (d.1554+) and a legatee in the 1529 will of her father. Before April 27, 1535, she married Sir Thomas Borough (d.1542), son of Thomas, 3rd baron Borough (Burgh) of Gainsborough (1483-February 28,1549/50). In 1537, when Elizabeth gave birth to her first child (Margaret), her father-in-law believed she was guilty of adultery and disowned her. Destitute, living in her mother’s house, Elizabeth petitioned Thomas Cromwell for an income. In 1543, matters deteriorated further when her father-in-law secured an act of Parliament that declared all three of the children born to Elizabeth during his son’s lifetime to be illegitimate. The summary of this act in Letters and Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, vol 18, pt. 1 (1543) p. 46 #66 (London: HMSO, 1901) reads: “That whereas Elizabeth Burgh, late wife of Thomas lord Burgh (sic) lived in adultery during her husband’s lifetime, and had children Margaret, Humfrey and Arthur by persons other than her husband, as she has partly confessed, these children are to be taken as bastards.” Katherine Parr, who was also, briefly, one of Lord Burgh’s daughter-in-laws, paid Elizabeth a pension from her own chamber accounts during her tenure as queen (1543-1547). Ironically, in his will, Lord Borough left Elizabeth’s daughter, Margaret, a legacy of 700 marks, an indication that he might have changed his mind. The 3rd baron Burgh was, according to Katherine Parr’s biographer, Susan James, a tyrant who ruled his family with an iron hand. There was also a strain of madness in the Borough family.

JANE OWEN (d. before 1634)
Jane Owen, according to John Owen the Latin epigrammist (in a verse published in 1607), was his relative, the eldest of six daughters, and a resident of Oxford. He praised her abilities as a Latin poet. Her An Antidote Against Purgatory was published posthumously in 1634. She was clearly a Roman Catholic, but other information about her remains speculative. It has been suggested that she was the daughter of George Owen of Godstow, Oxfordshire (c.1499-October 18, 1558), who was a royal physician to both Henry VIII and Queen Mary, but if she was related to him at all, she was more likely to have been his granddaughter.

MARY OWEN
see MARY LONG

ALICE OXENBRIDGE
see ALICE FOGGE

ELIZABETH OXENBRIDGE (c.1519-April 1578)
Elizabeth Oxenbridge was the daughter of Goddard Oxenbridge (1465-February 10, 1531) of Brede and his second wife, Anne Fiennes (1490-May 24, 1531). She was at court in the household of Queen Jane Seymour in 1537. After the queen’s death, she resided with Mary Arundell, countess of Sussex. She attempted to place one of her sisters, Mary Oxenbridge, in the Calais household of Honor Grenville, viscountess Lisle, but Mary thwarted the plan by eloping with a gentleman from Kent. By 1539, Elizabeth was married to Sir Robert Tyrwhitt (c.1504-1572) of Leighton Bromswold, Huntingdonshire. Their children included two who died young and Katherine (1541-1567). On August 4, 1539, Elizabeth and several other gentlewomen wrote a letter to King Henry from Portsmouth, where they had gone to view the royal fleet. When Catherine Howard became queen, Elizabeth was a gentlewoman of the privy chamber. During Anne Parr Herbert’s absence from court to have a child, Elizabeth temporarily took over her duties as keeper of the queen’s jewels. She was a lady of the privy chamber to Katherine Parr and shared the queen’s views on religion. It is probably at this time that her book of prayers was written. Her husband was Katherine’s master of horse. Both she and her husband remained with the queen dowager after Henry VIII’sdeath and Elizabeth, in testimony before the Privy Council, gave an eyewitness account of the queen dowager’s death on September 5, 1548. Elizabeth’s dislike of Katherine Parr’s last husband, Lord Admiral Thomas Seymour, comes through clearly in this report. A short time later, Sir Robert and Lady Tyrwhitt were put in charge of Princess Elizabeth at Hatfield, following the removal of the princess’s longtime governess, Kat Astley, who was suspected of plotting to marry her young charge to the widowed Lord Admiral. Upon Lady Tyrwhitt’s arrival, the princess locked herself in her room and declared that she did not need a governess. Sir Robert was of the opinion that she needed two and Lady Tyrwhitt stayed on even after Kat Astley’s return to the household. Although Sir Robert continued as master of horse under Mary Tudor, Elizabeth seems to have stayed at home. When the princess was in the Tower, Lady Tyrwhitt sent her a copy of the book of prayers later printed as Lady Elizabeth Tyrwhitt’s Morning and Evening Prayers (1574). In 1572, Sir Robert’s will left the bulk of his estate to his “deare and wellbeloved wife.” In 1577, the Puritan printer John Field dedicated his translation of Jean de L’Espine’s Excellent treatise of Christian righteousness to Lady Tyrwhitt. Some genealogies give her a second husband, Roger Fynes. Elizabeth died in her home in St. John’s Lane, Clerkenwell. Biographies: Susan M. Felch, ed., Elizabeth Tyrwhit’s Morning and Evening Prayers (2008); Oxford DNB entry under “Tyrwhit [née Oxenbridge], Elizabeth.” Portrait: marble effigy in St. Mary’s parish church, Leighton Bromswold.

ELIZABETH OXENBRIDGE (c.1529-January 1590)
Elizabeth Oxenbridge was the daughter of Thomas Oxenbridge (1502-March 28,1540), half brother of the Elizabeth Oxenbridge who died in 1578, and Elizabeth Puttenham (1507-1529). Around 1540, she married Robert Tyrwhitt of Kettleby (1526-November 16, 1581), nephew of the Robert Tyrwhitt married to her aunt. Since he was also at court. some accounts confuse the two Robert and Elizabeth Tyrwhitts, or try to combine them into one couple. The Tyrwhitts of Kettleby had twenty-two children, all of whom are pictured on their tomb in Bigby, Lincolnshire. Among them were William (d.1591), Edward (1551-1577), Margaret (b.1552), Ursula (1553-1618), Marmaduke (d.1589), Goddard (b.1556), John (b.1557), Anne, George (b.c.1562), Mary, Robert (b.1565), Humphrey (1566-1579), Elizabeth, Frances (1572-1601+), and Roger (c.1573-1610). Elizabeth was buried on January 25, 1589/90. Portraits: A set of portraits of “Elizabeth Oxenham (sic), Lady Tyrwit” and her husband by Cornelius Ketel, painted in 1573, are referred to in Roy Strong’s The English Icon but not reproduced there. Their location was unknown at the time of that book’s publication in 1969; effigy.

MALYN OXENBRIDGE (1475-October 3, 1544)
Malyn Oxenbridge was the daughter of Sir Robert Oxenbridge of Ford Place in Brede, Sussex and Anne Lyvelode. She married Sir Richard Carew of Beddington(c.1470-May 23, 1520). Their children were Margaret (b.c.1510), Elizabeth (d. February 4, 1532), Ann, Sir Nicholas (x. March 3, 1539), and Mary. Malyn’s inheritance from her husband included lands he had recently purchased in the county of Guisnes. After her son’s execution for treason, Lady Carew continued to live in Beddington, possibly in the building later called the Old Post Office. Later in 1539, her grandson, Charles Carew (x.1540), rector of Beddington and the illegitimate son of Sir Nicholas, conspired to rob Malyn of her money, plate, and jewelry. A letter exists from Malyn to Lord Cromwell, thanking him for his kindness and asking for mercy for the offenders. In it she writes “if I had my sight I would have waited on you to thank you.” Some records give her name as Maude. The reports that she had another husband before Richard Carew are incorrect. Some sources name William Cheyney, but he was married to Malyn’s niece, Malyn Fincham. Others say she wed Arthur Darcy of Huntingdon, but this is based on Malyn’s reference to a “son” by that name. She was probably referring to her granddaughter’s husband. Malyn was buried with Carew at St. Mary’s, Beddington, Surrey.

ANNE OXENBRIGGE
see ANNE LAUNCELYN

OXENHAM
see OXENBRIDGE