Jane Packington was the daughter of Humphrey Packington (1502-1556), a mercer, and Elizabeth Harding (d. September 27, 1563). On January 15, 1541 at St. Michael Bassishaw, London, Jane married Humphrey Baskerville or Baskerfield of Wolverley, Worcestershire (d. March 1564), a mercer and alderman. Their children, baptized between 1544 and 1561, were Elizabeth, Humphrey, Angelica, Sarah, Mary, Richard, Anne (March 10, 1559-May 14, 1622), and Martha. Another child was born posthumously. Baskerville left Jane a very wealthy widow. In his will, written September 1, 1563, he also appointed guardians from among his fellow mercers and relatives for his minor children. Anne and Martha were to go to Richard Hollyman, Humphrey to Thomas Heaton, Angell to William Leonard, Richard to John Jackson, and Sarah to Harry Hungate, who was married to Elizabeth and received £200 as her dowry. Jane was to bring up “the childe she nowe goeth withall.” On June 29, 1564 at St. Peter West Cheap, Jane married Lionel Duckett (1511-August 1587), another mercer and Lord Mayor of London in 1572-3. They had a son, Thomas (1566-c.1608), who was his father’s heir, the only child of a first marriage having died young. At the time his father died, Thomas was out of favor for marrying against his wishes. Jane died between September 8, 1589 and February 4, 1590.





MARIE PAGES (c. 1567-1587+)
Marie Pages was the eldest daughter of Sebastian Pages and Christine Hogg, loyal servants of Mary Queen of Scots. She entered Mary’s household as a chamberwoman in 1573, when she was no more than five years old. After Mary was executed in 1587 her ladies, including Marie and her mother, were held at Fotheringay until July 30, when they were taken to Peterborough Cathedral for Mary’s funeral. It was September before they were finally released and allowed to leave England. Mary left Marie Pages 2000 francs in her will and asked the duchess of Guise to take her into her household.


ANNE PAGET (c.1540-c.1590-4)
Anne Paget was the daughter of William, 1st baron Paget of Beaudesert (1505-June 9, 1563) and Anne Preston (c.1510-February 1587). In 1560, she married Sir Henry Lee (c.1533-February 12, 1611). Their children, John, Henry, and Mary, all seem to have died young. There is a story that Anne fostered an illegitimate child borne by Lettice Knollys, countess of Essex, to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, before their marriage. Lettice was a kinswoman of the Lee family through her grandmother, who was married to both a Lee and a Knollys. In 1583/4, Anne’s brother, Thomas, 3rd baron Paget, who went into exile in Paris following the discovery of the Throckmorton conspiracy, Paget wrote to his mother and included a note to his sister, asking her to make arrangements for his servants to join him in exile and to take care of his son and heir, William Paget (1572-1629). In August 1592, Queen Elizabeth visited the Sir Henry Lee at Quarendon, Buckinghamshire in the Vale of Aylesbury for two days. Although most online sources date Anne’s death in 1590, some give 1594. Lady Lee was buried at Aylesbury.

ANNE PAGET (d.1607)
Anne Paget was the daughter of Robert Paget (d. January 1541/2), alderman of London and sheriff in 1536, and Grace Farringdon. In July 1542, her mother married Sir William Sharington of Lacock Abbey (c.1495-1553) as his third wife. In May 1548, Anne married Sir William’s younger brother and heir, Sir Henry Sharington (d.1581). Their children were Ursula (d.1576), Grace (c.1552-1620), William (d.yng), and Olive. Portraits: Hans Holbein drew Sir William Sharington and it would be logical that he’d have done matching portraits of husband and wife, but Anne may be the Lady Sharington in the Holbein sketch later engraved by GS and JG Facius; possible portrait by the Master of the Countess of Warwick, 1575 (now at Lacock).

AUDREY PAGET (c. 1535-1587)
Audrey (or Ethelreda) Paget was the eldest daughter of William, 1st baron Paget of Beaudesert (1505-June 9, 1563) and Anne Preston (c.1510-February 1587). She married Sir Christopher Alleyn of Ightham Mote, Kent and West Drayton, Middlesex (d. February 14, 1586), illegitimate son of Sir John Allyn, Lord Mayor of London.They had six sons and two daughters, including Charles. Allyn inherited great wealth from his father. He was known to keep “a vile, papistical house,” but was left in peace until September 1585, when his house, especially Lady Alleyn’s chamber, was searched and members of the household were questioned. In 1587, by then a widow, Lady Alleyn was listed as a recusant.



DOWSABELL PAGET (c.1559-1602)
Dowsabell Paget was the only child of James Paget of Grove Place, Nursling, Hampshire, by his second of three wives. On December 16, 1574, Lord Keeper Sir Nicholas Bacon signed an agreement with Paget for the marriage of Dowsabell and his eldest son, Anthony Bacon. Anthony was sixteen and Dowsabell a little younger. The marriage was to take place in May 1575. They would have an allowance of £75/year for the first three years, after which, from the Lord Keeper, there would be an estate worth £100/year, together with leases worth an equal amount per annum. In addition, after the death of Lady Bacon, they would have a further £300/year from her jointure. Bacon would pay Paget £565 and in return Paget would guarantee that, after his death and that of his wife, the couple would have a guaranteed income of £314/year. Paget promptly added an heraldic shield to the gallery of Grove Place, showing the arms of his future son-in-law. If the wedding had gone forward, the couple would never have received the £300 from the jointure—Lady Bacon (Anne Cooke) outlived them both—but Anthony Bacon never married and Dowsabell wed William Paulet of Paultons, Eling, Hampshire, a grandson of his namesake, the marquis of Winchester. Their children were Chediock, Thomas, Edward, John, Elizabeth, Dowsabel, Catherine, and William. Her second husband was John More of North Baddesley, Hampshire (c.1561-August 15, 1620). They had four sons and two daughters.


GRISEL or GRISELDA PAGET (1542-July 21, 1600)
Grisel or Griselda Paget was the seventh daughter of William Paget, 1st baron Paget of Beaudesert (1505-June 9, 1563) and Anne Preston (c.1510-February 1587). She was christened on December 3, 1542 in St. Mary the Virgin, Aldermansbury, London. In about 1565, she married Thomas Rivett or Revet of Chippenham, Cambrideshire (1519-October 1582), a wealthy London mercer, as his second wife. They had one child, Anne (1568-November 27, 1615). By his first marriage, to Alice Cotton (1537-1564), Rivett already had three daughters, Mirabel (1561-July 15, 1593), Isabel (1563-d.yng), and Alice (1564-1582+). On August 30, 1578, Queen Elizabeth visited the Rivetts at Chippenham, but Thomas was not knighted until 1580. As Grisel’s husband lay dying, plans were being made for her daughter to marry one of Lord Burghley’s grandsons. The account in Charlotte Merton’s The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth indicates that young Anne’s primary appeal was her expected income—£1000 a year. She was also a good age to marry, almost fourteen in that October of 1582. One of Sir Francis Knollys’ younger sons was also interested in marrying her. At the queen’s request, Grisel supported Knollys, but Anne rejected the match. The queen sent Thomas Wilkes to investigate. Wilkes thought Grisel had influenced her daughter and suggested that Anne come to court, but Grisel refused to let her daughter go. Rather surprisingly, she was allowed to keep Anne at home. Merton suggests Grisel’s many influential relatives at court swayed the queen and goes on to say that although young Knollys shifted his affections to Anne’s half sister Alice, Alice wouldn’t marry him either. On November 11, 1583 in St. Dunstan, Stepney, Grisel married Sir William Waldegrave of Smallbridge Hall, Bures St. Mary, Suffolk (1533-August 17, 1613) as his second wife. Meanwhile, Lord North had become the guardian of the two unmarried Rivett girls, Alice and Anne. In 1586, Anne married Henry, 5th baron Windsor. Grisel died at Smallbridge. Portrait: effigy with Anne Cotton, Rivett’s first wife, on Rivett monument in St. Margaret’s Church, Chippenham.



FRANCES PAGIT (1549-1589+) (maiden name unknown)
Frances was born in Suffolk. By 1570, she married Eusebius Pagit (Paget/Padgett) of Cranford, Northamptonshire (1546/7-1617), rector of Old, Northamptonshire. They had at least four children, including Ephriam (c.1574-1646), Katherine (b.1580), and Nathaniel (1589-1589). Pagit was suspended in 1571. On April 21, 1572, he became rector at Lamport, Northamptonshire but was again suspended (for nonconformity) on January 28, 1574. On June 19, 1575, he was appointed rector of Barnwell St. Andrew, but again ran into trouble with the established church and was again deprived of his living. Remaining in Northamptonshire, he took refuge with his uncle, John Isham, probably at Pitchley, where he established the habit of a daily question and answer session on the Bible, reading an Old Testament chapter at dinner and a New Testament chapter at supper. In 1580, Sir Richard Grenville was persuaded to present him to the rectory of Kilkhampton, Cornwall. There he established a school with David Black, a Presbyterian from Scotland. For his refusal to conform to the Prayer Book—among other things, he left out portions of the prescribed services—Pagit was informed against, brought before the High Commission, and once again suspended. Grenville then appointed a cousin, William Tucker, to take his place, but Mrs. Pagit refused to vacate the parsonage. She had only recently recovered from childbirth and was determined to stay on with her children. Supporters rallied around her, including David Black and his wife, a man named Fullerton, and John Kempthorne of Tonacombe Manor, a local justice of the peace. On one particular Sunday in the winter of 1584/5, Mrs. Pagit and her friends did not attend church. When churchwardens were sent to investigate, she and her family and friends barricaded themselves in the house. Grenville procured a precept from the Stannary Court to arrest them as trespassers and used this to take Kempthorne and Mrs. Black into custody. He then tried to reason with Mrs. Pagit, but she challenged him to throw her out, which he eventually did. When he was later accused of terrorizing Mrs. Pagit and committing unlawful violence, he claimed that he had offered to let her remain for two or three more months if she would make room for the incoming incumbent. The family moved on to Heston, Middlesex, then to Deptford, Kent. On June 3, 1591, Pagit wrote to Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, appealing to him to prevent his children and the orphans in his care from being evicted from his house and forced to beg. It is not clear whether his wife was still living at that point. Pagit remained in Deptford until 1598, when he was appointed lecturer at St. Botolph, Aldgate in London. In spite of a brief suspension, he remained there until 1604, when he became rector of St. Anne and St. Agnes, Aldersgate. His son Ephriam was granted letters of administration for his estate on June 16, 1617.

ANNE PAKENHAM (d. October 22, 1544)
Anne Pakenham was the daughter of Sir Hugh Pakenham (Packenha/Pagenham) of Kirby Mallory, Leicestershire (d. c. 1612) and Anne Clement (d.1510). Her first husband,  Sir Thomas Fitzwilliam of Aldwark, Yorkshire (c.1474-September 9, 1513), was killed at Flodden. Their children were Alice (d.1535/6), Margaret (d. February 7, 1557), William (c.1510-June 17, 1515+), and John (c.1512-August 28, 1513+). In 1517, she married Sir William Sidney (1482-1554). Their children were Mary (d.1542), Mabel, Elizabeth, Anne or Agnes (1525-1602), Henry (July 20, 1529-May 5, 1586), Frances (c.1531-March 9, 1589), Lucy (b.1538), and a son and daughter who died young. In March 1538, Sidney waas appointed Prince Edward’s steward and Anne was given a place as the prince’s governess.

CONSTANCE PAKENHAM (c.1505-August 12, 1570)
Constance Pakenham was the daughter and coheiress of Sir Edmund Pakenham of Lordington in Racton, Sussex (1480-1528) and his wife, who was the daughter of John Compton of Hawton, Nottinghamshire. Some sources give Sir John Pakenham as her father, but he was her grandfather. On July 9, 1528, before her father’s death, Constance married Sir Geoffrey Pole (1502-November 1, 1558). They lived at Lordlington, which they later inherited. Their children were Katherine (d. September 1598+), Arthur (1531-1570), Edmund (1541-August 12, 1570), Anne, Thomas (d.1570), Geoffrey (1546-March 9, 1591), Henry, Elizabeth, Mary (d.1571), Margaret (d. 1571+), and another Katherine who died young. Geoffrey was heavily in debt and did not get along with his neighbors in the West Sussex parish of Racton. In 1529, he and Constance’s mother, together with Constance’s brother-in-law, Edmund Marvyn, were accused of conspiring together in a land dispute. On May 1, 1531, the hedge Constance and Geoffrey had used to enclose part of a wood was pulled down on orders from the 11th earl of Arundel. By 1532, Pole had become embroiled in treason and on August 29, 1538, he was arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London. The primary charge was that he wrote letters to his brother, Cardinal Pole, an acknowledged traitor who was living abroad. These had not been vetted by the Crown, raising suspicions of a plot against the king. Constance was also examined and was with Geoffrey in the Tower for a time. When she realized how indiscreet her husband had been, she warned her brother-in-law, Lord Montagu, that he was in danger. The warning came too late. The entire Pole family was implicated in treason. Geoffrey Pole was tried on December 4, 1538 and condemned, as were his brother and others. Geoffrey twice tried to take his own life. He was pardoned on January 4, 1539. It was said that Constance’s plea that her husband was so ill as to be as good as dead was what won his release, but the more prevalent rumor was that he was pardoned because he’d provided evidence against the rest of his family. He was back in Sussex by April 1539, when Constance was involved in a lawsuit and he wrote to Thomas Cromwell to assist her. In September 1540, he in the Fleet on a charge of assault. Once again, he was pardoned, but he was banished from court. Once again, Constance’s intercession was credited with getting him out of jail. According to some accounts, after his mother (the countess of Salisbury) was executed on May 27, 1541, Pole fled the country, leaving his wife and children behind, and remained in exile, insane with guilt, for the rest of his life. The History of Parliament contradicts this, stating that he and his wife were granted Grandisons Manor in Kent in May 1543. He did leave England in 1548, under King Edward VI. Constance remained in England and, possibly because she shared a great-grandfather with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, was treated with kindness. In December 1552, Geoffrey wrote to his wife that he pined for her after four years of separation. After his return to England during the reign of Mary Tudor, he faced death threats from his nephew, Edward Courtenay, earl of Devon, who blamed him for his father’s death. Constance’s sons, Arthur and Edmund, who had inherited their father’s royal blood, were sent to the Tower for treason in 1562 and died there. Constance made her will on August 7. 1570, asking to be buried beside her husband in the church of Stoughton, near Chichester in Sussex. It was proved September 20, 1570 and can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com


Catherine Pakington was the daughter of Sir Thomas Pakington of Aylesbury, Berkshire (c.1520-June 2, 1571) and Dorothy Kytson (1531-May 2, 1577). In 1577, she married John Davy of Turville, Buckinghamshire (1552-1589). In 1590, she married Jasper More or Moore of Heytesbury, Wiltshire (1552-March 1609), who was knighted in 1603. Contradicting this, the History of Parliament says they married c. 1583 and identifies her first husband as John Davy of West Harnham. In his 1597 will, More left Catherine her clothing, household goods, including those given her by her first husband, grain in the barms at Harnham parsonage, and a coach and two horses. A 1606 codicil left her all the money in the house at the time of his death plus £200. A 1609 codicil changed the £200 to £400 and added the lease of West Harnham. On December 8, 1610, in St. Margaret’s Westminster, she married Richard Mompesson of Salisbury, Wiltshire and Teddington (1548-1627) as his third wife. A letter from Matthew Nicholas to Edward Nicholas found in the Calendar of State Papers for May 14, 1622 says “Lady Mompesson is dead and has left Edward Nicholas and his father trustees to her strange will, made much to the prejudice of her husband.” Portrait: effigy on Mompesson tomb.




FRANCES PALGRAVE (c.1497-1532+?)
Frances Palgrave was the daughter of Henry Palgrave (Palsgrave/Pagrave) of Little Palgrave, Norfolk (c.1470-October 1516) and Anne Glemham (d.1518+). Through her maternal grandmother, she was a cousin of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and was a lady in waiting to Brandon’s wife, Mary Tudor, former queen of France. She married Sir William Pennington of Muncaster (1487-April 20, 1532). They had at least two children, Anne (c.1506-1544+) and William (1517-March 5, 1573). Frances’s husband was a tenant of the duke of Suffolk, occupying the manor of Costessey, Norfolk. Sir Richard Southwell, a follower of the duke of Norfolk, killed Sir William in the sanctuary at Westminster Abbey. Details are frustratingly scarce, but Southwell and his twenty men, including his brothers Robert and Anthony, were pardoned and he was fined £1000. In lieu of payment, Southwell ceded two manors, Coggeshall and Fillols Hall, Essex, to the king.

ELIANOR de la PALMA (d.1537+)
Elianor de la Palma was the wife of Diego Sanchez, a Spaniard living in London in the parish of St. Benet when he made his will on April 4, 1537. He named Elianor his executor, but made provision for her to receive help from John Deez, a Portuguese gentleman living in London, because Elianor was “old and a stranger and cannot understand the speech of the country.” She was to receive the bulk of his estate. The residual heir was the lawfully begotten son, John Sanchez. However, there was another heir, also named John Sanchez, “my younger son and bastard,” who was to receive a third of the goods after Elianor died. Further, Diego left his slave, Johan (Joan) to Elianor for two years, after which she was to be freed. As for the two “wynches” Diego had by Joan, Agnes and Mary, “the whiche be now present in my house,” Elianor was to “kepe them with her in her poer and governaunce and bringe them up till they come to lawfull age and to fynde them all thinges necessary till they come to their lawfull tyme of maryage.” Each was to have ten thousand marvades as a dowry and “household stuf.” If one died, the other was to have her portion. If both died unmarried, the twenty thousand marvades was to stay with Elianor. “Marvades” probably referred to Spanish copper coins valued at about one sixth of a penny each. The will of Diego Sanchez can be found at http://www.british-history.ac.uk in “London Consistory Court Wills 1492-1547.” There is no notation as to when it was proved.

ALICE PALMER (d. November 1573)
Alice Palmer was the eldest daughter of John Palmer of Kentish Town, Middlesex (d.1542) and Eleanor Cheeseman (d. February 29, 1558). She married William Stanford (Stamford/Staunford) of Hadley, Middlesex (August 22, 1509-August 28, 1558), chief justice of the common pleas. He was knighted in 1555. Their children were Robert (1540-March 20, 1607), Thomas, William, Henry and Margaret (twins), Ralph (who became a seminary priest), John, Catherine, Frances, Dorothy, and Anne (d. February 1551). Stanford made his will on April 4, 1558. It mentions three daughters and five sons, names Alice executrix, and leaves her 200 marks worth of household goods. She already had a life interest in all his lands and tenements in London and Middlesex, including Hadley. In November 1558, the queen visited Lady Stanford at Hadley. In April 1559, she received the grant of her eldest son’s wardship. She married Roger Carew (d. December 14, 1590), the younger son of a Cornwall family. They had one son, Henry (c.1560-December 12, 1626). Carew held Hadley in the right of his wife until her death. In September 1571, the queen visited them there. Alice was buried on November 3, 1573 in the church at Monken Hadley, where her son, Henry Carew, erected a monument to himself and his mother.



CATHERINE PALMER (c.1500-December 19, 1576)
Catherine Palmer was the daughter of Sir Edward Palmer of Angmering, Sussex (c.1470-1516/17) and Alice Clement. In the 1530s, she was a Bridgettine nun at Syon. When the monastery was dissolved on November 25, 1539, she received a pension of £6. It is unclear where she spent the next twelve years, but on June 24, 1550 she was the first of a group of Bridgettines to arrive in the Low Countries to join the house of Maria Troon at Termonde, near Louvain in Flanders. Cardinal Reginald Pole visited there in November 1554. On March 1, 1557, twenty-one sisters and three brothers were officially reestablished at Syon. Catherine Palmer was elected abbess on July 31, 1557. Unfortunately, with the accession of Elizabeth Tudor, they were once more forced into exile. Syon was dissolved by Parliament in May 1559. Catherine left England in the party of the departing ambassador from Spain and returned to Termonde. Pope Pius IV had issued a papal bull on July 7, 1563 to ask church leaders, particularly the Archbishop of Utrecht, to assist the nuns in exile from Syon Abbey. In 1564, Catherine and others moved first to Zurich Zee, then to Mishagen, near Antwerp (1568-1571), and finally to Mechelen, where a Calvinist mob sacked the convent on November 8, 1576. After burying Catherine Palmer in Mechelen, the other nuns moved on, eventually settling in Lisbon, Portugal in 1594. Sisters from that convent returned to England in two groups, one in 1809 and the other in 1861, and eventually established a permanent community, still extant, in Devon. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Palmer, Katherine.” See also Mary C. Erler, Reading and Writing During the Dissolution: Monks, Friars, and Nuns 1530-1558, pp.121-123.



JANE PALMER (c.1565-before 1634)
Jane Palmer was the daughter of Sir Thomas Palmer of Wingham, Kent (1540-January 7, 1625) and Margaret Poley (c.1542-August 1625). She married William Meredith of Blackfriars, London, Stansty, Denbighshire, and Leeds, Kent (d.c.1604), a merchant in Antwerp who spent much of his life abroad and was knighted in 1603. Although she is sometimes listed as the mother of his daughter, Jane, it is more likely that all three of his children were the offspring of his first wife. From 1599, Meredith was treasurer at war in the Low Countries. He wrote his will on July 6, 1603, leaving his wife 1000 marks in ready money and the parsonage of Bassingbourne, Cambridgeshire for forty-five years. After her death it was to go to his son William. Also mentioned in the will were his daughters Anne and Jane. His widow married John Vaughan of Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire, Wales (c.1575-May 6, 1634), who was created baron Vaughan of Mullengar in 1621 and earl of Carbery in 1628. He had two children by his first marriage but none by Jane. Most sources say she died before him, but a few online genealogies give her date of death, without attribution, as 1643. Portrait: unknown artist and date.



MARY PALMER (c.1564-April 14, 1602)
Mary Palmer was the daughter of Jerome Palmer and Eleanor Paget and the granddaughter of William Paget, 1st baron Paget. She married William Colles or Coles of Leigh, Worcestershire (d.1615). Their five sons and seven daughters included Edmund, who was listed as a recusant in 1609. Portrait: Mary appears in effigy, kneeling, on the tomb of her father-in-law, Edmund Colles (1530-1606) in St. Eadburga in Leigh. The tomb is somewhat unusual in that it does not include either of Edmund’s wives or his other children, only William, William’s wife, and their children. Mary is shown holding a book.



ELIZABETH PARIS (d.March 31, 1591)
Elizabeth Paris was the daughter of Sir Philip Paris of Little Linton, Cambridgeshire (1492-March 4,1558) and Margaret Bowes (d.1551). In 1547, she married Sir Thomas Lovell (1526-April 23, 1567) of Barton Bendish and East Harling, Norfolk. Their children were Thomas, Philip, Francis, Henry, Thomas the Younger, Robert, Edmund, Anne, Audrey, Catherine, and Ellen or Eleanor. When he died in 1564, Sir Richard Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk, left his two illegitimate daughters jewelry that he’d left in Elizabeth’s keeping. In his will, dated December 1, 1566, Lovell left his wife all his land at Attleborough, Buckingham, and West Dereham, Norfolk; Burwell, Upware and Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire; and in Rutland and Kent for life. Elizabeth was the Lady Lovell arrested in 1585. She and her son Robert were released by the queen’s command with immunity from further prosecution. In 1588, Lady Lovell sent a midwife to christen the child of Francis Lovell of West Derham and although the authorities made stringent efforts to discover the midwife’s name, they still had not managed to identify her three years later. Elizabeth’s will, dated December 28, 1590 and proved July 14, 1595 included a bequest to her daughter-in-law of household stuff delivered to her “before my going to prison.” She was buried in East Harling, Norfolk.


ELIZABETH PARKE (1544-September 15, 1567)
Although some genealogies say that Elizabeth Parke was the daughter of John Parke of Malmain, the inscription on her tomb identifies her as the daughter of Sir Richard Parke of Pluckley, Kent. Om 1560, she married John Roper (c.1534-August 30, 1618). Their children were Christopher (c.1561-April 16, 1622), Elizabeth (1564-c.1625), and Jane (c.1564-1628). Portrait: effigy with her husband in Lynsted Church, Kent.


ARABELLA PARKER (d.1520+) (maiden name unknown)
Arabella Parker is the name given by Hubert S. Burke in his Historical Portrait of the Tudor Dynasty, a four volume history published in 1879-83, to the royal mistress who allegedly replaced Elizabeth Blount in King Henry VIII’s affections. Burke says Arabella was the wife of a London merchant but provides no other information and no source for his claim. Whether there ever was a real Arabella Parker remains conjectural. Alison Weir, in Mary Boleyn also points out that Arabella/Arbella was a Scots name not in common use in England.The Mistress Parker who participated in the revels of March 1522 is unlikely to have been a merchant’s wife and was probably Jane Parker, who later married George Boleyn.


Elizabeth Parker was a young lady from a respectable Horrocksford family when she met Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh, Lancashire (c.1518-1582+). According to an online biography of Rishton, they had lived together for some time before his father and her mother pushed for a marriage between them, even though Rishton had a wife still living. He sought a divorce on the grounds that this wife was insane. His petition was refused by Chancellor Bonner of Chester, but since the Rishtons and Towneleys (his wife’s family) were Catholic, he applied to the Lancashire representative of Pope Clement for a dispensation to divorce. This request was granted and Ralph and Elizabeth were married in Clitheroe Church. They had six sons, including Nicholas, Roger, William, Henry, and Geoffrey. In about 1552, in spite of the fact that by then they had several children, they were ordered to separate by an ecclesiastical court of the Church of England. This body declared that Ralph was still married to Helen Towneley, his marriage to Elizabeth was illegal, and his sons were all illegitimate. After Helen died, Ralph might have married Elizabeth, but he did not. In fact, from around 1550, he was involved with yet a third young gentlewoman, Anne Stanley of Cross Hall. In 1573, Elizabeth attempted to sue one of Ralph’s tenants over her dower rights but the case went against her.


FRANCES PARKER (c.1585-1654)
Frances Parker was the daughter of Edward Parker, 12th baron Morley (1551-April 1, 1618) and Elizabeth Stanley (1558-June 12, 1585). On July 6, 1607, she married Christopher Danby (1582-1624). He was supposed to receive a marriage portion of £1000 upon their marriage but the marriage settlement could not be agreed upon. Although they often lived apart, and it was generally believed he was unfaithful to her, they did have a son, Thomas (1610-August 5, 1660), and a daughter, Katherine (February 24, 1611/12-1646). Frances was convicted of recusancy. Christopher conformed, and also accused her of adultery.



JANE PARKER (c.1505-x. February 13, 1542)
Jane Parker was the daughter of Henry Parker, 8th baron Morley (1476-November 25, 1556) and Alice St. John (1486-1552/3) but she is best known as Lady Rochford, wife and then widow of George Boleyn (1503-1536), Queen Anne’s brother, to whom she was married in 1525. She gave damning evidence against her husband and sister-in-law. After their executions, she returned to court as a lady of the bedchamber to Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, and Catherine Howard. She gave evidence to help King Henry VIII annul his marriage to Anne of Cleves. During the tenure of Catherine Howard, Jane helped the young queen betray her husband. Just how involved Jane was is subject to much debate. The evidence she gave in interrogations in 1541 was disjointed and contradictory. She is said to have run mad when she realized she would be executed along with the queen. A letter in Catherine Howard’s handwriting condemned her. The queen wrote to Thomas Culpepper to “come when my Lady Rochford is here, for then I shall be at leisure to be your commandment.” The George Boleyn (d. 1603) who became dean of Litchfield is highly unlikely to have been either Jane’s son or her husband’s, since he is not mentioned in the will of Jane’s father-in-law, Thomas Boleyn. Biographies: Julia Fox’s Jane Boleyn; Oxford DNB entry under “Boleyn [née Parker], Jane.”


Margaret Parker was the daughter of Henry Parker, Lord Morley (1476-November 27, 1556) and Alice St. John (1486-1552/3). Some sources say she was older than her sister Jane, but Jane’s biographer, Julia Fox (Jane Boleyn) feels she was probably a year or two younger. She married Sir John Shelton (d. November 15, 1558). Their children were Ralph (d.1580), Anne (c.1535-August 12, 1558), Alice (c.1540-October 4, 1605), Mary (c.1550-August 16, 1603), and Thomas (May 19, 1558-December 25, 1595). Margaret is identified in some biographies of Anne Boleyn as the Madge Shelton who was briefly a royal mistress while Anne was queen, but this confuses her with Margaret and Mary Shelton, Sir John’s sisters. On Whit Sunday in June 1536, about three weeks after Anne was executed, Margaret was probably the daughter who went with her parents, Lord and Lady Morley, to visit Mary Tudor at Hunsdon. Her mother-in-law, Lady Shelton, was in charge of the princess’s household. Ms. Fox also cites records of gifts from Mary Tudor to Margaret—a frontlet worth eight shillings and £1 to the nurse and midwife at the christening of one of the Sheltons’ children.


MARY PARKER (c.1539-November 7, 1566?)
Mary Parker was the second daughter of Sir Henry Parker (c.1513-January 6, 1552) and Grace Newport (1515-c.1549). She is sometimes confused with her niece, the daughter of Henry Parker, Lord Morley (1533-1577) and Elizabeth Stanley (d.1590). In 1560, Mary married Sir Edward Leventhorpe of Shingey Hall, Sawbridgeworth, Hertfordshire (c.1535-October 8, 1566). Their children were John (1560-September 23, 1624), Thomas (baptized at Sawbridgeworth on November 7, 1563), and Anne. The family was Catholic and Edward is said in some accounts to have spent most of his life abroad. He died in Rome. His will specified that marble slabs should be put over the graves of his father and his wife. Mary, however, still seems to have been living at the time her husband died. Her daughter, Anne, was brought up by her aunt, Lady Morley (née Elizabeth Stanley).

MARY PARKER (d.1656+)
Mary Parker was the eldest daughter of Edward, 10th baron Morley (1555-April 11, 1618) and Elizabeth Stanley (d. June 12, 1585). In 1593, Mary married Thomas Habington (August 23, 1560-October 8, 1647), who had spent the years 1586-92 in the Tower of London for his part in the Babington Conspiracy. Their children were William (November 5, 1605-1654), Mary, Frances, Elizabeth, and Anthony (d. 1649). In 1606, he again committed treason by hiding alleged conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot in the eleven secret chambers in his house in Hindlip, near Worcester. It has been suggested that Mary wrote the letter warning her brother, Lord Mounteagle, of the plot. This idea is strengthened by the fact that Habington was not executed or imprisoned in the Tower, but only restricted to Worcestershire for the remainder of his life. On the other hand, on November 4, 1605, just before the plot came to light, Mary was fully occupied with giving birth to a son. On January 18, 1606, she received word from a recusant friend that Hindlip was about to be raided. Habington had gone to Shropshire to execute a will, but in the house with Mary were Anne Vaux, two priests (Henry Garnet and Edward Oldcorne), and Nicholas Owen, designer of priest holes. When Sir Henry Bromley and his men surrounded the house, these men, together with all Catholic papers, books, vestments, and so forth were hidden away. During the next week and more, until the two priests were finally found on January 27, 1606, they were given broth and wine through a reed in the masonry linked to Mary’s bedchamber. When Habington arrived home, his wife refused to leave, rather vehemently from all accounts. Walls and floors were literally torn apart and one by one the men and objects hidden away were uncovered. Mary Habington and Anne Vaux, both the daughters of barons, were not arrested, but they followed the others to London, where Mary had a house in Fetter Lane. It is not clear if Mary had her infant son with her. In 1651, Hindlip was again plundered by soldiers. This time they stole money, jewels, and plate.



Jennet Parkinson was the daughter of John Parkinson of Whinney Clough. She married Cuthbert Hesketh of Whitehill, Lancashire (d.1629), a lawyer. Their children were Thomas, Bartholomew, Gabriel, and six daughters. She was his first wife. His second was Anne Parkinson (d.1647), daughter of Edmund Parkinson. Portrait: 1580 by George Gower.


ANNE PARR (c.1515-February 20, 1552)
Anne Parr was the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr (1478-1517) and Maud Green (1492-December 1, 1531). Her mother was a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon. Gareth Russell, in Young and Damned and Fair: The Life of Catherine Howard, Fifth Wife of King Henry VIII (2016), says she joined Anne Boleyn’s retinue shortly after Maud’s death. In 1536, Anne was a maid of honor to Queen Jane Seymour. In early 1538, Anne married William Herbert (c.1506-March 17, 1570). Their children were Henry (1540-January 19, 1601), Edward (June 1544-1594), and Anne (1545-1593). They used Baynard’s Castle as their London residence. Anne Herbert should not be confused with Lady Herbert of Troy (Blanche Milborne), who carried Elizabeth Tudor’s train at the christening of Prince Edward, or Mrs. Fitzherbert, who was chief chamberer to Queen Jane and rode in her funeral cortege in 1537. Although Anne was also in the cortege, she was not yet married. As Lady Herbert, she was keeper of the queen’s jewels to Catherine Howard, although she left while the court was on progress at Ampthill to give birth to her first child. She returned after four months, in time to attend the disgraced queen at Syon House and in the Tower. When her sister Katherine became Henry VIII’s sixth queen in 1543, Anne returned to court. For the birth of her second son, Anne’s sister loaned her the manor of Hanworth in Middlesex for her lying in. After the birth, Anne visited Lady Hertford, who had also just given birth, at Syon House near Richmond. In August, the queen sent a barge to bring Anne by river from Syon to Westminster. After Henry VIII’s death, when the queen dowager’s household was at Chelsea, both Anne and her son Edward were part of the household there. In 1551, William Herbert was created earl of Pembroke. At the time of her death, Anne was one of Princess Mary’s ladies. She died quite unexpectedly at Baynard’s Castle and was buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral next to the tomb of John of Gaunt. Her memorial there reads: “a most faithful wife, a woman of the greatest piety and discretion.” Portrait: portrait bust on one face of the 1540s porch at Wilton (now in Wilton garden); stained glass window; Susan E. James, Katherine Parr’s biographer, believes that Anne is the subject of the “unidentified” lady in a Holbein sketch; a portrait of Anne was part of the Pembroke collection in 1561.




KATHERINE PARR (c.1512-September 5, 1548)
Katherine Parr was the daughter of Thomas Parr (1478-1517) and Maud Greene (1492-December 1, 1531). She married Edward Borough (c.1508-1533) and then John, Lord Latimer (November 17, 1493-March 2, 1543). On July 12, 1543, she became the sixth wife of King Henry VIII (June 28, 1491-January 28, 1547). On April 4, 1547, she married Thomas Seymour, Baron Seymour of Sudeley (1507-x.March 10, 1549). She died giving birth to her only child, Mary (1548-1550). Biographies: Anthony Martienssen’s Queen Katherine Parr (highly speculative and poorly documented); Susan James’s Catherine Parr and its earlier incarnation, Kateryn Parr: The Making of a Queen; Elizabeth Norton’s Catherine Parr; Linda Porter’s Katherine the Queen: The Remarkable Life of Katherine Parr; Oxford DNB entry under “Katherine [Kateryn, Catherine; née Katherine Parr].” Portraits: The portrait once thought to be Lady Jane Grey by Master John c.1545 is now believed to be Katherine Parr; painting by William Scrots, 1545; miniature; others.

MABEL PARR (c.1441-November 14, 1508)
Mabel Parr was the daughter of Thomas Parr of Kendal (c.1411-1464) and Alice Tunstall. She married Humphrey, 1st baron Dacre of the North (c.1420-1485). Their children were Thomas (November 25, 1467-October 24, 1525), Catherine, Christopher, Philip, Elizabeth, and Anne. During the reign of Henry VII, Mabel was accused of “ravishing” Richard Huddleston (1481-1502), a ward of the Crown. She had married him to her daughter Elizabeth without royal permission. She was confined for nine months in Lancaster Castle until, on September 21, 1507, she and her son, the 2nd baron Dacre, made four recognizances to pay a fine of 1000 marks. By that time, the bride had died, a result (or so her brother claimed) of her distress at her mother’s imprisonment.


MAUD PARR (c. 1507-1558/9)
Maud Parr was the daughter of William Parr, Baron Parr of Horton (c.1480-September 10, 1547) and Mary Salisbury (1484-July 10, 1555). In 1523, she married Sir Ralph Lane of Orlingbury, Northamptonshire (1509-1540). They did not live together as man and wife until 1527. Their three sons and seven daughters included Laetitia, Robert (1527-c.1588), Ralph (1532-1603), Frances, Mary, Jane, Dorothy, Katherine, and William (d.1580+). In 1540, for a payment of £40, Maud acquired the wardship of her son Robert and an annuity of £10. In 1543, she entered the service of her cousin, Queen Katherine Parr. She shared evangelical religious views with the queen and several of her ladies and was at one point in danger of arrest. Several historians have misread Lady Lane as Lady Jane and believed that Lady Jane Grey was part of Katherine Parr’s protestant circle when she was queen, but Lady Jane would have been too young at that time. Maud Lane retired to Horton in 1547. The Lady Lane who gave Queen Elizabeth a New Year’s gift in 1561/2 was probably her daughter-in-law, Katherine Copley (d. March 1563), wife of her son Robert. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Lane [née Parr], Maud [Matilda].”




BLANCHE PARRY (1508-February 12, 1590)
Blanche Parry was the daughter of Henry Myles of Bacton, Hertfordshire (d.c.1528) and Alice Milborne and acquired her surname through a variant of the Welsh manner of naming a son by his father’s first name—ap Harry means son of Harry. Blanche entered the service of the young Elizabeth Tudor by 1536, obtaining her position because her aunt, Blanche Milborne, Lady Troy, was in charge of the household. Blanche remained with Elizabeth throughout Elizabeth’s younger years and continued in her service after she became queen. Blanche never married. When she died, she left bequests totaling £2,708 6s. 8d. in cash, in addition to legacies of land and jewels. Biographies: Ruth Elizabeth Richardson’s Mistress Blanche: Queen Elizabeth’s Confidante; Oxford DNB entry under “Parry, Blanche.” Portraits: several paintings, some of which are unlikely, based on the age of the sitter; two monuments, one in Bacton and the other in St. Margaret’s, Westminster, where she is buried.




Alice Partridge’s parents lived in Holborn. In 1597, she found work a maidservant in the household of Margaret Carey Hoby (1567-1605), daughter of Lord Hunsdon and wife of Sir Edward Hoby. She was dismissed six months later, after which her mother went to Agnes Wilkinson and asked that notorious bawd to find a place for her daughter. In January 1598, Mrs. Wilkinson took her in and changed her name to Alice Woodstock. Partridge, in Elizabethan slang, referred to a lascivious woman, suitable for a common whore but not for one Mrs. Wilkinson intended to offer to one of her upper class clients. Alice was dressed in finery a gentlewoman had pawned with Mrs. Wilkinson and taken to George Brooke’s chamber in Whitehall. Arrangements had been made through a Mr. Allen. In March 1598, Alice was arrested and taken to Bridewell. The most detailed account of her career is in Gustav Ungerer’s “Prostitution in Late Elizabethan England: The Case of Mary Newborough,” in Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, Vol. 15, edited by John Pitcher, Robert Lindsey, and Susan Cerasano.

ANNE PARTRIDGE (d.1557+) (maiden name unknown)
From 1525 until 1530, Anne Partridge held the post of nurse in the household of Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond (Henry VIII’s son by Elizabeth Blount) at Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire. This entitled her to have a maidservant and “a bay ambling horse.” She received 50s as wages for the quarter in 1528. In 1530, she was given 40s. as a reward from the king and in May of the same year was granted an annuity of £20. She was a widow by 1544, when she leased a house in the parish of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe in London. In 1557, she exchanged her annuity for one in survivorship with her son, Henry Partridge (d.1577+). Either her husband or her son was the “Harry Patriche” in the duke of Richmond’s household. Beverly Murphy, in her biography of Henry Fitzroy, identifies the son as a “young, unmarried gentleman of the chamber” in about1531.


BRIDGET PASTON (1565-June 27, 1598)
Bridget Paston was the daughter and coheir of John Paston of Huntingfield Hall, Suffolk (1510-September 23, 1575) and his second wife, Anne Mowlton (1545-June 20, 1595). On August 13, 1582, she married Sir Edward Coke of Melcham, Norfolk (February 1, 1552-September 3, 1634). She was said to have a dowry valued in excess of £30,000 and to be beautiful. Their children were Edward (d.yng.), Anne (1585-1671/2), Elizabeth, Robert (b. September 27, 1587), Arthur (d. December 6, 1629), John, Henry (b.1590), Clement (d. May 23, 1629), Thomas (d.yng), and Bridget (b.1597). Coke remarried but he was buried with his “first good wife.” Portrait: effigy at Tittleshall, Norfolk.

Bridget Paston was the daughter of Christopher Paston and Anne Audley. On November 3, 1603, she married Sir John Heveningham of Ketteringham (d.1633) as his second wife. Portrait: date unknown; often misidentified as the Bridget Paston who died in 1598.

Eleanor Paston was the daughter of Sir William Paston of Paston, Norfolk (1479-1554) and Bridget Heydon. Before 1523, she married Thomas Manners, earl of Rutland (c.1492-September 20, 1543), as his second wife. Their children were Anne (c.1523-1549) Elizabeth (c.1527-August 8, 1570), Gertrude (d. January 1566), Henry (September 23, 1526-September 17, 1563), John (d.June 4, 1611), Frances (c.1530-September 1576), Roger (1535-December 11, 1607), Thomas (1537-1591), Oliver (d.1563), Isabel (d.yng.), and Catherine (July 1539-March 9, 1572). Most were born at Belvoir Castle in Lincolnshire. Two of Eleanor’s sisters lived with her at different times during her marriage, as did her sister-in-law, Anne Manners, in 1530. Eleanor paid for 8 oz. of pearls for a frontlet for her and £3 15s. for goldsmith’s work. Eleanor participated in the ceremony creating Anne Boleyn marchioness of Pembroke and accompanied the new marchioness and the king to France in October 1532. On June 3, 1536, the Rutlands’ London house at Holywell in Shoreditch was the scene of a triple wedding uniting Henry Manners, age ten, with Lady Margaret Neville, Anne Manners with Henry, Lord Neville, and Dorothy Neville with Lord Bulbeck, the earl of Oxford’s heir. Eleanor went on the summer progress of 1536 may have been part of Anne Boleyn’s household. She was definitely a lady of the privy chamber to Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, and Catherine Howard. In July 1537, Lady Rutland was quarantined at her manor of Endfield in Middlesex after a member of her household came down with the dreaded “sweat,” but she was back at court in August, in time to take Catherine Bassett, stepdaughter of Arthur Plantagenet, viscount Lisle, under her wing and look after her until Catherine was awarded a post in the household of Anne of Cleves in August 1540. Eleanor was one of the chief mourners at the funeral of Jane Seymour. Eleanor’s daughter Gertrude was married from Holywell in April 1539, when her mother was about six months pregnant with her last child, Catherine. After they were both widowed, Eleanor shared her home at Holywell with Catherine Stafford, countess of Westmorland. The earl of Rutland’s will, written in 1542, made Eleanor one of his executors and left her all his jewels, plate, and household goods, plus land worth almost £700 a year for her jointure. There was a monument to Eleanor, Catherine Stafford, Catherine Neville, and Margaret Neville, erected in 1591in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. It says she was buried there in 1551. There is no death date for her on her husband’s tomb at Bottesford, since that monument was erected during her lifetime. M. St. Clare Byrne gives her death date as October 12, 1559, but this seems to be a mistake for the death date of her daughter-in-law, Margaret Neville. The will of Catherine Neville, providing funds for the monument in St. Leonard’s, states that she died “as I likewise remember, in anno iij Edward VI.” That would make it 1550 or 1551, when Lady Catherine would have been nine or ten, old enough to remember the event. Portraits: her lifelike effigy is preserved in marble on her husband’s tomb in St. Mary the Virgin Church, Bottesford, Leicestershire; effigy in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch (moved to the British Museum in 1735).

ELIZABETH PASTON (1482-August 22, 1539)
Elizabeth Paston was the daughter of Sir John Paston of Norfolk (d.1503) and Margery Brewes (d.1494). In 1499, she married William Clere of Ormsby, Yorkshire (1478-March 17, 1501). They had no children. In 1502, she married Sir John Fineux or Fyneux of Swingfield, Kent (1441-November 17, 1525), a judge, as his second wife. Their children were William (1506-April 1557) and Anne (1503-October 31, 1530). In 1527, according to Lauren Mackay’s Among the Wolves at Court: The Untold Story of Thomas and George Boleyn, Elizabeth was at odds with her first husband’s stepmother, Alice Clere (née Boleyn). In 1528, Alice was advised to ask Cardinal Wolsey for an injunction against her. Elsewhere this is called an action for debt, but the details of the case are elusive. Elizabeth paid for the brass on the Fineux tomb and had inscribed upon it the statement that she “had ever good fame.” When she died, she left £5 to the church so that she might be buried in the chancel at the south side of the high altar.

GERTRUDE PASTON (1552-October 24, 1605)
Gertrude Paston was the daughter of William Paston of Paston, Norfolk (1528-October 20, 1610) and Frances Clere (1531-1610). She married Sir William Read of Osterley, Middlesex (1538-October 23, 1621). Their children were Thomas (1570-July 3, 1595), Francis (1573-c.1605), Anne (1578-1616), and William. In 1544, Read’s mother, Anne Fernley (1521-November 23, 1596) married Sir Thomas Gresham (c.1518-1579) and the Read children and grandchildren lived with her at Osterley. After Gresham died. Gertrude is said to have assisted Anne in attempting to defraud the other beneficiaries named in Gresham’s will.

KATHERINE PASTON (c.1547-1615)
Katherine Paston was the daughter of Sir Thomas Paston of London (d. September 4, 1550) and Agnes Legh (d.1555+). According to Clifford’s Life of Jane Dormer, Katherine was the Mistress Paston in the Spainish household of the duchess of Feria (Jane Dormer) in 1559 and later returned to England. In 1576, she became a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth. According to Marion Colthorpe, “Women at Court: Royal Household” (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day), there was a rumor on February 15, 1577 that she might marry Lord Stourton. In May 1578, she married Henry Newton (1535-May 2, 1599). Their children were Theodore (1589-1608), Elizabeth, Frances, Margaret, and Anne. Katherine was paid £20 per annum from 1577-1603. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, says that Katherine was frequently ill. On April 3, 1582 she was suffering from an ague. By January 1598/9, when she unsuccessfully lobbied for one of her daughters to be appointed to fill a vacancy among the maids of honor, she was a senior lady of the Privy Chamber. Colthorpe gives the date of this effort as January 5, 1600 and says that Elizabeth Southwell was chosen for the post instead. As a widow at Barr’s Court, she put up a monument to her husband in Bristol Cathedral and one to his father, Sir John Newton, in East Harptree church. Portrait: effigy.



ISABEL PATE (1555-1597)
Isabel Pate was the daughter of Richard Pate (1516-1588), recorder of Gloucester from 1561-1588, and Maud Rastell (d.1588+). Although Pate’s biography at http://www.livinggloucester.co.uk says his daughters predeceased him, and Isabel’s biography at the same site suggests she was his stepdaughter, both of Maud’s previous husbands died before Isabel’s birth (Henry Marmion on March 7, 1542 and Thomas Lane on December 2, 1544). Isabel married Henry Browne (d.1580), a gentleman. Their children were Henry (d.1597+) and two daughters. They lived in the parish of St. Mary le Grace. She was the executor of his will, which referred to Mistress Pate as his mother-in-law. In May 1581, Isabel married Thomas Wetherstone of Longdon, Worcestershire (c.1560-1597) and moved away from Gloucester. They had no children. When she was widowed a second time, Isabel gave up her rights to Longdon in return for £470. Wetherstone’s will makes a reference to gold plate Isabel had received from her mother. It is not clear where she lived after that, but she left money to the poor people of Gloucester in her will. Portrait: unknown date; unknown artist.



Elizabeth Paulet was the daughter of Sir John Paulet, 2nd marquis of Winchester (1517-November 4, 1576) and Elizabeth Willoughby (c.1510-April 1551/2). She married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham, Devonshire (1529/30-September 29, 1557) by a marriage license dated November 28, 1545. Their children were William (1553-June 24, 1630) and Jane. Courtenay is listed in various genealogies as a peer, but in fact was only de jure earl of Devon. In other words, Elizabeth was not a countess. Courtenay was involved in the Dudley Conspiracy in 1556 and confined in the Tower of London, where Elizabeth was allowed to visit him. He was pardoned on March 8, 1557 and later joined the war against France. He was at the battle of St. Quentin on August 18, 1557 but died of the illness that spread through the army afterward. His will, dated September 29, 1557, was proved November 16, 1557. He left Elizabeth a third of his property in Devon and willed an annuity of £20/year to their daughter until she was twenty-one, at which time she would receive £1000. Their son, who was only four years and fourteen weeks old, became a ward of the Crown. Elizabeth married Henry Ughtred (Oughtred) of Southampton and Ireland (d. October 1598+), whose mother had married Elizabeth’s father. Some genealogies give them a son, George. Others say they were childless. Most online genealogies give Elizabeth a death date of November 5, 1576, but that was the date her father died. The History of Parliament entry for Ughtred indicates she was still alive in 1598, when the couple had to flee their Irish home. Several of their properties, including the castle of Maine, were burnt by rebels.

ELIZABETH PAULET (c.1588-October 1655)
Elizabeth Paulet was the daughter of William Paulet, of Ewalden, Somerset (d. before 1590) and Elizabeth Codingham (d.1632). In April 1602, she married Oliver St. John, 4th baron St. John (1580-1646), who was later created earl of Bolingbroke. Their children were Oliver (d. October 23, 1642), Dorothy (d. June 28, 1628), Barbara, Elizabeth, Anthony, Francis, and Paulet (July 24, 1608-1638) Portrait: date and artist unknown.




MARY PAULET (d. October 10, 1592)
Mary Paulet was the daughter of John Paulet, 2nd marquess of Winchester (1517-November 4, 1576) and Elizabeth Willoughby (d. before April 4, 1551). Mary married her stepbrother, Henry, 2nd baron Cromwell (d. November 20, 1592). Their son was Edward, 3rd baron Cromwell (1559-April 27, 1607). Mary’s second husband was Richard Wingfield, 1st viscount Powderscourt (d.1634).

SARAH PAULET (c.1557-June 13, 1608)
Sarah Paulet was the daughter of Amyas Paulet of Hinton St. George, Somersetshire (1536-September 26, 1588) and Margaret Harvey. In 1589, she married Francis Vincent of Stoke d’Abernon, Surrey (1568-1640). Their children were Anthony (1594-1642), Amyas, Thomas, Elizabeth (d. 1539+), Margaret, Francis, Amyas, William, and Edward. The inscription on her tomb reads: “here lie in dust five signal virtues—strange that in one sepulchre can hold them all! more strange that a single Sarah could exhibit them! In one thing was our Sarah less than Abraham’s. her days were few yet in all else true sarah, she had reached in paradise the bosom of a second Abraham all that of her was mortal rests where she was mortal prayed.” Portrait: effigy in St. Mary’s, Stoke d’Abernon.




URSULA PAYNE (d.1500+) (maiden name unknown)
Ursula was the wife of Thomas Payne (d. October 30, 1500), a wool merchant who built Payne’s Place in Bushley, Worcestershire and sheltered Queen Margaret of Anjoy there after the Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. They had seven sons and four daughters. Payne left his house and goods to his widow. Portrait: brass in the Church of St. Peter, Bushley, Worcestershire.

ANNE PEACOCK (d.1587+) (maiden name unknown)
Anne was married three times. Her first husband was Ralph Babthorpe of Osgodby. After 1557, Anne married Robert Peacock or Paycock of York (d. June 15, 1570). Known as “Proud Paycock,” he was an alderman from 1543 until his death and mayor of York in 1548-9 and again in 1567-8. His dwelling house was in Coppergate but he alsoowned other houses in York. His will was written July 10, 1569 and proved June 20, 1570. He had six surviving children, all of them good Protestants and probably the children of his first wife, Anne Gale (d.1557). Peacock himself was described as “no favorer of religion,” but his second wife was a recusant. Her third husband was William Skrymsher of North Deighton, Esq. (d. by 1587). Anne conformed in 1581. In 1587, she granted power of attorney to Robert Ramsden to deliver seisin of all her lands in North Deighton.

Susan Pearson was the daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Pearson (d. January 1590). She inherited two inns in Westminster, the White Hart and the Saracen’s Head, from her father. She married Henry Maynard of St. Albans, Hertfordshire (d. May 11, 1610), who served as secretary to Lord Burghley. Their eight sons and two daughters included William (1589-December 19, 1641), John (d. July 29, 1658), Charles (d.1665), Francis, Elizabeth, and Mary. In 1588, Maynard purchased lands formerly belonging to the dissolved monastery of Tilty, Essex for £5000. He was granted Easton Lodge, Essex in 1590. In 1595/6, he acquired the manor of Tooting Gravney, where the queen visited in 1600. He was knighted in 1603. Six sons and both daughters were living at the time of Maynard’s death. In his will, dated August 20, 1609 and proved May 18, 1610, he left the girls £2000 each as marriage portions and left 400 ounces of plate to his widow. Portrait: effigy in St. Mary, Little Easton, Essex.

ELIZABETH PECHE (d. July 15, 1544)
Elizabeth Peche was the daughter of Sir William Peche of Lullingstone Castle, Kent (c.1425-April 9, 1488) and either Jane Clifford or Beatrix Chichele. She was born before 1480. She should not be confused with the Elizabeth Peche (d.1549) who married Sir John Skeffington or Skevington of London (d. July 10, 1525) and Sir John Dauncey. Around 1495, Elizabeth married John Hart of Westmill, Hertfordshire (c.1450-1507). Their children included Percival (1495-May 21, 1580), Elizabeth (d. March 31, 1552+), Cecily (d.1521+), and Ann (d.1566). Elizabeth’s son Percival inherited Lullingstone from her brother, Sir John Peche (c.1473-1521). Elizabeth married George Brooke, a younger son of the 7th Baron Cobham. In around 1518, her daughter, Elizabeth Hart, married his brother, Thomas, 8th Baron Cobham. Portrait: by a follower of Hans Holbein the Younger; effigy at Lullingstone.


LUCY PECKHAM (1504-July 31, 1552)
Lucy Peckham was the daughter of Thomas Peckham of Wrotham, Kent (d.1512) and Dorothy Horne. In November 1524, she married George Harper, later of Sutton Valence, Kent (March 11, 1503-December 1558). She was the great niece of his stepfather, Alexander Culpeper. Sometime in the 1530s, Lucy became the mistress of Sir Richard Morison (d. March 20, 1556). They had two sons and three daughters, including Marcellus (c,1545-February 5, 1559/60), Frances (c.1536-1560+), Mary (c.1543-1560+), and Anne (c.1547-September 22, 1560). According the Morison’s biographer, Tracey A. Sowerby, Morison hoped to marry Lucy, but she was unable to obtain a divorce. After she inherited property in Kent from her brother, she complained to Lord Cromwell that her husband refused to support her because she would not give him half of her inheritance. As her husband, he was entitled to all the income from her estates. In 1541, he successfully won the right to hold Horne Place in Kent in the right of his wife. By that time they were living apart. Lucy’s mother-in-law wrote her will in 1542. She left Lucy nothing, but the will does mention “a bay colt, the dam I bought of Luce Harpur,” an indication that there was some contact between the two women. In September 1546, a few weeks before his marriage to Bridget Hussey, Morison obtained a license to alienate Snitterfield Manor in Warwickshire to John Hales for a regrant in trust for Lucy Harper and her children. It was to be divided between their sons after her death. Morison also granted Lucy the reversion of part of his property in White Friars, London. His 1556 will dictated that his illegitimate daughters follow the advice of Katherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, in all matters. Although Lucy died in 1552, it was February 1, 1560 before letters of administration for her estate were granted to her daughter Mary, by then the wife of Bartholomew Hales (d.1599), John’s brother. Mary and her husband held Snitterfield from 1570-1599.


Hester de Peigne or de Peigni was a French Huguenot woman in exile in England. In about 1589, she married Alberico Gentilli (January 14, 1552-June 19, 1608), regius professor of civil law at Oxford. In 1590, they were residing in London. Their son Robert Gentilis (1590-1654) was the earl of Essex’s godchild and an infant prodigy, graduating from Oxford University at the age of twelve. Their other children were Anna, Matthew, and possibly Hester. At the time of her death, Hester was living with her daughter, Anna Colt (wife of Sir John), at Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire.

JAÉL DE PEIGNE (d. March 1632)
Jaél de Peigne was the sister of Hester de Peigne. On November 7, 1590, in London, she married Sir Henry Killigrew (d. March 2, 1603) as his second wife. Their children were Joseph (c.1593-1616), Henry (c.1596-1645), Jaél or Jane, and Robert. In the summer of 1601, Killigrew applied for naturalization for his wife but was too ill to come to court. A letter from Sir Thomas Windebanke to Jaél reports that the queen signed the papers “quickly and with many gracious words.” Killigrew’s will (proved April 1603) named his widow sole executrix and left her a house in Lothbury, an income of £140/year, and over £1700 outright. It also reminded his mother-in-law that she’d never paid him the 2000 crowns she’d promised him at the time of his marriage. During the reign of James I, the Genevan scholar Isaac Casaubon was Jaél’s houseguest. On April 22, 1617, in St. Margaret Lothbury, she married George Downham, Bishop of Derry (1560-April 17,1634) as his second wife. He had preached Killigrew’s funeral sermon. Her name is spelled Jaell de Pergne in his Oxford DNB entry.







ELIZABETH PENNINGTON (d. October 12, 1545)
Elizabeth Pennington was the daughter of Sir John Pennington of Muncaster, Cumberland (c.1436-May 3, 1512) and his second wife, Isabel Broughton (d.1468). She married John Dalkeld or Salkeld. By July 14, 1481, she married Sir Walter Strickland of Sizergh, Westmorland (1464-September 16, 1506). Their children were Walter (1497-January 9, 1527/8), Thomas, Mary, Doulce, and Agnes (d.c.1585). In 1508, she married Sir Richard Cholmley of Thornton-on-the-Hill, Yorkshire (1460-1521). Since he made no will and his only child was an illegitimate son, Elizabeth inherited property in Cumberland, Kent, and Yorkshire. The rest of the estate went to her husband’s brother. At some point between 1523 and 1529, she married Sir William Gascoigne of Cardington, Bedfordshire (d.1540) as his second wife. They had no children. In 1537, they were sued in Chancery for failing to carry out certain provisions of the marriage agreement between her daughter, Mary Strickland, and Lewis Dyve.


Margaret Pennington was probably the daughter of John Pennington of Muncaster, Cumberland (c.1436-May 3, 1512) and his second wife, Isabel Boughton (d.1468). She was definitely related to that family and sold land in Essex to William Pennington in 1526. Margaret was a chamberer in Queen Catherine of Aragon’s household. On October 18, 1511, she received a gift of a damask gown furred with miniver pure and edged with lettice On May 3, 1512, she received a gown of russet satin edged with miniver and turned with calbre and a kirtle of yellow satin bordered with crimson velvet. In 1512, she married John Cooke of Gidea Hall, Essex (1473-October 10, 1516), but remained at court and continued to be listed as one of the queen’s gentlewomen until 1523. Margaret also served in Mary Tudor’s household before Mary became queen. After Cooke’s death, Margaret raised his children, Anthony (1505-1576) and Beatrice (1507-1561). She was involved in a dispute over the lease for the manor of Risebridge from 1527 until 1537 and  was probably the Lady Cooke of Gidea Hall who was godmother to Sir William Petre’s daughter, Elizabeth, in 1540. Before her death, she purchased a stone for her grave with “my picture and my late husband’s, and our several arms graven thereupon.” In her 1551 will, she made numerous bequests, including an angel to each of thirteen women with whom she served in Princess Mary’s household. Some online genealogies confuse Margaret with her goddaughter, Margaret Cooke (d.1558), her stepson Anthony’s daughter, who was a maid of honor to Queen Mary. Biography: Marjorie K. McIntosh, “Some New Gentry in Early Tudor Essex: The Cookes of Gidea Hall, 1480-1550,” Essex Archaeology and History, Vol. 9 (1977), pp. 129-138.

There is no Madame Penobscot, in spite of the fact that reputable histories continue to claim it is her portrait displayed at The Vyne, a National Trust property. The story goes that she was a Penobscot woman (or an Abenaki) who was captured and brought from Maine to England in 1605 by George Waymouth (or by Sir Ferdinando Gorges). She was allegedly taught to speak English and had her portrait painted, c.1620, wearing English dress.  In fact, only male Indians were brought back to England by either explorer and the portrait is of an unknown Englishwoman. In early records, she is called Mrs. Pennicott or Mrs. Penniscot, but this may not be her name, either, since the portrait appears to have been owned in the 18th century by Rev. William Pennicott,  a collector.


JANE PENTIRE (1533-1550+)
Jane Pentire was the daughter of William Pentire of St. Endellion, Cornwall (d. 1537) and Jane Arundell. Upon her father’s death when she was four years old, she inherited lands worth £50 a year, although she could not claim her inheritance until she was sixteen. The inquisition post mortem into her father’s death was to play a role in appointing her guardian but until they made a decision, there were three different claims to her wardship. In addition to the king, the other claimants were the prior of Launceston and Sir John Arundell, Jane’s great uncle. Although she was living with Arundell, the prior wrote to Sir Thomas Denys of Holcombe, Devon, who wanted to marry Jane to one of his sons, offering to sell him her wardship if he could prevent anyone else from being named her guardian. Denys pressed the claim with Thomas Cromwell, at that time the most powerful statesman in England. A month later, Sir Hugh Trevanion of Carhayes (d. 1561), also wrote to Cromwell. Since the Pentire and Trevanion lands were adjoining, he wanted Jane to marry his eldest son. Cromwell does not appear to have helped either man. Jane eventually married Thomas Roscarrock of Roscarrock in St. Endellion, Cornwall (d. February 3, 1587). They had six sons and five daughters, including John, Elizabeth, Margaret, Agnes, Catherine, Henry, Thomas, William, and Richard. At the time of his death, Roscarrock owed £1,100 to Thomas Cock, a Bodmin moneylender, and had other debts as well.

Katherine Penyson was born in Provence. Her father, Gregory Penyson or Peniston, was from Courtesello in the Piedmont region of Italy. Father and daughter came to England as political refugees. By 1452/3, Katherine was a lady in waiting to Margaret of Anjou. By December 22, 1456, when she was granted letters of denization, she had married Sir William Vaux (c.1436-May 4, 1471), who was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Their children were Nicholas (c.1460-1523) and Joan (c.1463-1538). Katherine apparently shared Margaret of Anjou’s imprisonment in England and went with her to France in 1476. She witnessed Margaret’s will in 1482, then returned to England, where she may have had a place in the household of Henry VII’s mother, Margaret Beaufort, where her children were educated. She was granted an annuity of twenty marks by Richard III. On June 28, 1509, Henry VIII granted her another annuity of twenty marks. She was buried in Blackfriars, London.

LETTICE PENYSTON (c.1485-1558)
Lettice or Laetitia Penyston was the daughter of Sir Thomas Penyston (Peniston, Pennyston, Penystone) of Hawridge and Marshall, Buckinghamshire (c.1446-before1506) and Alice Bulstrode (d.c.1520). She was raised by Margaret Bourchier, Lady Bryan and may have lived for a time at court when that lady was in the household of Catherine of Aragon. In 1510, Lettice married Sir Robert Knollys (1451-1521). Their children were Francis (1514-1596), Henry (d.1583), Mary, and Jane. She married Sir Robert Lee of Burston, Buckinghamshire (d.1537) as his second wife. Their children were (probably) Roger, John, Elizabeth, and Mary. In February 1540, she wrote to Lord Cromwell from Quarendon that she was “subject to all trouble, care, and heaviness . . . a sorrowful widow, as I do intend to live during my life, God willing.” She asked leave to send to him for aid should she need it and sent him £10 “to buy you an ambling nag to hunt withal in summer.” In another letter to Cromwell, she complained about her stepson, Sir Anthony Lee, his father’s heir who had claimed Burston and Quarrendon , as well as Lee’s money, jewels, and plate, and now wanted her to move out, something she refused to do. She later married Sir Thomas Tresham (d.1559) of Rushton, Northamptonshire. Her will was dated June 28, 1557 and proved June 11, 1558.


ELIZABETH PEPPARD (d. between 1587 and 1595)
Elizabeth Peppard’s parentage is unknown but she was an Irish Catholic. In 1578, she was the widow of John Eustace of Castlemartin, Kildare when she married Thomas Lee or Lea (c. 1551-x. February 14, 1601), constable of Carrickfergus. Their children were Henry (c.1585-October 9, 1657) and Margaret. In 1581, he suppressed a rebellion of the Eustaces. That same year, he and Elizabeth were cited in a petition to Lord Deputy Grey for wrongs done to Robert Pipho. A second complaint, in 1582, was for cattle theft. Both Thomas and Elizabeth were included in the general pardon of 1582. Lee was briefly in England in 1585. When he returned to Ireland, he was at odds with the earls of Ormond and Kildare. In October 1587, his plot against Walter Reagh was supposedly thwarted by Elizabeth’s treachery, after which Lee separated from her. Nevertheless, when he was imprisoned in Dublin Castle, she went to the English court plead for him and succeeded in obtaining his release.Lee remarried in 1595.

ANNE PERCY (1443-July 5, 1522)
Anne Percy was the daughter of Henry Percy, 3rd earl of Northumberland (1421-1461) and Eleanor Poynings. She married Sir Thomas Hungerford (x. January 17, 1468/9). They had one child, Mary (c.1468-before July 10, 1533). Anne married Sir Laurence Raynesford of Bradfield Hall, Essex (c.1419-September 18, 1490). By December 1493, she married Hugh Vaughan of Littleton, Middlesex (d.1536), gentleman usher of the king’s chamber and later Lieutenant of the Tower and a privy councilor under Henry VIII. In 1492, he had been at the center of a controversy because more nobly born competitors did not want to joust against someone of humble origin. Henry VII insisted that he be permitted to enter the tournament, even though he was not knighted until several years later. Upon his marriage to Anne, he was assured of an income of £168/year from her estates while she lived and £40/year after her death. Anne was buried with Vaughan in St. Michael Chapel, Westminster Abbey.

ANNE PERCY (July 27, 1485-1552)
Anne Percy was the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th earl of Northumberland (1446-April 28, 1489) and Maud Herbert (d.1485). In 1494, at age nine, she presented one of the participants in a tournament to Princess Margaret, then age five. She is mentioned in royal clothing warrants for the household of Elizabeth of York in 1497 and 1498 and on one occasion received two gowns, a kirtle, a bonnet, a doublet, and other items. On July 10, 1502 “Lady Anne Percy” was at Windsor to take a delivery of linen cloth for a sampler to the queen. A needlework sampler attributed to Lady Anne herself has descended through the Eyre family and is the subject of an article in Oremus (July&August 2011) by Christopher Wickham. After the death of Elizabeth of York, Lady Anne was part of the household of Princess Mary and she was probably the “Lady Percy” who attended Queen Catherine at her coronation in 1509. She was paid an annuity of £20 until 1509. In September 1509, she was paid 100 marks (£26 13s. 4d.) “upon a warrant delivered by Edmund Dudley.” On February 15, 1511, she marriedWilliam Fitzalan, Lord Maltravers (1483-January 23, 1544) as his second wife. The king made an offering of 6s. 8d. for the occasion. Their children were Henry (April 23, 1512-February 25, 1579/80), Catherine (d.1552+), Margaret, and Elizabeth. In 1524, Maltravers succeeded his father as earl of Arundel.




ELEANOR PERCY (1470-February 13, 1530)
Eleanor or Alianor Percy was the daughter of Henry Percy, 4th earl of Northumberland (1446-April 28, 1489) and Maud Herbert (d.1485). An alternate birth date is 1474 in Leaconsfield, Yorkshire. She may have been brought up in the household of Margaret Beaufort, along with her future husband, Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521). They married on December 14, 1490. Their children were Elizabeth (1499-1558), Henry (1501-1563), Catherine (d.1555), and Mary. She was at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 as the ranking peeress but in 1521, her husband was attainted for treason and his titles and lands were forfeit to the Crown. Eleanor was left with her jointure lands in Northamptonshire and Wiltshire, worth 2000 marks/year. Eleanor married John Audley of Hodnill, Warwickshire (1478-August 19, 1538). Her will, written on June 24, 1528, requested that her heart be buried in the Church of the Grey Friars in London and her body in the Church of the White Friars in Bristol, “if I shall happen to decease in those parts.” The will was proved May 15, 1531. According to W. A. Sessions’ biography of Eleanor’s grandson (Henry Howard The Poet Earl of Surrey), the Arundel MS 318 contains poems written by Eleanor, duchess of Buckingham.

ELEANOR PERCY (January 1582/3-December 24,1650)
Eleanor Percy was the third daughter of Henry Percy, 8th earl of Northumberland (1532-June 20, 1585) and Catherine Neville (1546-October 28, 1596). By 1598, she married William Herbert, later first baron Powys (c.1573-March 7, 1655). Their children were Percy (1598-January 19, 1667), Katherine (d.1616), Lucy, William, Dorothy, and Barbara. She was buried in Hackney. Portrait: painted in 1595 when she was thirteen, possibly as a wedding portrait.




LUCY PERCY (d.1625)
Lucy Percy was the daughter of Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland (1528-x.August 22,1572) and Anne Somerset (1538-October 17, 1596). When her parents rebelled against the Crown in 1569, she was probably one of the daughters left behind at Wressel. Two of them were later found there, nearly frozen and half starved. The servants they’d been left with had been murdered and the house ransacked. Lucy and her sisters were taken into the household of their uncle (later the 8th earl) after her mother fled abroad and her father was arrested for treason. It is doubtful that she is the child born after the rebellion failed, since she lived in England and eventually married Sir Edward Stanley of Tong, Shropshire (c.1563-1632). They had two daughters, Frances and Venetia (1600-1633). Portrait: miniature by Isaac Oliver, 1620.

MARGERY PERCY (d.1590+) (maiden name unknown)
Margery’s first husband was named Gore. They had seven children, including Walter and several daughters. He left her an inheritance of 100 marks, but only so long as she did not wed again. She had been a widow for six years when, in about 1589, she married Christopher Percy, a landed gentleman from Dorset who turned out to be a fortune hunter. According to Laura Gowing, in Domestic Dangers: Women, Words, and Sex in Early Modern London, Percy claimed he had an income of £100 a year and promised to give £100 to each of Margery’s daughters and £100 to Margery herself if she married him. According to Eleanor Hubbard’s City Women: Money, Sex & the Social Order in Early Modern London, the offer was a jointure of £100/year or settle £1000 with friends for her use, and to add £100 to the portions left to each of her daughters by their father. Whatever the specifics, after they were wed he refused to honor his promises. Further, he treated Margery cruelly, restricting her friendships and humiliating her in public. He left her “in very bare estate for provision” and threatened to take her children away from her to tame her. Hubbard gives details of some of his strange behavior and of the threats he made in an attempt to get control of Margery’s inheritance from her first husband. When he tried to persuade her to go with him to the country, where she would truly be cut off from her friends, she refused to go. She sold some of her jewelry to pay the expenses of her London household rather than give in to her husband’s threats. In 1590, Percy sued her for restitution of conjugal rights. She countersued for separation on the grounds of cruelty and adultery. Margery produced evidence that Percy had a cutpurse’s wife for a mistress and that, prior to his marriage, he had seduced one of his own maidservants. This was Jane Woodhouse, who testified that she had been in the service of a widow lodging in the King’s Head by Charing Cross when Percy offered her forty shillings a year to work for him. At that time, he told her he had been a widower for twelve years and indicated that he might marry her. Within a month of becoming his mistress, Jane fell pregnant. To that point he had paid her only twelve pence and had given her none of the clothing or other goods he had promised. During the months that followed, Percy continued to take advantage of Jane and break the promises he made to her. Hubbard gives further details from Jane’s testimony. The most telling is that when Jane, heavily pregnant, sought help at Percy’s home in Dorset while Percy was in London courting Margery Gore. After Jane she testified as a witness for Margery, the judge ruled in Margery’s favor, ordering Percy to pay both legal fees and alimony.

MARY PERCY (1532-1598)
Mary Percy was the daughter of Sir Thomas Percy (1504-x.June 2, 1537) and Eleanor Harbottle (c.1504-May 18, 1566) and the sister of two successive earls of Northumberland, Thomas Percy, 7th earl (d.1572), the rebel, and Henry Percy, 8th earl (d.1585). Her father was executed when she was just five years old. Her mother married Sir Richard Holland (1493-c.1548), by whom she had another daughter, also named Mary. In 1556, Mary Percy married Francis Slingsby of Scriven, Yorkshire (c.1522-August 3, 1600). They had nine sons and three daughters, including Henry (February 17, 1560-December 27, 1634), Charles (b. November 21,1561), William (January 23,1563-August 1634), Arthur, Guildford (b. October 6, 1565), Francis, Catherine, Eleanor, and Anne. At the time of the Northern Rebellion in 1569, Francis Slingsby sided against the earl of Northumberland. Portrait: tomb effigy, Knaresborough, Yorkshire.

MARY PERCY (1563-1643)
Mary Percy was the daughter of Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland (1528-x. August 22, 1572) and Anne Somerset (1538-October 17, 1596). Both of her parents were involved in the Northern Rebellion of 1569. When it failed, six-year old Mary and her three sisters (Elizabeth, Lucy, and Jane) were left behind in England in the care of a Mrs. Naseby. They were taken in by Henry Percy, their father’s brother, who was granted the Northumberland title after Thomas Percy’s execution for treason. The girls were raised at Petworth with their cousins and apparently given an excellent education. Mary later assisted in translations from the French and received at least one dedication. Some sources say Mary married Sir Thomas Grey of Wark. In 1596, she traveled to the Netherlands to claim her mother’s possessions after the countess’s death. According to her epitaph, Mary “suffered imprisonment in England” for her faith for a long time before she was able to leave. In Brussels, she founded an English Benedictine convent with fellow English exiles Dorothy and Gertrude Arundell, dedicated on November 21, 1599 with Joanna Berkeley as abbess. In 1600, Mary took her vows and joined the convent as a nun. In 1616, she was elected abbess. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Percy, Lady Mary.” Portraits: marble effigy.



Elizabeth Perient was the daughter of George Perient (Peryent/Periente) of Digswell, Herfordshire (c.1505-1532) and Agnes Sporne. She married Sir Humprey Style of Langley Styles and Beckenham, Kent. Their children were Edmund (d.yng) and Mary. On June 27, 1558, at Beckenam, she married Thomas Townshend of Bracon Ash, Norfolk (c.1532-June 5, 1591). Their children were Roger (1563-1573), Thomas (1566-1567), and Henry (1568-1625). Elizabeth continued to call herself Lady Style (her superior title) after her second marriage. In 1571, the couple were admonished by the Bishop of Norwich for not attending church. By July 16, 1578 when Queen Elizabeth visited them at Bracon Ash, six miles from Norwich, on her annual progress, Thomas had conformed but his wife had not. She was still listed as a recusant when she was buried at Bracon Ash on June 30, 1580.

The History of Parliament says Margery Perient was the daughter of George Perient of Shropshire and Hertfordshire (c.1505-1532), but genealogies give him only three daughters: Elizabeth, Katherine, and Mary. An older edition of the Dictionary of National Biography lists her father as Martin Perient, treasurer to the army in Ireland, but the online Oxford DNB does not attempt to identify her parents. Her surname is variously spelled Perient, Perin, and Peryn. Margery married Guilio Cesare Adelmare (Delmarais/Delamare) of Treviso, Italy (d.1569), a physician who came to England c.1550, was naturalized in 1558, and served as a royal physician to both Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. He must have been well regarded. The godparents of their first son, Julius (1558-1636), baptized at St. Dunstan-in-the-East on February 10, 1557/8, were William Paulet, marquess of Winchester, Henry Fitzalan, earl of Arundell, and Queen Mary, represented by Lady Montague. After his father’s death, young Julius was the ward of William Cecil, Lord Burghley. Their other children were William (d.c.1591), Thomas (1561-1610), Henry (1564/5-1636), Margaret, Anne, and Elizabeth. All the children used the surname Caesar rather than Adelmare. The family had houses close to St. Helen, Bishopgate in London and in Tottenham and Cesare was granted several leases by the queen. Between 1571 and 1576, Margery married Michael Locke (Lok/Lock) of London (c.1532-c.1621), a widower with five sons and three daughters. Locke was a merchant and London alderman who invested in many voyages of exploration, including those made by Martin Frobisher in 1574-9 to search for a north-west passage to the Orient. This venture ruined Locke financially and in 1581 he was in the Fleet for debt.

ANNE PERKINS (d.1534+) (maiden name unknown)
Anne was the wife of Francis Perkins or Parkyns. Their children were Henry (c.1530-1590), William, Francis, and Arthur. They lived at Pam Hall, the manor house of a manor called Hussey’s in Padworth, Berkshire, an estate was managed by Francis’s older brother, Richard Perkins. On June 10, 1534, a neighbor, Sir Humphrey Forster, and a band of armed men invaded the house early in the morning. They found Francis sitting on a stool in the hall, buckling up his shoes, and assaulted him. He was bleeding from the head and in serious danger of being murdered when Anne intervened. According to the documents from the case brought before the Star Chamber, she “piteously & lamentably kneling upon hur knes in her Smok by a long season intreated Sir Humfrey to w’draw his malicious purpose.” Sir Humphrey left, but he took Francis Perkins with him when he went on to Ufton Robert to attack Richard Perkins. Francis was later taken to Sir Humphrey’s house, Aldermaston, and locked up overnight. At the next quarter sessions, Anne brought charges of riot against Sir Humphrey and his men. Unfortunately, records are incomplete and the resolution is missing.


MARY PERKINS (x.1609) (maiden name unknown)
In 1609, Mary was convicted of poisoning her husband, Thomas Perkins of Worcester. She was sentenced to be burnt to death. To kill one’s husband was petty treason, a more serious crime than ordinary murder. To add insult to injury, Mary was required to buy the faggots, pitch, gunpowder, and straw, used to make the fire, and the iron links used to fasten her to the stake, asa well as pay six men to tend the fire.





Penelope Perrott was the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Perrott of Haroldston and Narbert, Pembrokeshire (September 1533-February 1594) and Dorothy Devereux (1564-August 3, 1619). Her father’s will, dated February 12, 1594 and proved on February 15, 1594, divided his estates between Penelope and her mother. Penelope had two notorious grandparents, Sir John Perrott, later alleged to have been the illegitimate son of Henry VIII, who died in the Tower of London as an attainted traitor, and Lettice Knollys, countess of Essex and Leicester (d.1634), the queen’s cousin, the wife of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, and the mother of Robert Devereux, earl of Essex. According to the entry for Edward Barker in the History of Parliament, Barker, a London lawyer, had been involved in financial transactions from about1597 until 1601 with Lettice Knollys and her third husband, Sir Christopher Blount, and considered himself wronged in a settlement of Gloucester lands. Despite that, in 1602, he left Penelope £200 and the profits of £315 subscribed to the East India Company. Early in the reign of King James, Penelope married William Lower or Lowrey of St. Winnow, Cornwall (c.1570-April 12, 1615). They lived on her estates at Treventy, Carmarthenshire, Wales. Their children were Dorothy (1608-1677) and Thomas (November 29, 1615-February 5, 1660/1). She was granted administration of her late husband’s estate. Penelope married Sir Robert Naunton of Letherington, Suffolk (1563-March 27, 1635), secretary of state to King James. They had one child, Penelope (October 2, 1620-before 1647) and lived in London. In 1619, she renewed the effort begun by her father in 1587-92 to overturn the will of his maternal grandfather, Sir Thomas Cheyney, whose heir had died without issue in 1587.



KATHERINE PESHALL (1483-February 1, 1540/1)
Katherine Peshall was the daughter and heir of Sir Hugh Peshall of Knightley, Staffordshire (c.1459-July 27, 1490) and Isabel Stanley (d.1519). In his will, her father specified that she should remain in the custody of her mother until she was twenty-one, but on August 1, 1492, when she was only nine, she was married at Bewdley, Worcestershire to John Blount of Kinlet, Shropshire (1484-February 27, 1531). They probably lived with his family. When Katherine’s grandfather, Humphrey Peshall, tried to disinherit her by remarrying and fathering a son, Katherine’s mother and her second husband, John Russhe, took Humphrey to court, charging him with a breach of the marriage settlement made before Isabe’s wedding to Hugh. British History Online, on the parish of Church Eaton, Staffordshire, says Katherine was aged upwards of twenty in 1498, when Humphrey died. She eventually inherited a considerable estate. The manors of Knightley and Little Onne reverted to her on the death of her step-grandmother, Letitia Harcourt. Katherine and John were the parents of five sons and six daughters, all pictured on their tomb and including Elizabeth (c.1500-1540), Anne (c.1504-1580+), George (1512/13-July 20, 1581), William (c.1514-1544+), Henry (c.1515-1545+), Rose, Isabel, and Albora. Another two sons and one daughter probably died young. In 1502, Katherine was briefly a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragon at Ludlow Castle. As a widow, Katherine asked Thomas Cromwell to bestow confiscated monastic lands on her younger sons, but her request was not granted. Several of her letters are extant. In her later years, she used Kinlet as one of her two principal residences. She made her will on January 2, 1540. Portrait: effigy on Blount tomb in St. John the Baptist, Kinlet.

Thomasine Peshall was the daughter of Humphrey Peshall or Persall of Horsley, Staffordshire (d. June 3, 1488) and Helen Swynnerton. She was older than her brother John (1484/5-1564+) and brought suit in the court of requests on his behalf, charging Thomas Harcourt of Ranton with “rape of ward” for carrying John off after Humphrey’s death and marrying him, when he was still underage, to his daughter Catherine (c.1482-1546). The case appears to have been thrown out. Harcourt claimed that the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield had purchased John’s wardship and marriage from the Crown and then sold both to him.


DOROTHY PETRE (1534-May 16, 1618)
Dorothy Petre was the daughter of Sir William Petre (1505-January 13, 1572) and Gertrude Tyrrell (d. May 28, 1541). Her godmothers were Dorothy Barlee, last abbess of Barking, and Juliana, Lady Norwich. Little is known of her education, but her father’s account books for 1552 indicate she owned a lute.She married Sir Nicholas Wadham of Merefield, Somerset (1532-October 20, 1609) on September 3, 1555 at Ingatestone Hall, Essex, built by her father in 1540-2. The wedding cost £73, mostly for Dorothy’s clothes. Dorothy’s major claim to fame lies in the fact that she had enough money (£19,200 from her husband and an additional £7270 of her own) to found Wadham College after her husband’s death. Almost nothing of known of her personal life between her marriage and his death. The letters in The Letters of Dorothy Wadham, a slim volume published in 1904, have mostly to do with the college, which received its royal letter patent on December 20, 1610. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Wadham [née Petre], Dorothy.” Portraits: 1595; c. 1594 by a follower of Custodis; c. 1611; c. 1615; carved statue at Wadham College, Oxford; funerary brass, St. Mary’s Church, Ilminster, Somerset.

Elizabeth Petre was the daughter of Sir William Petre of Ingatestone Hall, Essex (1505-January 13, 1572) and Gertrude Tyrrell (d. May 28, 1541). She was born in London. Her godmothers were Lady Cooke of Gidea Hall, Essex (Margaret Pennington) and Thomas Wriothesley’s wife (Jane Cheney). Wriothesley later became earl of Southampton. On April 27, 1558, in London, she married her father’s ward, John Gostwick of Willington, Bedfordshire (1537-before 1582). The couple lived with her parents until he came of age in 1560. They had one son, William (December 2, 1565-September 19, 1615). In 1582 or 1583, Elizabeth married Edward Radcliffe of Elstow, Bedfordshire, who was created 6th earl of Sussex in 1629 (c.1559-1643). They had no children.


KATHERINE PETRE (1545-1571+)
Katherine Petre was the daughter of Sir William Petre of Ingatestone Hall, Essex (1505-January 13, 1572) and Anne Browne (1509-March 10, 1582). She was taught to play the virginals by her mother’s gentlewoman, Mary Persey. On August 18, 1561, at sixteen, she married John Talbot of Grafton, Worcestershire (1545-January 28,1611) at Ingatestone Hall. Musicians were hired for the occasion from London. For four days’ work they were paid £5. Two musicians also provided music before the wedding and were paid 10s. Wedding apparel for his daughter cost Petre £170. The couple had at least four children, Anne, George, John, and Gertrude, three of whom were born at Ingatestone between 1561 and 1571.


THOMASINE PETRE (April 7, 1543-1611+)
Thomasine Petre was the daughter of Sir William Petre of Ingatestone Hall, Essex (1505-January 13, 1572) and Anne Browne (1509-March 10, 1582). She and her sister Katherine were taught to play the virginals by her mother’s gentlewoman, Mary Persey. At the age of twelve, after Mary Tudor became queen, Thomasine joined the household of Gertrude Blount, marchioness of Exeter, to complete her education. She left her home in Essex for Hampshire on November 14, 1555 with an escort of servants, taking with her (among other things) a black damask gown, a French hood, and an expensive hat, together valued at £10. An article by Anne Buck in the Costume Society Journal, vol. 24 (1990) gives an account of “The Clothes of Thomasine Petre 1555-1559.” On February 10, 1559/1560, at sixteen, Thomasine married Ludovic or Lodowick Greville of Milcote, Warwickshire (c.1545-x.November 14, 1589). Her trousseau cost £108 11s. 5d. At her wedding, according to Maria Hayward in Rich Apparel, she most likely wore “a pair of white satin sleeves with a trained kirtle welted with white velvet and lined with white bridges satin.” Other fabrics included in the ensemble would have been of russet wrought velvet, crimson satin, and black damask. The wedding took place in London at St. Botolph’s, Aldergate and Petre paid the Children of Pauls 6s 8d to play on the marriage day. The couple lived at Ingatestone Hall. Their children, born between 1563 and 1577. were William, Edward, Anne, John, Margaret, Charles, Peter, and Valentine. Lady Catherine Grey was godmother to Edward. The marriage was unlikely to have been harmonious. Ludovic was a violent man. In 1578, he attacked Sir John Conway with a cudgel and would have gone on to cut off his legs with a sword if a servant had not intervened. He was imprisoned in the Marshalsea for this crime but eventually released. The will Thomasine’s mother wrote in 1582 left her an annuiety of £5 and left her daughters, Anne, Margaret, and Valentine, bequests to be paid when they reached the age of twenty or married. In 1588, Thomasine’s husband was summoned before the Privy Council on charges of fraud and in 1589, he was arraigned at the Warwickshire Assizes as an accomplice in two murder cases. To keep the state from seizing everything he owned, he refused to plead. Those who chose that option could save their estates for their families but their sentence was to be pressed to death by heavy weights. Thomasine’s son Edward, although reputed to be charming, was as immoral as his father. He was accused of fatally shooting an elder brother in order to succeed to the family estates. When he married a wealthy heiress in 1583, he went through her fortune and left her penniless. In her long widowhood, Thomasine kept musicians, as there is a reference to her “fiddlers” at Gloucester in 1599.

Abigail Pett was the daughter of Peter Pett of Deptford (d. September 1589), master shipbuilder, and Elizabeth Thornton (d.1597). Abigail was left 100 marks in her father’s will, to be paid upon her marriage or when she reached the age of twenty-four. She did not survive that long. Her mother remarried, taking as her second husband a minister named Thomas Nunn. He accepted a living at Weston Suffolk and moved there with Abigail’s mother and the youngest Pett children—Peter, Abigail, Elizabeth, and Mary. Nunn was apparently a brutal man. Shortly after he took a new wife (Anne Nuce), he beat Abigail with tongs and a firebrand. She died three days later. Nunn was tried at the Bury assizes and convicted but he was allowed to sue out a pardon, which was granted on May 28, 1599. He made his will on July 21, 1599 and it was proved on September 7, 1599.






JANE PEYTON (d. December 1551)
Jane Peyton was the daughter of Thomas Peyton of Knowlton, Kent. Her first husband was John Langley of Knowlton (c.1471-November 3, 1518). In January 1519, she married Sir Edward Ryngeley/Ringley (d.1543), marshall of Calais from 1530-35 and comptroller in 1539. Lady Ryngeley wrote five letters to Lady Lisle in 1535, when she was in England, the first from London on April 27 to thank Lord Lisle for seeing her off from Calais. That she asks Lady Lisle to make sure that Lady Banyster, widow of Sir Humphrey and a mutual friend, “take not away all the love between my husband and me till I come home again,” a remark repeated in other letters, is clearly meant as a joke. Another letter was written from her house at Knowlton on May 18, after a brief visit from Sir Edward. On July 13 and August 10, she was in Sandwich. She had hoped to be back in Calais before then. Since there are no further letters in the Lisle correspondence, she probably returned soon after. The usually accurate M. St. Clare Byrne, editor of The Lisle Letters, creates considerable confusion by incorrectly stating that Ryngeley was married twice and that his first wife was Elizabeth Peyton, widow of Edmund Langley. She then assumes that there is a second wife, identified as Jane Boyes of Nonington, Kent. While it is true that the will of William Boyes (1500-1549) refers to Edward Ryngeley as his sons’ uncle, there is no Jane among William’s sisters. According to The History of Parliament entry for Ryngeley, his sister was married to Thomas Boys’s brother. Thomas Boys was executor of Ryngley’s will. The will made by Jane, Lady Ryngeley, on December 14, 1551 also makes it quite clear that she was the only Lady Ryngeley. In it she states that she was married first to John Langley and then to Edward Ryngeley and that her brothers were Sir Robert Peyton and Edward Peyton. She had previously, in 1544, conveyed most of her interest in Langley property to her nephew, John Peyton (d.1558), Sir Robert’s son.



Margaret Phesant was the daughter of Jasper Phesant (Pheasant/Fesant) of Tottenham, Middlesex and Alice Heveningham. She married Sir Stephen Slaney (1524-December 27, 1608), a skinner and Lord Mayor of London in 1595. Their children were Jasper (d. before 1597), Stephen (d. before 1598), Mary (c.1560-1623), Elizabeth (d.1632), and Anne (d.1602). After the death of her youngest daughter following childbirth, Margaret brought up her granddaughter, Elizabeth Colepeper (1602-1683). In her will, dated October 20, 1612 and proved May 24, 1619, she left £1200 to the Grocers’ Company to set up endowments for ministers. She requested that this bequest be confirmed by act of Parliament, but even though the Grocers made inquiries to this end in 1621, it was never done.


ELIZABETH PHILIP (d.1536+) (maiden name unknown)
Elizabeth Philip was an embroiderer and silkwoman. Nothing is known of her parentage or whether or not she was married, although most London silkwomen were the wives of merchants. She made silk trimmings and incorporated silk into garments and accessories and also made costumes for revels and pageants at court over a period of at least twenty-six years. She probably employed others to help with the work. In November 1510, “Mistress Ellsebethe Philypp” supplied ribbons and Venice gold to make seventy-two tassels. She was paid £6 2s. 2d. in March 1513 for materials used in the disguisings the previous Twelfth Night. In December 1514, she supplied Venice ribbon, ribbon points, German-style mantles, gowns, and bonnets to the court. In 1516 she provided gold damask to be used in a coat for the king. In 1517/18, “Mistress Philipps,” an “embroideress,” was awarded an annuity of ten marks by the duke of Buckingham, sharing it with John Haslewood. She appears frequently in the duke’s accounts for 1519. In March Mrs. Phylypes was paid 40s. and her maids 20s. In August there is an entry for an overcharge for plate “had of Mrs. Phillips, not entered in the wardrobe accounts,” of £16 2s, 7d. By 1519, the duke owed her several hundred pounds and she wrote numerous dunning letters in 1519 and 1520. At the same time, however, she continued to extend credit to the duke’s servants. In her work for the royal court in 1519, Elizabeth, together with Christiana Warren, provided costumes for a masque on March 7 and a joust on March 8, both at Greenwich—everything from ostrich feathers to wire for skirt hoops. They were paid £60 7s. 3d. Later that year, Elizabeth supplied green material, thirteen yards of ribbon, and 482 ounces of flat gold and flat silver woven into fringes, at 3d./ounce, for a revel at New Hall in Essex held on September 3. The next summer, she provided goods for the Field of Cloth of Gold, including Paris ribbon, material to make hose for the royal footmen and ready-made hose for the armourers. In 1522, she provided ninety-one ounces of red silk cords at 14d./ounce for borders for Italian mantles for a revel, as well as Venice Gold woven into knots, headdresses of damask gold, twelve yards of white sarcenet, and three gross of points at 4s./gross, to fasten sleeves, cloaks, bonnets, and buskins. In June 1522, she provided materials for a masque and a tournament. Elizabeth Salter, in Six Renaissance Men and Women, speculates that the “Mrs. Phelipes” listed as one of the queen’s maids in 1526 may be Elizabeth Philip, silkwoman and that, if so, she was provided with lodgings at court. The actual list, in the Eltham Ordinances, separates “the queen’s maids” from other ladies listed by name. Another version assigns lodgings to “Fras. Philip and his wife,” indicating that it is Francis Philip who belonged to the queen’s household, not his wife. Our Elizabeth Philip, based in London, was still in business at the time of Anne Boleyn’s death in 1536. Queen Anne died owing her 10s. 4d.


EMMA PHILIPS (d.1603+)
Emma Philips married William Baxter (d.1602+), a member of the Barber-Surgeon’s Company of London. Emma’s brother, Edward Philips (d.1602+), was “an up and coming apothecary.” The College of Physicians, which regulated midwives and other medical practitioners, charged Emma with practicing medicine without a license and imprisoned her for four days. According to Deborah E. Harkness in The Jewel House: Elizabethan London and the Scientific Revolution, they described her as “an ignorant and bold woman.” She was released when her husband promised to prevent her from repeating her offenses. Harkness dates Emma’s activities from as early as 1571.

JUDITH PHILIPS (d.1595+) (maiden name unknown)
Judith Philips was married first to an “honest poor man” and then to a gunsmith. She was the subject of a popular pamphlet published in London in 1595 and titled The Brideling, Sadling, and Ryding , of a rich Churle in Hampshire. It featured two woodcuts. One shows Judith using a farmer as a beast of burden. The other portrays her as a woman with a pair of scissors threatening a wealthy old woman. On January 9, 1594, Judith and her husband were examined at Newgate by sergeant-at-law Thomas Fleming on the charge that they cozened a rich widow after promising to help her choose a suitor. Judith also bilked customers out of their money by promising to introduce them to the Queen of the Fairies. Sometimes called a cunning woman, a term more properly used for a healer, Judith was in actuality a con woman. When she was finally caught and tried, she was whipped and imprisoned for her crimes.  According to the pamphlet, she convinced a Hampshire couple that a treasure was buried in the hollow tree next to their house but that they needed to undergo a ritual to get at it. She saddled and bridled the man and rode him back and forth between the tree and the house. Then she made both husband and wife grovel on their bellies under the tree while she went to consult the queen of the fairies. She also convinced a wealthy London widow that her husband had hidden a treasure in her house and that the house was now haunted. Two henchmen beat on the walls during the night to lend credence to her story.

ANNE PHILLIPS (d.1618) (maiden name unknown)
Anne was the wife of Augustine Phillips (d. May 1605), musician, player, and shareholder in the Globe. They married in about 1593 and lived near the playhouse in Horseshoe Court. Their children were Magdalen (September 1594-1605+), Rebecca (1596-1605+), another daughter buried September 7, 1597, Anne, Elizabeth, and Augustine (1601-1604). In 1604, Phillips bought a house in the country near Mortlake, which he left to his youngest daughter, Elizabeth. Anne inherited his share in the Globe, but she made an unwise second marriage to John Witter/Wittles (d.1620+). Records of a lawsuit in 1619-20 over Anne’s share in the Globe (a sixth part of the galleries, ground, and playhouse) contain the information that Witter “suffered Anne to make shift for herself to live.” She was assisted over the years by John Heminges, one of her first husband’s fellow actors. He even paid for her funeral. Anne died at the house of William Smith, surgeon of Houndsditch, and was buried in the church of St. Botolph’s Without Aldgate on January 26, 1617/18. On November 29, 1620, the Court of Requests dismissed Witter’s case and ordered him to pay Heminges’s court costs of 20s.

ELIZABETH PHILLIPS (June 18, 1565-October 15, 1632)
Elizabeth Phillips was the daughter of Thomas Phillips (January 2, 1538-1597) and Elizabeth Ivy. Some sources identify her father as the Thomas Phillips who was a mercer and master of the Guild of the Holy Cross in Stratford-on-Avon, Warwickshire in 1563. On January 24, 1580/1, Elizabeth, called Bess, married Richard Quiney (c.1559-May 1602), another mercer from Stratford. Their children were Elizabeth (c.1582-May 1615), Adrian (1599-October 1617), Richard (1589-1655), William (September 1590-October 1592), Thomas (b. 1591), Anne (1591-May 1616), William (b.1594), Mary (b.1595), John (1597-August 1603), George (b.1600), and another son who died young.When Bess’s husband was in London on Corporation business in October and November of 1598, she sent him goods to sell, including cheeses and tobacco. She managed rental property and was a moneylender. Excerpts from letters written to Richard by his father and by a colleague are reprinted in Germaine Greer’s fascinating if highly speculative biography, Shakespeare’s Wife. On May 3, 1602, Bess’s husband, who was serving as bailiff, came upon a brawl. When he attempted to intervene, he was struck on the head. Although he lingered for three weeks, he never regained consciousness. He was buried on May 31. As a widow, Bess took over the mercery. She signed documents with her mark, an E entwined with a Q and, according to Greer’s book, took an active role in Stratford politics, even leading a gang of women to tear down enclosures built by a greedy landholder.



ANN PICKERING (d. 1576+)
Ann Pickering was the daughter of  Sir William Pickering of London, Byland, and Oswaldkirk (1495-1542), knight marshal to Henry VIII, and Eleanor Fairfax (c.1498-1516+). The Pickering house in London was in St. Mary Axe, Aldgate. Ann left England with Jane Dormer, countess of Feria, after the death of Queen Mary, settling with her in Spain She married Roger DeLareur or de la River (d. 1576+). In a will written on December 31, 1574, her brother William left her a bequest.

ANNE PICKERING (1514-April 25, 1582)
Anne Pickering was the daughter and heir of Sir Christopher Pickering of Killington, Westmorland and Escrick, Lancashire (d. September 7, 1516) and Jane Lewknor (c.1503-1547). She was heiress to great estates in Yorkshire, Middlesex, Cumberland, and Westmorland. After her father’s death, she was the ward of Sir Richard Weston, who married her to his son, Francis (1511-x. May 17, 1536). Their children were Henry (1534/5-April 11, 1592) and Anne Weston (d. before 1602). Sir Francis Weston of Sutton in Woking, Surrey was one of the men accused of adultery with Queen Anne Boleyn. He may have been unfaithful to his wife, not with the queen, but with Margaret Shelton, one of Anne Boleyn’s ladies in waiting, with whom he was said to be in love. Nevertheless, together with his mother, Anne pleaded with the king to spare his life. Weston sent a letter to his family, asking for forgiveness, “especial to my wife.” The theory has been advanced that Francis Weston admitted to “abominations” on the scaffold because he was a homosexual, but there is no evidence of this. Anne married Sir Henry Knyvett of Charlton, Wiltshire and East Horsley, Surrey (1510-March 1547). Their children were Henry (1539-June 14, 1598), Elizabeth, Alice, Catherine (1543-December 20, 1622), Thomas (1545-1622), and Margaret. During her marriage to Knyvett, she was involved in two disputes concerning her mother, one over inheritance, and one in which she was charged with, essentially, home invasion. The latter case was heard in the Star Chamber. Anne claimed that her mother (known as Jane Pole or Poole from her second marriage) was afraid of her third husband, Sir William Barentyne, and that she had sent a message to Anne saying she was “very evill kepte” and surrounded by servants who kept “very Dishonest Rule.” According to the summary found in the unpublished PhD dissertation Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England  by Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams, Anne traveled to Bramley, near Shalford in Surrey, to visit her mother. She was accompanied by her son-in-law, Francis Kelway, and a friend, Lady Rogers. Finding the outer door locked, Anne ordered her servant to force it open. Then, according to Anne’s account, she went in, saw her mother, asked for her blessing, and then asked her to send for one of her waiting women, Philippa Turke, so that Anne might rebuke her for the “many obprobriouse words” Philippa had used against her (Anne). Kelway found Philippa in hiding and brought her to the other women, whereupon Anne slapped Philippa. Jane’s account of the incident, however, differs considerably from her daughter’s. Jane claimed that Anne neglected her and, concerning the visit to Bramley, said that Anne and her party broke down seven doors in succession to get in and then chased Jane and her servants from room to room, terrorizing them. Rather than just slapping Philippa, Anne beat her severely while two servants held her down. Afterward, Jane claimed, Jane and her servants were in fear for their lives. No decision in the case is given. The History of Parliament entry for Francis Keilway (sic), who was married to Anne’s daughter, Anne Weston, says that Keilway and his wife lived in his mother-in-law’s house c.1548-c.1553 and that after Knyvett died, Keilway and an accomplice robbed Anne of £500 worth of silver. He was outlawed but pardoned the following March. In 1549, Anne married John Vaughan of London (d. June 25, 1577). Their children were Francis (d. July 15, 1597), Frances (c.1562-1647), another son, and another daughter. During Anne’s third marriage, while her son, Henry Weston, was still a minor, Anne and John Vaughan lived at Sutton Place, Surrey, the Weston family seat. After 1558, Vaughan bought Sutton-on-Derwent, Yorkshire. A transcript of Anne’s will, dated April 13, 1581 and proved May 18, 1582, can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Portrait: carved head from marriage chest c.1530 (Saffron Walden Museum).

Elizabeth Pickering’s parents are unknown. Her first husband was named Jackson and they had two daughters, Luce and Elizabeth. Sometime after September 29, 1536, she married Robert Redman of London (d. October 1540). He had two daughters, Mildred (b. September 1532), Katherine (d. between 1541 and 1544). Together they had Alice (c.1539-1586+).When Redman died, Elizabeth took over his shop at the sign of the George in Fleet Street, next to the church of St. Dunstan in the West, and published in her own right for ten months, producing about a dozen books. According to an article by Barbara Kreps in the Winter 2003 Renaissance Quarterly, she was the first woman to print books in England. By October 1541, Elizabeth had sold the press to William Middleton and remarried. Her third husband was William Cholmeley (c. 1510-1546), a lawyer. After his death, she married his kinsman, Randolph (the History of Parliament calls him Ralph) Cholmeley (d.April 25,1563), another lawyer who was recorder of London in 1554. Elizabeth was buried in the Church of St. Dunstan in the West.

Elizabeth Pickering was the daughter John Pickering of Titchmarsh, Northamptonshire and Lucia or Lucy Kaye (c.1533-c.1565). She married Robert Throckmorton of Warboys and Ellington, Huntingdonshire (1551-1630/1). Their children were Joan (christened May 23, 1574), Gabriel (April 9, 1577-1626), Mary (christened May 18, 1578), Elizabeth (christened July 19, 1579), Jane (christened August 21, 1580), Grace (christened March 10, 1581) and Robert (June 30, 1583-March 1655). In November 1589, her daughter Jane fell into a fit and accused a neighbor, Alice Samuel, of being a witch. At first Elizabeth and her husband dismissed the claim, but eventually all their daughters and seven female servants began to suffer similar symptoms. On Friday, February 13, 1590, Gilbert Pickering, Elizabeth’s brother, arrived at Warboys. He was the one who convinced the family that the girls were victims of witchcraft. A full account can be found in The Witches of Warboys by Philip C. Almond. According to Anne Reiber DeWindt’s article, “Witchcraft and Conflicting Visions of the Ideal Village Community” in the Journal of British Studies(1995, Vol. 34 #4, pp. 427-473), the family had left Warboys by 1598/9. A legal document at that time set aside a close at Warboys for the use of “such woman as will be Robert’s wife at the time of his death,” suggesting that Elizabeth had already died. He remarried in 1600.


FRANCES PICKERING (c.1599-October 14, 1673)
Frances Pickering was the natural daughter of Sir Christopher Pickering of Threlkeld, Cumberland (c.1556-January 15, 1620/1) and a woman named Todhunter. On October 26, 1620, at Ormside, Westmorland, she married John Dudley of Gray’s Inn and Yanwath, Cumberland (c.1573-March 1622/3). Pickering left his Ormside properties to his sisters, Winifred and Mary, but Frances inherited them during her marriage to Dudley. In 1632, she married Cyprian Hilton of Burton, Westmorland (1606-December 22, 1652). They had four children: Christopher, John, Mary, and Andrew.

HESTER PICKERING (d. May 8, 1592)
Hester Pickering was the illegitimate daughter of Sir William Pickering of Oswald Kirk (1516/17-January 4, 1575), a diplomat and ambassador who never married. In his will, Pickering directed that Hester live and be educated in the house of his executor, Thomas Unton. She was his residual heir and he specified that his library be kept intact to pass to her future husband. On September 1, 1575 at Boughton Malherbe, Kent, Hester married Edward Wotton, 1st baron Wotton of Marley (1548-1626). Their children were Thomas, 2nd baron (1587-1630) and Philippa. Portrait: unknown artist, c.1580.


ANNE PIERREPONT (c.1554-1587+)
Anne Pierrepont was the daughter of George Pierrepont of Holme Pierrepont, Nottinghamshire (July 16, 1510-March 21, 1564) and his second wife, Winifred Thwaites (d.1587+). Her first husband was Thomas Thorold of Marston, Lincolnshire. Her second was Francis Beaumont of Gracedieu, Leicestershire (c.1540-April 22, 1598). Their children were Henry (c.1581-July 13, 1605), John (c.1582-1627), Francis (1584-March 6, 1615/6), the playwright, and Elizabeth. In 1584, when the correspondence of her brother Gervaise was seized, Anne was interrogated by Adrian Stokes and Thomas Cave about her Papist connections. Both her mother and her mother-in-law (Elizabeth Hastings) were well known recusants. Anne died before her husband but the exact date is unknown.

Elizabeth Pierrepont was the daughter of Sir Henry Pierrepont (1545-1615) of Holme Pierrepoint, Nottinghamshire, and Frances Cavendish (June 18, 1548-June 1632). Her grandmother was Bess of Hardwick and her godmother was Mary, queen of Scots. As a child of four she joined the household of the captive Mary, who was in the keeping of Bess of Hardwick and her fourth husband, the earl of Shrewsbury. Queen Mary called the child Mignonne and was very fond of her. So was her grandmother, who called her Bessie. Bessie remained in the queen of Scots’s household even after Mary was removed from Shrewsbury’s keeping. When Bessie was seventeen (c.1585), her grandmother was promoting a marriage for her with one of the earl of Northumberland’s sons, but nothing came of it. She was also being courted by Queen Mary’s secretary, Claude Nau. According to one account, Bessie’s father approved of the match with Nau and Bessie refused him, but Rosalind K. Marshall, in Queen Mary’s Women, says the Pierreponts were horrified when they heard of Nau’s interest. In July 1586, they asked that their daughter be sent home. Queen Mary claimed she had been trying to persuade Queen Elizabeth to take Bessie into her household. In writing about young Bessie, Mary implied that she looked upon the girl like a daughter, but that she also saw “too much of her grandmother’s nature in her behavior every way, notwithstanding all my pains for the contrary, and therefore now would be sorry to have her bestowed upon any man I wish good unto.” Beginning in January 1586, letters had been smuggled in and out of Chartley, where the queen of Scots was imprisoned, in watertight containers inside beer barrels. Nau also used this method to send messages to Bessie after she left Queen Mary’s service. It is not clear if Bessie went to court or not. A recent biography of Bess of Hardwick by Mary S. Lovell states that Bessie did not marry until 1604, when she was thirty-five, and identifies her husband as Thomas Erskine (1566-1639), who was created viscount Fenton in 1606 and earl of Kellie in 1619. Erskine records agree that his second wife was Elizabeth Pierrepoint (d. April 27, 1621), daughter of Sir Henry of Holme Pierrepoint. However, earlier biographers give Bessie a different husband, Richard Stapleton of Templehurst (d.c.1614), six children (Gilbert, Epiphanius, Sir Robert, Jane, Elizabeth, and Grace), and a death date of November 27, 1648. This is supported by Stapleton genealogies. It is possible Bessie married Stapleton and then Erskine, if c.1614 is a mistake for 1604, but that does not account for the differing dates for her death.


Grace Pierrepont was the daughter of Henry Pierrepont (1545-1615) and Frances Cavendish (June 18, 1548-June 1632). On August 1, 1593 (or April 2, 1594) she married Sir George Manners of Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (1573-April 23, 1623). Their children were John, 8th earl of Rutland (June 10, 1604-September 29, 1679), Henry, Roger, Elizabeth (d.1637), Eleanor (d. October 23, 1679), Frances (d.1652), Dorothy, and Mary. Lady Manners founded a free grammar school for the poor children of Bakewell and Great Rowsley in 1636 and endowed it by a deed dated May 12, 1637. She is said to have lived to the age of 90, but this would place her birth in 1561, the year before her parents marriage and is probably an exaggeration. Portraits: possible portrait (attributed to William Larkin c.1615-1620), also identified (by Janet Arnold in Patterns of Fashion) as her daughter, Lady Dorothy Manners; miniature at Belvoir Castle; death mask kept under glass at Haddon Hall; effigy on her husband’s tomb in Vernon Chapel, Bakewell Church.


ANNE PIERS (d.1581+) (maiden name unknown)
Anne married William Piers of Padstow, Cornwall. They had at least two children, John and Honor. By 1552, John was engaged in piracy. In 1581, Anne Piers was arrested in Bodmin during the week of the quarter sessions for trying to sell stolen goods to a silversmith from Plymouth. In October 1581, shortly after her arrested, Captain John Piers and fifteen members of his crew were captured at Studland Bay and sentenced to be hanged for piracy. Piers bribed the keeper of the gaol at Dorchester and escaped. He was recaptured and hanged near Studland in March 1582, and his body was left to hang in chains by the sea coast as a warning to others. Meanwhile, his mother, father, and sister were examined by the authorities. Anne Piers was charged not only with receiving stolen goods, but also with witchcraft. The commission to examine her on both charges consisted of Sir Richard Grenville, Thomas Roscarrock, and George Grenville of Penheale. Since there had been no previous suspicion of witchcraft, that charge was dismissed. A jury found that Anne was a “disreputable woman” who led a “loose life” that included unsupervised “night-walking” after Robert Ocher or Archer, the vicar, testified that she and others had received stolen goods from Captain Piers and Anne admitted to receiving plate, a silver salt cellar, and silver buttons, as well as a large rug. This rug, intended for a local gentlewoman, was brought ashore at midnight and transported to a barn by Anne and two other women, Margery Morgan and Edith Davys. Anne’s daughter, Honor Piers, claimed she only went aboard the pirate ship once and denied ever receiving stolen goods from her brother. Anne’s husband, William Piers, went even further and claimed to have renounced his son for lewdness. He did admit, however, to having gone aboard the ship on one occasion, accompanied by the vicar of Meryn, to whom John Piers owed £7. Although Anne Piers testified that her son had a great store of money, John did not have enough to pay the vicar. He gave him “callycoe” cloth in partial repayment of the debt.



MARGERY PIGOTT (1509-1587)
Margery Pigott was the daughter of Thomas Pigott of Whaddon, Buckinghamshire (c.1460-1520), justice of the assize, and his second wife, Elizabeth Iwardby (August 24, 1475-c.1549). In about1525, she married Thomas Cotton of Landwade, Cambridgeshire (1503-1526). By a license dated July 1, 1527, she married Walter Hendley of Cranbrook, Kent (d. March 1550), a widower with three daughters. Hendley was a justice of the peace and a solicitor. In 1540, he acquired the lease of the bishop of Bangor’s manor in Holborn for eighty-nine years at a yearly rent of one red rose. In 1545, he bought property in Lincolnshire, Kent, Middlesex, Oxfordshire, and Radnorshire. He was knighted in 1547. Hendley’s will left Margery his Cranbrook property for life and she was one of the executors. The will was proved in April 1550, but there were doubts about its authenticity that were not resolved until March 1551. In the interim, Margery appears to have remarried, but her third husband is a mystery. His name is recorded variously as Mardin and Warden but she continued to be called Lady Hendley. In 1551, she married Thomas Roberts of Glassenbury, Kent (July 10, 1494-1557). the older brother of John Roberts (1531-1573), a neighbor of the Hendleys in Cranbrook who was married to Margery’s neice, Elizabeth Pigott, daughter of her brother Robert Pigott. On August 11, 1573, when John Roberts made his will, Margery and Elizabeth were living together. He left lands in Hawkhurst and Ticehurst to his wife so long as she and Margery continued to share a house. After Margery’s death, Elizabeth was to occupy a house at Boarzell in Ticehurst. His executors were also to raise £100 from the sale of wood in Adams Wood and other woods belonging to the farm of Flimwell, to be supplemented if necessary from Margery’s woods at Boarzell, to keep his daughter, another Margery, and be paid to her at eighteen or when she married. Elizabeth and her brother, Francis Pigott, were executors. The will was proved in November 20, 1576. Margery lived another eleven years. The last mention of Elizabeth Roberts in surviving documents is three years after that.




Catherine Pinckney was the mistress of Sir Edward Hoby (1560-March 1, 1617) and the mother of his only child, Peregrine (September 1602-May 6, 1679), who became Hoby’s heir.

RACHEL PINDAR (1563-1574+)
Details in this entry come from Chapter Six of Demon Possession in Elizabethan England by Kathleen R. Sands. Rachel Pindar was a child of eleven when her mother, Elizabeth Pindar, took her to the minister, John Foxe, in the hope of an explanation for the symptoms she was exhibiting. She fell into trances and vomited up foreign objects such as thread and feathers. It was at the Foxe house, on June 20, 1574, that Rachel met an older girl, Agnes Brigges, who soon thereafter showed the same symptoms. In mid-July, two ministers, William Long and William Turner, attempted to dispossess Rachel of her demon. The two also attempted, at a different location, to dispossess Agnes. Both victims claimed that “Old Joan” had sent demons into their bodies. She was identified as Joan Thornton, who lived “upon the quay.” Accounts of both cases were soon in print, which brought the matter to the attention of Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canterbury. On August 11, 1574, Agnes and Rachel were taken into custody for questioning, whereupon they confessed to fraud. Rachel also confessed that her mother had been her accomplice. On August 15, the confessions were read aloud at Paul’s Cross and Agnes and Rachel repented in public. Sands reports that Mistress Brigges was briefly imprisoned but does not say whether or not Mistress Pindar was.


ANNE PLANTAGENT (November 2, 1474-November 12, 1511)
Anne Plantagenet was the third daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). In a treaty signed on August 5, 1480, she was promised to Philip, son of Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, but the death of her father ended that alliance. In 1484, during the reign of her uncle, Richard III, she was betrothed to Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (1473-August 25, 1554). Early in the reign of Henry VII, Anne was at court as an attendant to her sister, Elizabeth of York. On February 4, 1495, she married Surrey at Greenwich. They had at least four children—Muriel, Catherine, Henry, and Thomas (1497-August 1508)—but they all died young and were buried in the Howard chapel of St. Mary’s Church, Lambeth. The queen settled an annuity of £120 pounds on her sister. According to Robert Hutchinson’s House of Treason: The Rise and Fall of a Tudor Dynasty, this included an allowance of 20s/week for food and drink and the wages of two women, a maid, a gentleman, a yeoman, and three grooms. Anne also received £15 11s. 8d./year to maintain seven horses. In November 1510, Henry VIII granted Anne a number of properties seized from Edmund de la Pole, earl of Suffolk. Anne died of tuberculosis. She was buried in the Cluniac abbey at Thetford, Norfolk. Portraits: stained glass windows with her sisters in Canterbury and the church of St. Giles at Little Malvern Priory, Worcestershire.

BRIDGET PLANTAGENET (November 10, 1480-1517)
Bridget Plantagenet was the tenth child of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). She was always intended for the church and was sent to Dartford Priory at the age of seven. She became a nun there and was still there when she died. There is an unsubstantiated story that Bridget gave birth to an illegitimate daughter, Agnes, at Dartford in 1498, when she was eighteen. Until the death of Bridget’s sister, Elizabeth of York, in 1503, the Crown paid expenses for both Bridget and Agnes, who was known as Agnes of Eltham.

CECILY PLANTAGENET (March 20, 1469-August 24, 1507)
Cecily Plantagenet was the daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). While her father was king, plans were made for her to marry Prince James of Scotland, but the alliance was broken off before Edward’s death. Under Richard III, Cecily spent from April 1483 until March 1, 1484 in sanctuary at Westminster. King Richard provided her with a dowry of 200 marks per annum in land and arranged her marriage to Ralph Scrope of Upsall (c.1465-1515). In 1486, the marriage was dissolved by order of the new king, Cecily’s brother-in-law, Henry VII. That same year she carried Prince Arthur to the font at his christening and carried her sister’s train at her coronation on November 25, 1487. In 1488, Cecily married Henry VII’s half-uncle, John, viscount Welles (d. February 9, 1499). They had two daughters, Elizabeth (d.1598) and Anne (d.yng.). Cecily was at her sister’s court during her widowhood. In 1502, she gave up her social position to marry Thomas Kyme of Friskney, Lincolnshire without the king’s permission. He seized the Welles lands, in which she had a life interest, by way of retaliation. The king’s mother, however, sheltered the newlyweds and negotiated a compromise the following year. Their children were Richard and Margery (d.1537+). Margery is mentioned in the will of her “cousin,” Lady Catherine Gordon. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Cecily.” Portraits: Burrell Collection, Glasgow; stained glass windows with her sisters in Canterbury and the church of St. Giles at Little Malvern Priory, Worcestershire.

Elizabeth Plantagenet was the daughter of Richard, duke of York (1411-x. December 30, 1460) and Cecily Neville (May 3,1415-June 1495). By the beginning of 1458, she married John de la Pole, 2nd duke of Suffolk (d.1491). Their children were John, earl of Lincoln (c.1460-1487), Edmund, earl of Suffolk (1472-x.1513), William (d.1539), Humphrey, Edward, Richard, who styled himself duke of Suffolk and was called “the White Rose” (d.1525), and four daughters. Elizabeth had a marriage portion of £1533, low for her station and the times, and part of it was still unpaid in 1472. Portrait: alabaster effigy at Wingfield, Suffolk.

Elizabeth Plantagenet was the second of three daughters of Arthur Plantagenet, viscount Lisle (c.1464-March 3, 1542), an illegitimate son of King Edward IV, and Elizabeth Grey (c.1482-c.1525), widow of Sir Edmund Dudley. She was the half sister of John Dudley, later Duke of Northumberland, and spent part of her childhood (from 1533) in the Dudley household in England, rather than with her father and his second wife, Honor Grenville, in Calais. Negotiations for a marriage to Thomas Lovell (d.1567) were ongoing in 1534 but came to naught. In 1536, she married Sir Francis Jobson of Monkwick, Essex (1514-June 4, 1573). Their children were John (c.1548-1573+), Thomas (d. November 21, 1606), Henry, Mary, Edward (d.1573+), and Matthew. Jobson recorded that “I was married to my wife at the request of the duke, he promising that he would help me to a manor that my Lord Windsor had in Staffordshire. Being disappointed in the said manor, he borrowed a good part of my money.” An account of Elizabeth’s death, written by John Nettleton in 1591 and later copied by Clement Draper into his notebook, records that, in 1569, Lady Jobson was living in the Tower of London, where her husband was Lord Lieutenant. She was so ill that physicians sent by her nephew, Robert Dudley, and by Queen Elizabeth herself, concluded that she could not last above four days. Then the queen sent another physician, Burchard Kranich, to examine her. Kranich did not offer a cure, but he treated her by anointing her with civet oil as she sat by a warm fire and, according to Draper, kept her alive “nine or ten days beyond the physicians’ resolution, and she was in as good reason and memory to read or write or speak her mind in anything as ever she could do in her life” and “died, her book in her hands, and was reading.” One of her sons, an eye witness, passed this account on to Nettleton, who provided it to Draper.


Frances Plantagenet was the daughter of Arthur Plantagenet, viscount Lisle (c.1464-March 3, 1542), an illegitimate son of King Edward IV, and Elizabeth Grey (c.1482-c.1525). In February 1538, she married her stepbrother, John Bassett (1518-1541). Their children were Honor (b.1539) and Arthur (1541-1586). She married Thomas Monk or Monke of Potheridge, Devon (c.1515-before August 20, 1583). Their children were Anthony, John, Francis, Margaret, Mary (b.1548), and Katherine.


Katherine Plantagenet was the illegitimate daughter of Richard III (1452-1483), possibly by Katherine (d.1508+), wife of James Haute of Kinsbourne Hall at Harpenden, Hertfordshire. By a covenant dated February 27, 1484, Katherine was to marry, as his second wife, William Herbert, earl of Huntingdon (1455-1490). Her dowry in lands and lordships was 600 marks with the reversion of another 400 marks/year after the death of Lord Stanley. Until then, the 400 marks was to be made up from revenues of the lordships of Newport, Brecknock, and Hay. The couple married by May 1484 and received a joint annuity of £152 10s. 10d. in March 1485. In June 1487, Katherine was reportedly arrested at Raglan. On November 25, 1487, her husband was listed as a widower. One source has him repudiating her to curry favor with Henry VII, who had defeated her father and seized the throne in 1485.

KATHERINE PLANTAGENET (August 14, 1479-November 15, 1527)
Katherine Plantagenet was the daughter of King Edward IV (1442-1483) and Elizabeth Woodville (1437-1492). Early matches were proposed for her with a Spanish prince and with James, marquess of Ormond. After her father’s death, she went into sanctuary in Westminster with her mother and sisters but afterward was at court, both under Richard III and Henry VII. In 1495, she married Sir William Courtenay (c.1475-June 9, 1511). Their children were Edward (d.1502), Margaret (c.1499-April 14, 1526), and Henry (1496-1538). Shortly before the death of Katherine’s sister the queen in 1503, Courtenay was imprisoned in the Tower of London and attainted for treason for conspiring with Edmund de la Pole. Katherine remained at court and was chief mourner at her sister’s funeral. Courtenay was released and restored as earl of Devon when Henry VIII became king in 1509. He died of pleurisy. On July 13, 1511, Katherine took a vow of chastity before Richard Fitzjames, bishop of London. On February 3, 1512, she was granted all the estates of the earldom of Devon for her lifetime. Her oldest son was raised at court and remained high in the new king’s favor for the remainder of Katherine’s lifetime, although he was later executed for treason. Katherine resided at Tiverton Castle, Devon, maintaining a large household there. She had an annual income of around £2750 and lived in style, counting minstrels and no fewer than three fools among her retainers. She was buried in St. Peter’s. Tiverton. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Katherine.” Portraits: Burrell Collection, Glasgow; stained glass windows with her sisters in Canterbury and the church of St. Giles at Little Malvern Priory, Worcestershire.

MARGARET PLANTAGENET (May 3, 1445-November 23, 1503)
Margaret Plantagenet was the daughter of Richard, duke of York (1411-x. December 30, 1460) and Cecily Neville (May 3,1415-June 1495). When her brother Edward was crowned as Edward IV of England, the choice of Margaret’s husband became a political issue. In 1462, there were rumors that she would marry James III of Scotland. Later a marriage was proposed with Don Pedro of Portugal. On June 18, 1468, she left London, sailing from Margate on June 24 and arriving at Sluys the next day. At Damme on July 3, she married Charles, duke of Burgundy (d. January 5, 1477). She was described as tall, elegant, and fair haired, but she had brains as well as beauty. She was a patron of Caxton and encouraged education. She did not spend much time with her husband during their marriage and after his death made Mechelen her primary residence. In 1480, she visited England to help broker an alliance between her brother and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian, who was married to her stepdaughter. Margaret was responsible for the education of their son, Philip the Fair. After Henry Tudor became king of England, her court was a gathering place for Yorkist exiles. She encouraged the conspiracies of two pretenders to the English throne, Lambert Simnel in 1486 and Perkin Warbeck from at least February 1492. It was not until September 1498 that she finally accepted the monarchy of Henry VII. She died at Mechelen and was buried there in the house of the Observant Franciscans. Her tomb was destroyed late in the sixteenth century. Biographies: Oxford DNB entry under “Margaret, duchess of Burgundy;” Christine Weightman, Margaret of York, the Diabolical Duchess. Portraits: by school of S. Marmion; by H. van der Goes; portrait in the Metropolitan Museum, New York.

MARGARET PLANTAGENET (August 14, 1473-May 27, 1541)
Margaret Plantagenet was the daughter of George, duke of Clarence (d.1478), brother of Edward IV and Richard III, and Isabella Neville (d.1476). Her father died in the Tower of London, supposedly drowned in a butt of Malmsey. In 1490, Margaret married Sir Richard Pole (d.1505). Their children were Henry (1492-x. December 9, 1538), Arthur (d.1535), Reginald (1500-November 17, 1558), Geoffrey (1502-1558), and Ursula (c.1504-August 12, 1570). Although her brother, Edward, Earl of Warwick, was executed on November 28, 1499 simply because he had a claim to the throne, Margaret was held in high esteem by the Tudors. In 1513, she was created countess of Salisbury in her own right. Henry VIII thought of her as a second mother and she was governess of his daughter, Mary, until December 1533. At various times, Margaret’s household was home to her granddaughters, Margaret Stafford and the daughers of her sons Arthur and Geoffrey. After the Reformation, however, Margaret’s religious beliefs made her suspect and her royal blood, passed on to her children, eventually turned the king against the entire family, especially after her son Reginald became a Cardinal and, from exile, actively worked to overthrow King Henry. In 1538, Margaret, her sons Geoffrey and Henry (Baron Montagu), her daughter-in-law, and her grandson were arrested. Her son was executed. Margaret was attainted for treason. She was held first at Cowdray Park and later in the Tower of London. In 1541, following a minor uprising in the north of England, to which she had no connection, she was beheaded. She was beatified in 1886. Biographies: Hazel Pierce, Margaret Pole; Oxford DNB entry under “Pole, Margaret.” Portrait: in the NPG.

MARY PLOWDEN (d.1593+)
Mary Plowden was the daughter of Edmund Plowden of Plowden, Shropshire, Shiplake, Oxfordshire, and Burghfield, Berkshire (1519/20-1585) and Catherine Sheldon (d. before 1585). The History of Parliament describes her father as the “greatest and most honest lawyer of his day.” At his death, Plowden made provision for Mary’s dowry but did not specify an amount. He left her in the care of three women, her maternal aunt (Philippa, widow of Anthony Pollard), Mrs. Englefield (probably Margaret Fitton, the mother of his former ward, Francis Englefield), and her older sister, Anne, wife of Francis Perkins. Mary’s brother Edmund, who died unmarried in August 1587, specified the amount of her dowry at £1000. She married Richard White of Hutton, Essex (1560-August 19, 1614). Their second son, Thomas White, alias Blacklow (1593-July 6, 1676), became famous as a secular priest. Their other children were probably Richard and Mary. One genealogy also lists a Lydia (b.1587).



ELIZABETH PLUMPTON (c.1454-September 21, 1506)
Elizabeth Plumpton was one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of William Plumpton of Plumpton, Yorkshire (1435-March 29, 1461) and Elizabeth Clifford (c.1432-1466+). She married John Sotehill/Soothill/Suttell of Dewesbery (d.1493). Their children were Henry of Stoke Faston, Leicestershire (1470-1505), John, Robert, Thomas, Arthur, Gerard, Elizabeth, and Anne. She mentions all of them in her will, proved February 16, 1506/7, but the heirs of the Plumpton inheritance were the twin daughters of her late son, Henry, Elizabeth and Joan Sotehill (b. May 21, 1505). Elizabeth Plumpton and this inheritance are at the heart of the Plumpton Correspondence. The claims of Elizabeth and her sister, Margaret (wife of Sir John Rockliffe), eventually led to the imprisonment of Sir Robert Plumpton for debt. Legal wrangling continued long after Elizabeth’s death.



POCAHONTAS (c.1596-1617)
Pocahontas, whose real name was Matoaka (Pocahontas was a nickname) was the daughter of  Wahunsonacock (d.1618), chieftain of the Powhatan tribe in what is now Virginia. There are many legends surrounding Pocahontas, but the basic facts are that she met Captain John Smith when he was taken prisoner by her father in December 1607. She later spent time at Jamestown. Around 1610, she is said to have married another Indian, Kocoum, and may have had as many as two children by him. In April 1613, she was taken prisoner by Captain Samuel Argall, who hoped to force her father to accept a peace treaty. A year later, she was baptised and renamed Rebecca and soon after married an English gentleman, John Rolfe (1585-1622). They had one son, Thomas (January 30, 1614/15-c.1675). In June 1616, the Rolfes arrived in England. By then, Pocahontas was said to speak fluent English. She was received by the queen at Whitehall and met the king at a masque. Unfortunately, the English climate did not agree with her. She was suffering from either tuberculosis or pneumonia by the time she and her husband were ready to leave England. She died at Gravesend, Kent and was buried on March 21, 1617 in St. George’s Church. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Pocahontas”; Frances Mossiker, Pocahontas: The Life and Legend.  Portrait: line engraving by Simon de Passe,1616; oil painting after that engraving.




ELEANOR POLE (c.1463-1520+)
Eleanor Pole was the daughter of Geoffrey Pole (1431-1474) and Edith St. John. As the daughter of one of Margaret Beaufort’s half sisters, she was Henry VII’s cousin. In 1477, she married Sir Ralph Verney (c. 1452-1528). They had a son, John (1488-1540). As Lady Verney, she was a waiting gentlewoman to Elizabeth of York and was one of Elizabeth’s favorite ladies. She and her husband accompanied Mary Tudor to Scotland in 1503. After 1509, she was a waiting gentlewoman to Catherine of Aragon. She was granted an annuity of £20 by Henry VIII and was still receiving it in 1520.


JANE POLE (c.1570-1625+)
Jane Pole was the daughter of Thomas Pole (Paule/Pool/Poul/Powle/Powell) of Bishop Hall, Middlesex. Her first husband was John Fuller. She married John Bussey of Haydor, Lincolnshire. They had a son, Rawleigh (April 15, 1586-October 10, 1623). Her third husband was Thomas Mansell of Margam, Glamorganshire (1556-1631), as his second wife. They had one surviving child, Mary (b.c.1600). Mansell was created a baronet in 1611. Jane wrote her will on February 24, 1623/4 and it was proved October 1, 1624. Portraits: c.1624 with Thomas Mansell; another shows the couple with their daughter; effigy at Margam, where she was buried on March 14, 1623/4.


KATHERINE POLE (d. September 23, 1576)
Katherine Pole was the daughter of Henry Pole, baron Montagu (1492-1538) and Jane Neville (d.1538). In 1532, she married Francis Hastings (1514-June 20, 1561), son and heir of the earl of Huntingdon, at the same time her sister, Winifred, married his brother Thomas. Their children were Henry, 3rd earl (1535-December 14, 1594), William, George, 4th earl (c.1540-December 30, 1604), Edward (d.1603), Francis (d.1610), Walter (b.c.1554), Catherine (August 11, 1542-1580+), Frances (d.1574), Elizabeth (d.1621), Anne, and Mary (c.1552-1584+). In 1538, Katherine’s father was executed for treason. Her grandmother, Margaret Plantagenet, countess of Salisbury (daughter of George, duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Richard III), was executed on the same charge in 1541. Their only crime was having a claim to the throne. Although Katherine’s husband was under suspicion for a time, he was careful to stay out of politics. He succeeded his father, becoming 2nd earl of Huntingdon in 1544. Katherine’s oldest son, Henry, was a schoolmate of Henry VIII’s son, the future Edward VI, and the family fortunes improved during Edward’s short reign. When Mary Tudor became queen, Katherine promptly contacted her uncle, Cardinal Reginald Pole, who had been in exile since 1538, and upon his return to England asked him to be the godfather of her youngest son, Walter. When Katherine’s husband died, the new earl had the responsibility for arranging the marriages for ten siblings, all but two of them under age. In 1562, Katherine leased him all her lands except the manor of Lubbesthorpe, where she lived until her death, for an annuity of £960 and her son’s promise to double his sisters’ dowries. This lease was cancelled in 1564. In exchange Katherine granted him the lease of the manor of Stokenham in Devon and gave him permission to sell some of her lands in Cornwall. In 1574, when he needed to pledge property for his debts to the Crown, she assigned the park of Ware, Hertfordshire to him and received in return an annuity of £33 6s. 8d. Most of her estates remained in her possession. She was a Catholic sympathizer, if not actively a recusant, even though her oldest son was a staunch protestant. Her youngest son shared her beliefs. Portraits: Katherine Pole appears in effigy on her tomb, lying next to her husband; a portrait identified as Katherine can be found at https://www.geni.com/people/Catherine-Hastings-Pole-Countess-of-Huntingdon/6000000007123060794.

KATHERINE POLE (d. September 1598+)

Katherine Pole was the eldest daughter of Sir Geoffrey Pole (1502-1558) and Constance Pakenham (c.1505-August 12, 1570). She married Sir Anthony Fortescue of Lambeth, Surrey (1523-1562/3). Their children were Anthony, John, and Gregory (or George). He was convicted of treason. She married Ralph Henslowe (d. June 18, 1577), a retainer of the first earl of Southampton. His daughter Ellen married Katherine’s son John. In 1570, Katherine’s mother left her £10, coral beads banded with gold, a down bed, one of her best featherbeds, £3 to buy counterpoints for the beds, one pair of cambric sheets, her best diaper tablecloth, two pairs of Holland sheets, a standing cup of silver and gilt with a cover, and the sum of £6 13s 4d, to be paid to her twice a year. Katherine was still living on September 24, 1598, when her stepson, Henry Henslowe, left her a piece of plate in his will. There is a monument to Ralph Henslowe and his two wives in St. Nicholas’ Church, Boarhunt, Hampshire.



URSULA POLE (c.1504-August 12, 1570)
Ursula Pole was the daughter of Sir Richard Pole (d.1505) and Lady Margaret Plantagenet (August 14, 1473-x.May 27, 1541). In 1515, she was considered as a bride for the duke of Milan. On October 20, 1518 (some sources say February 16,1518/19), she married Henry Stafford (September 18, 1501-April 30, 1563), son of the duke of Buckingham. They had at least thirteen children, twelve of them born before 1537, including, Henry (d. January 1, 1565), Dorothy (October 1, 1526-September 22, 1604), Thomas (1531-May 4, 1557), Edward (January 17, 1535-October 18, 1613), Richard, Walter (c.1539-1571+), William, Elizabeth, Anne, Margaret, and Susan. Ursula had a dowry of 3000 marks, to be paid in installments over six years with another 1000 marks to be added if her mother, by then countess of Salisbury in her own right, recovered certain properties from the Crown. The young couple were also supposed to acquire an estate worth 700 marks/year from her mother, and a further £500/year from his father, but by 1521, Buckingham had not yet made the arrangements. Ursula was at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, the same year she gave birth to her first child at Thornbury Castle. After her father-in-law’s execution for treason the following year, she was not at court and was frequently in financial difficulties. In 1522 and 1523, she and her husband received joint grants of some of Buckingham’s lands, but poverty was still a problem as late as 1537. Her son Thomas tried to declare himself king in 1557, but his conspiracy failed for lack of support. Biography: included in the Oxford DNB entry for her mother under “Pole, Margaret.” Portrait: one online lacks verification.

WINIFRED POLE (1525-February 22, 1602)
Winifred Pole was the daughter and coheir of Henry Pole, Lord Montagu (1492-x.1538) and Jane Neville (d.1538). In 1532, at the same time her sister Katherine married Francis Hastings, later earl of Huntingdon, Winifred married his younger brother, Thomas of Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire (c.1515-1558). Winifred had a claim to the throne through her grandmother, Margaret Plantagenet, countess of Salisbury (x.1541). Under Queen Mary, Winifred was restored in blood and regranted the manor of Clavering. Hastings wrote his will on March 28, 1558 and it was proved May 11, 1558. Winifred was executor. Later she was overseer for her uncle, Cardinal Reginald Pole. In around 1559, Winifred married Sir Thomas Barrington of Hatfield Broad Oak, Essex (1530-1581). Their children were Francis (c.1565-July 3, 1628), Henry (d.c.1590), and Katherine (d. before 1602). She brought the manor of Clavering, Essex and land in Hertfordshire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and on the Isle of Wight to the marriage. The Barringtons entertained Queen Elizabeth at Hatfield Broad Oak in 1576 and again in 1578, and she granted them the manor of Bushey, Hertfordshire, which had previously belonged to Winifred’s grandmother. Thomas Barrington wrote his will on February 6, 1581 and it was proved on May 2, 1581. Winifred was one of the executors, but Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon, Winifred’s nephew, later known as “the Puritan earl,” was made trustee of her two youngest children. It was probably the earl who later arranged for Katherine to marry William Bourchier of Benningborough, Yorkshire. In 1582, he urged his aunt, who held the parsonage of Rowley, Yorkshire, to turn over the appointment of a minister to someone with Protestant leanings. She appears to have complied with his wishes. She was for many years a recusant, but eventually her oldest son persuaded her to conform to the Church of England. She is said to have removed the golden crucifix she wore and given it to him, whereupon he had it made into rings on which were engraved the lines “Blessed be that light/That gave me sight/Of false Devotion/And doth direct/Me to affect/The true Religion.” In about 1584, she gave Francis the leases of the parsonages of Hatfield and of some lands in Stansfield Park. Winifred is referred to in the documents relating to this transaction as “the lady Winifred Hastings, widow, lately wife of Sir Thomas Barrington, Knight.” She signed her name “Winifriyd Hastyngs.”



MARGARET POLEY (c.1542-August 1625)
Margaret Poley was the daughter of John Poley of Badley, Suffolk (1511-October 20, 1589) and Anne Wentworth (d. August 28, 1575). In about 1562, she married Sir Thomas Palmer of Wingham, Kent (1540-January 7, 1625). Their six sons and five daughters included Thomas (d.1608), Jane (c.1565-before 1634), Margaret (d. 1632+), Henry (d.yng.), Maybell (1575-1597) Roger, Frances (d.yng.), Mary (d. yng.), John (d.yng.), and James (1584-March 15, 1657). Margaret and Thomas were married for sixty-two years and kept “open Christmases” at Wingham for sixty of those years in a row. She survived her husband by only a few months. Portrait: effigy at Wingham.


JANE POLLARD (c.1500-1559+)
Jane Pollard was the second daughter of Sir Lewis Pollard of King’s Nympton, Devon (d.1526), Judge of the Common Pleas, and Anne or Agnes Hext (1468-1561). In 1520, she married Sir Hugh Stukeley or Stucley of Affeton Castle, Devon (1496-January 6, 1559), a knight of the body to Henry VIII. Jane’s son Thomas (c.1520-August 4, 1578) is sometimes said to have been one of Henry VIII’s bastards, but there is no foundation for this story.  Philippa Jones’s The Other Tudors: Henry VIII’s Mistresses and Bastards states that Thomas was the third of Jane’s five sons and six daughters and suggests one or two opportunities the king may have had to sleep with her. She further argues that the fact that Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth did not prosecute Thomas as they might have as proof that they knew he was their half brother. Like most stories of Henry VIII’s mistresses and bastards, this one has no solid evidence to support it. Jane’s other children were Elizabeth, Anne (d.c.1567), Mary, Agnes, Audrey, Katherine, Lewis (1529-December 1, 1581), George, Hugh, Amias, and Nicholas.







ELINOR POOLE (c.1570-c.1647)
Elinor Poole was the daughter of Sir Henry Poole of Sapperton, Gloucestershire (1541-1616) and Anne Wroughton. In 1589, she married Sir Richard Fettiplace of Besselsleigh and Appleton, Berkshire (1564-July 11, 1615). Their children were John (1590-1619), Anne, Henry, Elizabeth and two more daughters. In 1604, Lady Fettiplace compiled a book on household management that included many recipes collected from friends and a cures for ailments as varied as insomnia and the plague. Late in life, she married a Gloucester man named Edward Rogers (d.1623). Biographies: included in Hilary Spurling, ed., Elinor Fettiplace’s Receipt Book (1986); Oxford DNB entry under “Fettiplace [née Poole; other married name Rogers], Elinor.” Portrait: effigy in Sapperton Church.









Records first place Jane Popyncourt in England in 1498 as a French-speaking damsel assigned to teach that language to Henry VII’s two daughters, Margaret and Mary, through “daily conversation.” Nothing is known of her background. Some records identify her as French, others as Flemish. By 1502, she was one of Mary Tudor’s maids of honor. In 1512, she was earning 200s per annum as a member of Queen Catherine of Aragon’s household. In 1513, Louis d’Orléans, marquis of Rothelin, count of Dunois, and lord of Beaugency (1480-August 1, 1516), captain of one hundred gentlemen of the king’s horse, was captured at the Battle of the Spurs and sent to England as a prisoner of war to wait for his ransom (100,000 crowns) to be paid. While there he took a mistress—Jane Popyncourt. In 1515, he succeeded as duc de Longueville. After the death of Queen Anne of France, he took an active role in negotiating the marriage of Louis XII of France to Henry VIII’s sister, Mary, and served as proxy bridegroom at the wedding at Greenwich Palace. The next day, his ransom having been paid, he left for France. Jane expected to journey to France as one of Mary’s attendants and to be reunited with her lover there, but her name was struck off the list at the last moment by King Louis XII. It was the only name he crossed out, and he reportedly commented that she should be “burnt.” There is no adequate explanation for his antipathy. Burning was reserved for heresy, for those who murdered their husbands or their masters (petty treason), and for witches (in France—in England witches were hanged). Some have suggested that Jane was unwelcome because she was Longueville’s mistress and his wife was already at the French court, He had been married for ten years to Johanna of Baden-Hochberg (1480-1543) and had four children by her, the youngest born in 1513, but in France in those days it was not unusual for noblemen to have mistresses. Whatever caused King Louis to ban her from France, Jane was forced to stay in England. She remained in the queen’s household and participated in masques at court. In May 1516, some time after the death of King Louis and the return of Mary Tudor to England, Jane received a gift of £100 from King Henry and left England for France. Some accounts claim Jane was the king’s mistress, and the gift her reward, but she had long served the royal family and there is no need to look further for a reason. As for Jane’s lover, the duc de Longueville was high in favor with Louis XII and continued to be so under his successor, Francis I. Both were his distant kinsmen. Longueville fought in the Battle of Marigano in 1515 and reportedly lost a brother there. He died of unknown causes at Beaugency on August 1, 1516, having made his will the previous day. Although Jane Popyncourt left England for France in late May of 1516, it is not known whether she was reunited with her lover. The story that he set her up at the Louvre and lived with her there for many years obviously has no basis in fact, since he died only a few months after she arrived. In addition, in 1516, the Louvre was a ruin. The court, when in Paris, resided at Les Tournelles. After Jane settled in France she corresponded with Mary Tudor (by then duchess of Suffolk) for some years, on occasion sending gifts to Mary’s children. Jane Popyncourt was still alive in 1528, when Mary asked her to use her influence at the French court on Mary’s behalf.



Margaret Port was the daughter of Sir John Port of Etwall (d. July 6, 1557) and Elizabeth Giffard (d. before 1557). She married Sir Thomas Stanhope of Shelford (d.1596). Their children were John (d.1611), Edward, Thomas, and Anne (1576-1651). According to the theory put forth in the Edward De Vere Newsletter (#40-44), she may have been the Lady Stanhope who was one of the fourteen ladies in attendance at an entertainment put on by Alice Spencer, countess of Derby, sometime between 1600 and 1604. If so, she is the subject of the verses that begin in “O Philomela, favyre and wise.” Margaret made her will on March 27, 1613, at which time she was living in Thurland House in Nottingham. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com.

MILLICENT PORTER (1539-1590) (maiden name unknown)
In 1584, at the age of forty-five, Millicent Porter was obliged to do public penance at St. Paul’s, although she denied she was guilty of fornication or adultery. Although nothing is known of Millicent’s husband, she had a daughter named Lucrezia who married Robert Whitaker, a brewer’s clerk, in 1594. Millicent employed Frances Warkeup from 1585 until June 1595 and Margaret Nynnie from 1584 until January 1596 and then hired Mary Fillis, a black woman, as her servant. On June 3, 1597, Millicent was described as a widowed seamstress living in “Mr. Crew’s Rents” in East Smithfield, Middlesex when she acted as Mary’s godmother for her baptism at St. Botolph’s Aldgate. After a long illness, Millicent was buried in the middle of the south churchyard at St. Botolph’s Aldgate on June 28, 1599. For futher details, see Black Tudors by Miranda Kaufmann.

JOAN PORTMAN (c.1565-September 13, 1633)
Joan Portman was the daughter of Sir Henry Portman (d.1590) and Jane Michell. In about 1593, she married John Wyndham (c.1558-April 1, 1645). Their children were John (d.c.1649), Thomas, Francis, George, Humphrey, Joan, Rachel, Anne, Florence, Margery, Henry (1583-1613), Hugh (1603-July 27, 1684), and Wadham (b.1609). Portraits: by Hieronimo Custodis, 1610; brass at Watchet, Somerset.

JOAN PORTMAN (d. 1623+)
Joan Portman was the daughter of Sir John Portman (d.1612) and Anne Gifford (d.1652). She married Sir George Speke of Whitelackington and Ollington, Somerset. Their children included Elizabeth, Philippa (b.1600), and George (b.1623). Portrait: the 1592 portrait sometimes said to be Joan is her mother-in-law, Philippa Rosewell.

MARY PORTMAN (d.1604+)
Mary Portman was the daughter of Sir William Portman (d.1557) and Elizabeth Gilbert. In 1556, she married Sir John Stawell of Cothelstone, Somerset (d.1603), a wealthy landowner and local justice of the peace. Within a short time after the marriage, Mary took up with Sir John’s servant, John Stalling, and for the next several years apparently carried on an affair right under her husband’s nose, “visiting his couch early and late, and walking and sitting alone with him in places and at times . . . fit and suitable for . . . lawless loves.” The servants knew she had “soiled her marriage bed with marks of shame and had carnal knowledge with him, and often . . . and slept with the same John on one and the same bed often.” Stalling bribed some of the other servants, including Elizabeth Goore (with clothing including ruffs, gloves, a pair of black satin sleeves, and a cloak) and Arthur Guntrey (with clothing and cash). Reports indicate that, on occasion, Mary would leave her nuptial bed and go to her lover, who either had a chamber in the same house and a house of his own at Cothelstone, or both, suggesting to Dr. A. L. Rowse, who discusses the case in his The Elizabethan Renaissance: The Life of the Society, that he was an upper servant, perhaps the steward. Mary became pregnant by her lover in 1561 and used drugs to cause an abortion. It was only after Mary went on to sleep with other menservants, and after Stawell met another woman, Frances Dyer, and wished to marry her, that he attempted to obtain a divorce. This was difficult in Protestant England. The suit was first brought in the consistory court at Wells. There Mary and her friends opposed it. Then the case went to the Court of Delegates, where a judicial separation was granted in 1565, but not a divorce. At some point, Mary gave birth to a daughter, but Stawell doubted the girl was his. The local bishop, of Bath and Wells, wrote to Archbishop Parker in support of allowing Stawell to divorce Mary and remarry, even though Mary was still living. In April 1572, the archbishop finally granted Stawell license to remarry. In November 1572, Mary sued Stawell in the Court of Arches for restitution. At the same time, the Court of Audience charged Stawell with cohabiting with a gentlewoman as his wife when his former wife was still living. Stawell offered Archbishop Parker a bribe of £100 and gave someone else in the Parker household £200 for their support, but when he refused to say whether he had remarried or not, the archbishop had him jailed. At this point, Sir Edward Dyer, the second Lady Stawell’s brother, intervened, coming to an agreement with Mary’s brother, Sir Henry Portman, and with Stawell. This involved paying Mary a £600 bribe not to contest the marriage further. Sir John and his second wife were then able to live together without censure for the rest of their lives. In 1604, having outlived her former husband, and his son by his second wife, Mary petitioned for recognition of her marriage to Stawell and the restoration of her dower rights. She succeeded in winning both.

ANNE POTTEN (x.1556) (maiden name unknown)
Called Agnes Potten in Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, Anne was the wife of Robert Potten of Ipswich. Anne and another young mother, Joan Trunchfield, wife of a shoemaker Michael Trunchfield, were arrested on September 1, 1555 and accused of taking food to imprisoned Protestant preacher Robert Samuel. They were tried in October, excommunicated in December, and burnt at the stake on Ipswich Cornhill in either February or March of 1556.




HONORA POUND (1539-1593)
Honora Pound was the daughter and coheir of Anthony Pound of Drayton in Farlington, Hampshire (1514-1547) and Anne Wingfield (c.1515-c.1560). On February 6, 1549, a license was issued for her marriage to Henry Radcliffe of Portsmouth (1530-December 14, 1593), the second son of the 2nd earl of Sussex. They appear to have had only one child, Robert, 5th earl (June 12, 1569-September 22,1629), although some genealogies give them a second son, James (d.1632) and others add a daughter who married Thomas Dykes. The Mary Radcliffe who married Thomas Dykes in c.1580, and apparently used Radcliffe as her given name, appears to have been Honora Pound’s sister-in-law rather than her daughter. Honora and her sister came into their inheritance in Hampshire in May 1553, the same year Radcliffe was knighted. He was in Ireland for most of the period from 1557-1565. He succeeded his brother as 4th earl of Sussex in 1583.

EMME POUNDER (d. June 17, 1564) (maiden name unknown)
Emme or Emma, whose parentage is unknown, was probably born around 1480. She married Thomas Pounder of Ipswich (d. 1525), master of a ship that sailed to Iceland in 1506 and traded with the Low Countries in 1516, and one of Ipswich’s coroners from 1515 until 1522. Their children were Richard, Joan (d.1580), Elizabeth, Agnes (d. before 1564), Thomas (d.1547) and three more daughters who died young. At the time her husband died, only the two youngest were underage. In the will Thomas made eighteen days before he died, he left Emme his house in the parish of St. Mary Caye until her death and another house in St. Clement’s parish. She was to hold what was due to Agnes and Thomas in trust until they were of age. As a widow, Emme continued to export and import goods. In 1530, she was one of those who sent three vessels to the Low Countries, trading cloth for iron, nails, oil, soap, woad, alum and thread. In 1537, she was in possession of two bales of cloth that John Humphrey had brought to Ipswich from London. By the reign of Queen Mary, Emme and her daughter Joan had apparently left Quay parish, the church where the family had been accustomed to worship and where a memorial brass to her and her husband had been placed, to worship instead at St. Clement’s. In May 1556, they were listed in “complaints against such as favoured the Gospell in Ipswich” under “Such as observe not Ceremonies.” Joan Pounder Barber, a widow, and her daughter Thomasine “refused to behold the elevation of the sacrement” and “Mistress Ponder, mother to Joan Barber” was cited for “the same fault.” Emme made her first will in January 1562, leaving her grandson Henry as the only named beneficiary. On June 3, 1564, however, she made a new will, this one including a number of bequests and leaving Henry only a featherbed. Both wills were probated, one in Norwich and the other in Canterbury. On July 17, 1565 the Canterbury probate was annulled “because of the deceit of Henry Ponder.” Emme was buried in the churchyard at St. Clement’s on June 19, 1564. Biography: “The Pounder Memorial in St. Mary at the Quay Church, Ipswich” by John Blatchly and Peter Northeast. Portrait: a brass formerly in St. Mary Quay church, Ipswich and moved to Ipswich Museum in 1948.










JANE POYNINGS (c.1482-November 7, 1539+)
Jane (or Mary or Joan) Poynings was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Poynings (1459-October 22, 1521). She married Thomas Fiennes de Clinton, 8th baron Clinton of Marstoke (1490-August 7, 1517). Their children were Edward (1512-January 16, 1585), who later became earl of Lincoln, Barbara, and Isabel. On July 4, 1519, she married Sir Robert Wingfield (1464-March 18, 1539). They had no children. As Wingfield’s wife, and later as his widow, Lady Clinton lived in Calais. Wingfield made his will on March 15, 1538 and it was proved November 12, 1539. He left Jane a scarlet cloak, £100 in silver plate and, for life, everything in his house near the Boulogne gate in Calais, except what he possessed when he married her. He also had a house in London, on Lombard’s Hill. Elizabeth Norton, in her biography of Jane’s daughter-in-law, Bessie Blount, presents a convincing case for Jane to have been the Lady Clinton named to Anne of Cleves’s household in 1539/40. She would have joined the entourage in Calais to journey to England.

ALICE POYNTZ (d.1606?)
Alice Poyntz was the youngest daughter of John Poyntz of Alderley, Gloucestershire (c.1487-November 29, 1544) and his second wife, Margaret Saunders (1512-c.1563/4). Poyntz left £40 to each of his daughters upon their coming of age or their marriage, whichever came first. Alice was brought up by her mother, who married James Skinner of Reigate, Surrey at some point after the death of his first wife in 1549. In his will of July 30, 1558, he named his wife sole executrix. His principal heir was his great nephew, John Skinner (c.1535-1584) who, if he was not already wed to her, would soon marry Alice Poyntz. With the death of Alice’s father-in-law in 1572, her husband inherited the considerable property in Surrey and was also charged with administering the annuity left to his sister Dorothy, “a woman not most quickest in wit.” It is possible Dorothy lived with them, but she is not mentioned in the will John Skinner wrote on May 8, 1584 (proved June 27, 1584). In it, he stated that he had no children and was “not likely to have (God doeth all things for the best)” and left numerous bequests to his wife. She was named sole executrix. On August 12, 1606, a grant of administration was made to Richard Elliot, a great nephew of John Skinner, because Alice, who by that time was married to a man named Palmer, had not carried out her duties as executrix. Several online sources give this as her date of death. Her second husband is sometimes identified as Thomas Palmer or Sir Thomas Palmer, but without any further identification. Thomas Palmer of Angmering, Sussex and Blackwall, Middlesex (1542-c.1616) had a second wife named Alice.

ANNE POYNTZ (c.1528-November 19, 1593)
Anne Poyntz was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (1510-1557) and Joan Berkeley (d.1563). In about 1555, she married Sir Thomas Heneage of Copt Hall, Essex (1533-October 17, 1595). They had one child, Elizabeth (July 9, 1556-1633/4). Anne died at Modsey, Surrey. Portraits: one extant in 1890; effigy on her husband’s tomb in the chapel of the Virgin behind the choir in St. Paul’s Cathedral.






MARGARET POYNTZ (c.1505-1559)
Margaret Poyntz was the daughter of Sir Anthony Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (c.1480-1535) and Elizabeth Huddesfield (c.1479-1527). There were two maids of honor named Margaret Poyntz at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520 and undoubtedly this Margaret was one of them. She married Sir John Newton or Cradock of East Harptree, Somerset and Hanham, Gloucestershire (c.1505-1568). Their twenty-one children were Jane or Joanna (c.1528-1594/5), Frances (c.1529-1592), Henry (1535-May 2, 1599), John, Theodora (d.1569), Francis (d.1572), Bridget, Grace, Elinor (d.1588), Theophila (d.1577+), Theodosia (d.1591+), Catherine, Thomas, Sampson, Anthony, Mary, Penelope, Richard, Isabel, Agnes, and Nazaret (c.1541-1583).


MARY POYNTZ (d.1591)
Mary Poyntz was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Poyntz of Iron Acton, Gloucestershire (c.1538-1585) and his first wife, Anne Verney. She married Francis Codrington of Frampton-on-Severn, Gloucestershire (1554-October 28, 1581). They had a daughter, Margaret. Mary  married John Sydenham of Nympsfield, Gloucestershire (1528-January 1, 1590), not to be confused with his older brother, who had the same name. They had two daughters, Anne (c.1582-1608+) and Ursula. Sydenham made his will on November 21, 1590 and it was proved January 5, 1590/1. He left Mary the lease of Socke, in respect of her jointure, and £200 each to their daughters. Mary was named executrix. She made her will on February 4, 1590/1 and it was proved on November 27, 1591. To her daughter, Margaret Codrington, she left bedding at the house at Frampton-on-Severn. To her daughter, Anne Sydenham, she left bedding at Nympsfield and the £200 left by Anne’s father, to be paid to her by Sir Thomas Throckmorton, and £500 besides. She left £200 to her daughter, Ursula Sydenham, to be paid to her by Sir Thomas Porter and Giles Dimerye. She also left £200 to the child “wherewithal I am now great,” to be paid by her brother, Sir John Poyntz, who owed Mary £500. She was buried October 7, 1591. It is unclear whether or not her third child by Sydenham survived.

Susanna Poyntz was the daughter of Thomas Poyntz of North Ockenden, Essex (d. May 5, 1562) and Anne Calva. She married Sir Richard Saltonstall of London, South Ockenden, Essex, and Yorkshire (d. March 17, 1601), a skinner who was Lord Mayor of London in 1597-8. Their seven sons and nine daughters included Richard, Samuel, Peter, Elizabeth, Judith, and Martha. By 1564, Saltonstall and his wife and children were living in the Netherlands. The family later returned to England, where they lived in Mincing Lane from 1573-99. He was governor of the Merchant Adventurers by 1585. In 1602, his will was challenged by his illegitimate daughter, Abigail Baker. Portrait: effigy on Saltonstall tomb in St. Nicholas’s Church, South Ockenden, Essex.



MARGARET PRATT (c.1554-1602)
Margaret Pratt was the daughter of Charles Pratt of London, a leatherseller. She married John Middleton of London, a merchant tailor. They had three sons and three daughters. She married Edmund Chapman, squire joiner to the queen and yeoman of the royal armories at Greenwich. They had a son. Her third husband, married on September 15, 1588 in St. Dionis Backchurch, was sir Edward Osborne (c.1530-February 4, 1592), who had been Lord Mayor of London in 1583. They had no children. She was executor of the wills of all three husbands and all three left her considerable property. From Osborne, she inherited a life interest in a house in Philpot Lane and other London and Essex properties, plus an annuity of £93, resulting in an income of about £200/year. She later negotiated with her five stepchildren to keep the Philpot Lane property for 1900 years. On April 10, 1592 she married Robert Clarke of Pleshy, Essex (1545-January 1, 1607), a baron of the exchequer, as his third of four wives. They had two daughters. Margaret was buried in St. Dionis, Backchurch on May 20, 1602.

Joan Prentis or Prentice lived in the almshouse in Heddington Sibble (now Sible Hedingham), Essex, some fifteen miles from Chelmsford. On July 5, 1589, she and a number of others were brought to trial at the summer assizes on charges of witchcraft. She confessed that the Devil had appeared to her as Bidd, a dun-colored ferret with fiery eyes, and asked for her soul. Saying that her soul belonged to Jesus, she offered it blood from her finger instead. Within two hours of sentencing, Joan Prentis, together with Joan Cony or Cunny and Joan Upney, were hanged. Portrait: woodcut from pamphlet about the trial.

AGNES PREST (x. August 15, 1557) (maiden name unknown)
The 1583 edition of the Book of Martyrs gives the story of Agnes Prest, but the details are, as is usual with Foxe’s anecdotes, elaborated upon to make a point. Her birthplace seems to have been in Cornwall and she may have been considerably younger than Foxe believed. She worked as a servant in Exeter and there embraced the new religion. When she returned to Northcott in the parish of Boyton, Cornwall, she married a farmer named Prest. They had several children, but since he was an ardent Catholic, she eventually left her family and supported herself by spinning. The story goes that she missed her children so much that she returned to her husband and that he promptly turned her in to the authorities. She was imprisoned in Launceston for three months, tried at the Launceston Assizes, and then taken to Exeter to be condemned by the Bishop of Exeter as a heretic. She refused to recant and was burnt outside the walls of Exeter. Foxe’s story has it that she felt compelled to speak out against the mass to anyone who would listen and that she was arrested and tried as an Anabaptist. Another tale connected to her is that on the night before she was burned at Southernhay, she was visited by Catherine Raleigh, who prayed with her. This may or may not be true, but the fact that the same source then says that Agnes’s execution took place only a few days before Queen Mary Tudor’s death makes many of the other details suspect. Agnes died more than a year before the queen. A detailed but not necessarily accurate account of Agnes Prest and her activities can also be found in A. L. Rowse’s Tudor Cornwall.

ALICE PRESTMARY (d. May 7, 1567) (maiden name unknown)
Alice Prestmary was the wife of John Prestmary of Great Dunmow, Essex (1507-January 30, 1567). He hanged himself from a walnut tree in his garden. The inquest was held two days later, on February 1. That same day, according to later court documents, Alice bewitched Edward Parker, the young son of a neighbor, Robert Parker, “putting him in peril of his life, so that his life is despaired of.” She was tried at the March 13 Assizes in Brentwood. She pled not guilty but was convicted and sentenced to a year in prison and four appearances in the pillory. She died in Colchester Castle, the county gaol, during that year. The report on the inquisition taken on May 7 stated that “she languished for a month of an illness called ‘a fever’ from 1 to 6 May and then died.” This was attributed to a “Visitation of God.” For a fuller account of Alice and her husband, see http://www.essexvoicespast.com.

ANNE PRESTON (c.1510-February 1587)
Anne Preston was the daughter of Henry Preston of Preston, Lancashire, although some genealogies list him as “of Westmorland.” In the early 1530s she met William Paget (1505-June 9, 1563) at the Cambridgeshire home of Dr. Thomas Wendy and married him. Their children included Ethelreda or Audrey (c.1535-1587), Henry (c.1537-December 28, 1571), Joan (d. 1555+), Anne (c.1540-c.1590-4), Eleanor (d.1555+), Thomas (c.1544-1590), Dorothy (d.1555+), Charles (d.1612), and Grisel (d. July 21, 1600). The Pagets leased a house in Aldersgate in 1534. Anne was reported to have died in 1545, but she recovered from her illness. Her husband was created baron Paget of Beaudesert on December 3, 1549. Under Mary Tudor, Lady Paget was at court. Although she did not have much influence herself, she was acquainted with those who did. Jane Guildford, duchess of Northumberland, wrote to Anne at some point between Northumberland’s imprisonment in the Tower on July 25, 1553 and his execution on August 22, 1553, asking her to approach Gertrude, marchioness of Exeter and the queen’s good friend “Mestres Clarencyous” (Susan White) on Northumberland’s behalf. Anne was chosen to escort the queen in the coronation procession on September 29, 1553. Although the effort to save Northumberland’s life was not successful, Lady Northumberland’s will, made in late 1554 or early 1555, remembered Anne Paget and left her a “high backed gowne of wrought velvet.” In his 1566 will, Dr. Wendy left property at Coton and Whitwell to Lady Paget. Anne’s son Thomas, 3rd baron Paget, fled to Paris following the revelation of the Throckmorton conspiracy in 1583/4. Since his mother was known to shelter Catholic priests, she was in sympathy with his decision to follow his conscience and leave England, but she had been expecting him to come to her house in Staffordshire first. He wrote to her from France, sending the letter by way of a London bookbinder named Williams. It was carried into Staffordshire, but it was intercepted by agents of Sir Francis Walsingham and was later found among his papers.

Helen Preston was the daughter of Sir Thomas Preston of Levens and Preston Patrick, Westmorland (d.1523) and Anne Thornborough or Thornbury. She married Sir James Leyburne of Cunswick, Westmorland (d. August 20, 1548) as his second wife. They had three daughters, including Elizabeth (1536-September 4, 1567) and Anne. From Leyburne she inherited an eighteen-year lease on the manors of Ashton, Carnforth, and Scotforth, Lancashire. Her daughters were left 200 marks apiece. In about 1549, she married Thomas Stanley, 2nd baron Mounteagle (May 25, 1507-August 25, 1560). Their children were Margaret and Anne. Her daughtert Anne by her first marriage married her second husband’s son, William Stanley, 3rd baron Mounteagle. In 1562, after the Council of Trent declared that no Catholic could be present at a heretic service and remain a good Catholic, Lady Mounteagle refused to attend services. She does not seem to have been persecuted as a recusant, probably because of her family connections. Her widowed daughter, Elizabeth, married Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk in Lady Mounteagle’s London house on January 29, 1567. After Elizabeth’s death in childbirth some nine months later, Lady Mounteagle took charge of her grandchildren and provided a Catholic priest to instruct them. Her estate was settled on November 14, 1571.




Magdalen Prideaux was the daughter of Thomas Prideaux of Devonshire, a printer in the Low Countries, and Helen Clement, and the granddaughter of Sir Thomas More’s pupil, Margaret Gigs. Her mother taught her Latin. She was later sent as a student boarder to St. Ursula’s in Louvain, where her aunt, Margaret Clement, was prioress. In 1574, her father sent his wife and daughter to his brother Richard in England for a visit but remained in exile himself. In 1589, the family was in Madrid, Spain when Magdalen met and married William Copley (1565-1643). Their children were Helen (1592-1666), Mary (1593-1669), and Thomas (1595-1652). Both daughters became nuns at St. Ursula’s.





JANE PRUST (c.1533-1593)
Jane or Joan Prust was the daughter of Hugh Prust of Thorry, Devon (c.1463-August 20, 1559) and Margaret Wood of Gorven, Devon. Her first husband was Lewis Pollard of Oakford and King’s Nympton, Devon (d.1563). Their children were Hugh, Lewis, Francis, and Susanna. In 1563 or 1564, she married Sir John Perrott of Pembrokeshire (1528-November 3,1592). Although Archaeologea Cambrinses identifies Perrott’s wife as Jane Pollard, daughter of Lewis Pollard and Jane Prust, more recent scholarship indicates she was Jane Prust, Pollard’s widow. Their children were William (d. July 8, 1587), Lettice, and Ann. Perrott also had a son, Thomas (1553-1594), by his first wife, and at least four illegitimate children: James (1571-1636) (by Sybil Jones of Radnorshire); John; Elizabeth (by Elizabeth Hatton, illegitimate daughter of Sir Christopher Hatton); and another daughter. Perrott served in Ireland from 1571-3 but does not seem to have had his wife with him. In 1573, he returned home without permission, pleading ill health. He remained there until 1579, during which time he was engaged in building projects at Carew and at Laugharne. He returned to Ireland in 1584-88. In 1590, he was charged with treason for his activities there. He made his will on May 3, 1592, when he was a prisoner in the Tower of London. His trial had been held on April 27, 1592. On June 26, he was condemned to death for high treason but he died before he could be executed. Jane received a grant of his manor of Carew, Pembrokeshire.






ALICE PURPETT(c.1480-1556)
Alice Purpett, possibly the sister of Richard Purpett of London, married Henry Tooley (d.1551), a wealthy Ipswich merchant. They had three children who died young. He owned a large house and trading hall on St. Mary’s Quay, trading in cloth and later in grain and wine. Alice ran the business when her husband was away and after his death traded as a freewoman of Ipswich. She supervised the establishment of almshouses in Tooley’s Court, provided for in her husband’s will. Under Queen Mary, she shifted her allegiance to the parish of St. Clement’s to avoid persecution. In Catholic records, she is listed as “departed to Dersham.” Portrait: brass in St. Mary the Quay church.

ANNE PURY (d.1530/1)
Anne Pury was the daughter of John Pury of Chamberhouse Manor at Crookham, Berkshire (1408-1474) and Isabel Wawne. She married Sir William Danvers of Calthorpe, Oxfordshire (d.1505), a judge. Their eight children included Alice, William, John, Anne, and Isabel. After his death, she erected a chapel in the church at Thatcham, Berkshire. She and her husband have a monument there but their brass effigies have been lost. Anne owned one of the first English translations of the Bible, which she donated to Syon Abbey.

Anne Puttenham was the daughter of Sir George Puttenham of Sherfield upon Lodon, Hampshire (c.1460-January 26, 1535) and Alice Windsor (d. before 1524). By 1531, she married John Norton of East Tisted, Hampshire (d.c.1561). They had at least one child, his son and heir, Richard Norton of Rotherfield (d.1592). In 1565, after her husband’s death, Anne claimed that Richard and his uncle had tricked her into signing away the manor of Rotherfield. She learned of this when she sent men to the woods at the west side of the park to lop trees to sell and they were prevented by Richard and brought before the King’s Bench by him on charges of stealing the wood.

Anne Puttenham was the daughter of Richard Puttenham of Sherfield-upon-Lodon, Hampshire (1520-c.1597) and Mary Warham (d.1587+), grand-niece of Archbishop Warham. Anne married Francis Morris of Great Coxwell, Berkshire (c.1522-1584). Their children were Warham, Anne, Martha, Thomas, Alice, Katherine, Jane, and Mary. Anne’s father fled to the Continent in 1560 to avoid arrest. Despite a conviction for rape in 1561, he returned to England several times, including a visit in 1567 during which he conveyed ownership of Sherfield to Anne and her husband. Morris seized the property from Anne’s uncle, George Puttenham, who had been in residence there since at least 1562. In April 1571, at which time George was living in Sherfield in the house of Margaret Marriner, George’s men seized a mill at Sherfield. Morris took it back by force and then evicted Margaret Marriner and pulled down her house. Margaret and George rebuilt it. Morris and his men tore it down a second time. Toward the end of 1578, Anne’s father returned to England. In 1581, her husband was arrested for harboring Edmund Campion, the Jesuit priest. He died in prison. By 1583, Anne’s father was in the King’s Bench prison for debt. In 1587 he petitioned the masters of requests to reduce the annual payment he’d made to Anne’s mother for the last twenty years from £30 to £20. He called her a “clamorous strumpet” and claimed she had brought nothing to their marriage. He mentioned neither Anne nor her mother in his will, made on April 22, 1597, instead naming his illegitimate daughter, Katherine Puttenham, as his executor.


Margery (or Margaret) Puttenham was the daughter of Robert Puttenham of Sherfield-upon-Lodon, Hampshire (1495-1546) and Margery Elyot. Her first husband was named Dockray. She married Sir John Throckmorton of Feckenham, Worcestershire (c.1518-May 22, 1580), chief justice of Chester. Their children were Francis (1554-x.July 10, 1584), Thomas (d.1595), George, Edward, Mary (d.1587), and Anne. Sir John was accused of corruption in office, sent to the Fleet, and fined 1000 marks. He died owing over £4000 with over £1000 owed to him. In 1576, at about the same time her husband’s difficulties began, Margery was accused of hearing mass said by a seminary priest at the house of her brother-in-law, John Edwards of Chirk. In October 1583, she was trying to arrange for her son Thomas to leave England. She planned to approach the countess of Arundel for help, through the countess’s physician, Dr. Fryer. Her eldest son, Francis, discouraged this plan, but only because he was working undercover to plan an invasion of England and restore Catholicism. In November he was arrested and Margery’s house at Lewisham, Surrey was searched. Her son George was also charged with treason. On December 5, 1583, Margery was questioned about her plan to send Thomas abroad. On June 1, 1584, she was permitted to visit Francis in the Tower of London, after which he confessed to his treason. On September 25, 1584, her former servant, Joane Morley, alias Mathew, imprisoned in Chester Castle and charged with a felony, testified that Margery wanted her son Thomas to become a priest. Margery’s will, dated September 9, 1591 and proved December 10, 1591, can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Portrait: effigy on tomb at Coughton.




Margaret Pynson was the daughter of Richard Pynson (c.1449-1529), a printer, and his first wife (d. c.1500). Margaret married William Campion the Younger (d.1519), a London grocer. They had two daughters, Amy and Joan. In July 1508, he leased the former Falcon Inn for a period of forty-nine years. He left this property to Margaret and she lived there with her next two husbands. She married Steven Ward, a waxchandler. By the time her father died at the end of 1529, she was married to John Hawkins, another printer. She was her father’s principal heir. Her daughters by her first husband received properties in Tottenham.