ANNE SACKVILLE (1514-1554+)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of John Sackville of Chiddingley, Kent (1484-September 27, 1557) and Margaret Boleyn. By 1537, she married Sir Nicholas Pelham of Laughton, Sussex (1517-September 15, 1560). They had ten children, including John (1537-October 13, 1580), Mary, Anthony, Thomas (c.1540-December 2, 1624), Robert, Anne, Elizabeth, Edward, and Nicholas (b.1554). Portrait: effigy in St. Michael’s Church, Lewes, Sussex

ANNE SACKVILLE (d. May 14, 1595)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Richard Sackville (d. April 21, 1566) and Winifred Brydges (1510-June 16, 1586). At an early age, she married Gregory Fiennes (1539-September 25, 1594), who was restored as baron Dacre of the South in 1558. They had one daughter, Elizabeth, who died young. Fiennes was a weak character, dominated first by his mother and then by his wife. The historian William Camden refers to him as “a little crack-brained.” Anne was godmother to Douglas Howard’s illegitimate son, Robert Dudley, in 1574. Her husband wanted to leave all his property to his sister, Margaret Fiennes Lennard. Anne objected. By a 1571 settlement, Sampson Lennard was to receive eighteen manors when Dacre died and pay Anne £2000. In her will, she left money for the founding of an almshouse in Tothill Field, adjacent to her house in Westminster. She also left property to the Cecils, imposed restrictions on entailed property, and inserted a reminder that Lennard still owed her £2000. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Fiennes [née Sackville], Anne.” Portraits: life size effigy on her tomb in Chelsea Old Church; effigy on her mother’s tomb in Westminster Abbey.

ANNE SACKVILLE (1564-1626+)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Thomas Sackville, baron Buckhurst and 1st earl of Dorset (1536-April 19,1608) and Cecily Baker (1535-October 1, 1615). On September 28, 1585, at St. John the Baptist, Lewes, Sussex, she married Sir Henry Glemham of Glemham Hall, Little Glemham, Suffolk (1561-August 30, 1632). Their children were Thomas (1587-1649), Anne (1589-January 10, 1638/9), Mary (b.1591), Cecily (b.1594), Henry (1596-January 17, 1670), and Elizabeth (b.1599). Her husband settled the manor of Burwell on her. In 1600, Glemham was in Rome. On his return, he was arrested for associating with Jesuits and imprisoned in the Fleet. In December 1600, Anne’s father wrote to Sir Robert Cecil that she was dangerously ill and asked that Glemham be released. Early that same month, the queen visited Anne at Sackville House in London. In 1601, Anne wrote to Cecil to thank him for freeing her husband. The History of Parliament mentions her involvement in a libel suit in 1602. She was accused of being involved in a plot to have the Infanta of Spain succeed Queen Elizabeth. Her “exertions to secure the largest possible share of her indulgent father’s estate” had a disastrous effect on his career. On March 13, 1609, after the death of her brother, the 2nd earl, Lady Glemham submitted documents to prove her claim to various Sackville properties. This led, on March 11, 1611, to the 3rd earl making his own claim on Salisbury Court, Salisbury House (alias Sackville Place), Dorset House, and divers messuages in the parishes of St. Bride and St. Dunstan.

ANNE SACKVILLE (c.1586-September 25, 1664)
Anne Sackville was the daughter of Robert Sackville, 2nd earl of Dorset (1561-1609) and Margaret Howard (1562-August 19, 1591). On July 1, 1609, at St. Bride, London, she married Edward Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp (June 12, 1587-September 1618). They had no children. On October 7, 1622, she married Edward Lewis of Edington, Wiltshire (c.1586-October 10, 1630). They had a daughter, Anne. Portrait: although it bears an inscription stating the sitter is Frances Prynne (d. September 6, 1626), wife of Sir Francis Seymour, baron Seymour of Trowbridge (c.1590-July 12, 1664), they were not married until 1620. The portrait was painted by William Larkin in 1615 and is now generally accepted to be Anne Sackville.



ISABEL SACKVILLE (c.1498-October 21, 1570)
Isabel Sackville was the daughter of Richard Sackville of Withyham, Sussex (1460-July 18, 1524) and Isabel Diggs. By 1526, she was prioress of St. Mary Clerkenwell, an Augustinian priory dissolved in 1539. Isabel received a pension of £50 a year. She received a bequest from her brother-in-law, John Baker, in a codicil to his will of December 5, 1558. Her sister Catherine (d.1524) had been Baker’s first wife.




Dorothy Sadler was the youngest daughter of Ralph Sadler of Standon, Hertfordshire (1507-March 30, 1587) and Margaret Mitchell (d.1545+). She married Edward Erlington/Elrington of Birch Hall, Theydon Bois (c.1527-1578). They had five children. Dorothy inherited Birch Hall from her husband, along with his London house and garden. In July 1572 and again on September 19, 1578 (when she was newly widowed), Dorothy entertained Queen Elizabeth at Birch Hall.









URSULA ST. BARBE (d. June 18, 1602)
Ursula St. Barbe was the daughter of Henry St. Barbe of Ashington, Somerset (1489-1567) and Eleanor Lewknor. She married Sir Richard Worsley of Appuldurcome, Isle of Wight (d. 1566). Their children were John and George. Probably in August 1566, she married Sir Francis Walsingham (c.1532-April 6, 1590), bringing the estates of Carisbrooke Priory and a house at Appuldurcombe as her dowry. Their children were Frances (c. October 1567-February 17, 1633) and Mary (January 1573-July 1580). Walsingham’s secretary, Robert Beale, was married to Ursula’s sister, Edith. The Walsinghams lived first at Footscray, Kent, then (from 1563) at Parkbury, Hertfordshire. In London they had a house in St. Giles outside Cripplegate. In 1567, Ursula’s two sons were killed in an accidental gunpowder explosion. There followed a lengthy legal battle with her brother-in-law over inheritance rights which was finally settled in Ursula’s favor in 1571. When Sir Francis was appointed English Ambassador to France, Ursula went with him to his new post. She traveled on her own to in the Auverge region of France before meeting her husband in Cleremont for the journey to Paris. They arrived there on March 19, 1572. On April 21, she paid a visit to the French court, where she was entertained by Queen Dowager Catherine de Medici. In August 1572, Ursula, her husband, and their daughter were in their house on the quai des Bernardins in Faubourg St. Germain when the religious purge called the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre took place. Philip Sidney was already there as a houseguest and other Englishmen in Paris sought shelter with the ambassador as the killing continued. King Charles IX sent a guard under the command of the Duc de Nevers to protect the English embassy, but three Englishmen who could not reach safety were killed and a Huguenot general who had sought asylum there was dragged out by royal troops and later hanged. Some 3000 Huguenots were slaughtered in Paris in less than a week and some 70,000 died elsewhere in France. Sir Francis arranged for his wife and daughter to be smuggled out of the embassy and taken back to England but was obliged to stay on himself. After 1579, the family seat was at Barn Elms in Surrey, where they entertained Queen Elizabeth several times during the 1580s. Since 1568, their London house had been the Papey, facing London wall east of St. Mary Axe. Later they settled in Seething Lane. Sir Francis was Queen Elizabeth’s spymaster and in her confidence, but the queen does not seem to have cared for Lady Walsingham, despite a New Year’s gift in 1579/80 of a pair of gloves set with gold buttons, and in 1580/1 of a jewel in the form of a scorpion wrought in agate and gold with sparks of diamond and ruby. Sir Francis died in the house in Seething Lane and was buried in St. Paul’s. Ursula was the sole executor of his will. According to his biographer, Conyers Read, Walsingham died solvent but poor. After a marriage that had lasted twenty-four years, Ursula lived on her own for a further twelve, during which time she saw her daughter become a widow for the second time. Frances’s first husband was Sir Philip Sidney, her second Robert Devereux, the earl of Essex who was executed for treason in 1601. In 1602, in debt to the state, Ursula asked the queen for the reversion of the priory of Carisbrook that formerly belonged to her first husband. She had leased the property since 1590, during which time she had paid a total of £1,600. She stated it was the only living left her. It is unclear how the queen responded. Ursula died at Barn Elms and was buried beside her husband in St. Paul’s. In addition to other bequests, she left £50 to her waiting woman, Alice Poole, and £10 to Nurse Hoode. Portrait: The portrait dated1583 and long identified as Ursula St. Barbe, is now labeled as an unknown woman by the NPG.


ALICE ST. JOHN (1486-December 1552)
Alice St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe, Bedfordshire (1450-1525) and Sybil Morgan. She was the great niece of Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and Derby and it was due to the countess that Alice married Henry Parker of Hallingbury Place and Mark Hall, Essex (1480/1-November 27, 1556), who had been brought up in Margaret Beaufort’s household. They were married before 1505. Their children were Jane (c.1505-February 13, 1542), Margaret, Henry (c.1513-January 9, 1552 or December 3, 1553), Elizabeth, and Francis. Parker was created Lord Morley in 1518, so she was not the Alice Parker who was a chamberer in Princess Mary’s household in Wales in 1525-7. Lord Morley did have a sister named Alice. Lady Morley attended the Field of Cloth of Gold and was part of the procession at Anne Boleyn’s coronation and at Jane Seymour’s funeral. In June 1536, with her husband and a daughter (probably Margaret, Lady Shelton), Alice visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, which was situated only six miles from Great Hallingbury. This was shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn and her brother George, Lord Rochford, who had been married to Alice’s eldest daughter, Jane. In 1542, the year in which Jane Rochford was executed, Lady Morley paid part of the cost of a new bell for the church in Great Hallingbury. Julia Fox, in her Jane Boleyn, suggests (although she admits it is a bit fanciful) that this may have been a memorial to her daughter.

ALICE ST. JOHN (c.1521-1567+)
Alice St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John of Bledsoe (1483-December 19, 1558) and Margaret Waldegrave (1491-1526). She married Edmund Elmes of Lilford (Lillford/Lylford), Northamptonshire. Their children were John (b.1542), Anne (b.1544), Margaret (b.1546), Elizabeth (b.1548), and Sir Thomas (1551-September 1612). When her sister, Margaret, died in 1562, Anne took charge of Margaret’s daughter, Margaret Russell, age two, and raised her until she was seven.

ANNE ST. JOHN (d.1602+)
Anne St. John was the daughter of John, 2nd baron St. John (January 1549-October 23, 1596) and Catherine Dormer (c.1549-March 23, 1615). On February 7, 1596/7, she married William Howard, 3rd baron Howard of Effingham (December 27, 1577-November 28, 1615). According to contemporary accounts she did not know she was with child when she surprised herself and the entire court by giving birth to a daughter, Elizabeth (January 19, 1602/3-November 1671) during the Christmas festivities of 1602.


CATHERINE ST. JOHN (c.1490-December 1553)
Catherine St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John (1450-1525) and Sybil Morgan. In 1507, she married Sir Griffith ap Rhys of Carmarthen, Wales and Dunster, Somerset (d. 1521). They had a daughter, Mary Griffith (1519-March 31, 1588). Her second husband was Sir Piers Edgecumbe of West Stonehouse and Cothele, Cornwall (1468/9-August 14, 1539). He had three sons and four daughters by his first wife, Jane Dernford. In 1524-5, Sir Piers and Catherine were sent three gallons of wine “at their first homecoming.” In November 1531, her stepson, Rhys ap Gruffydd, was attainted for treason. Fortunately, her jointure was protected and she was still receiving about £72/year in 1532. In March 1534, there was an outbreak of measles in the household. Catherine was executor of her husband’s will in 1539. M. St. Clare Byrne identifies her as the Lady Edgecumbe who was a lady of the Privy Chamber to Anne of Cleves in 1540, although other sources say that was Winifred Essex, her stepson’s wife. Winifred may not yet have been married to Edgecumbe in 1540 and in any case would not have been Lady Edgecumbe because her husband was not knighted until 1542. The “Lady Edgecumbe” who served Catherine Howard in the Privy Chamber was probably also Catherine, for the same reasons. Catherine made her will on December 4, 1553, at Cothele, Cornwall and it was proved on December 12, 1553. In it she names a daughter, Mary, wife of Sir John Luttrell, to whom she leaves the household goods at Dunster.




JUDITH ST. JOHN (c.1545-c.1607)
Judith St. John was the daughter of Oliver St. John, 1st baron St. John of Bletsoe (1516-April 21, 1582) and Agnes Fisher (1522-August 28, 1572). In about 1570, she married Sir John Pelham of Laughton (1537-October 13, 1580). They had a son, Oliver (d. January 19, 1584/5). Portrait: effigy made of red marble painted white in Stanmer Church, Brighton, Sussex.


MARGARET ST. JOHN (c.1524-August 27, 1562)
Margaret St. John was the daughter of Sir John St. John of Bletsoe (1483-December 19, 1558) and Margaret Waldegrave (1491-1526). In 1543, she married John Gostwick of Willington, Bedfordshire (1520-December 1545). In 1546, she married Francis Russell, 2nd earl of Bedford (1527-July 28, 1585). Their children were Edward (1551-1572), John (c.1553-1584), Francis (1553-July 27, 1585), William (c.1558-August 9, 1613), Anne (d. February 9, 1604), Elizabeth (d. March 24, 1605), and Margaret (1560-1616). Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, suggests that it was Margaret who infected the queen with smallpox in 1562. Margaret died right after a visit to court and a few weeks later, the queen fell ill.


ANNE ST. LEGER (c.1476-April 21, 1526)
Anne St. Leger was the daughter of Sir Thomas St. Leger (d. November 8, 1483) and Anne Plantagenet, duchess of Exeter (August 10, 1439-January 1475/6), sister of King Edward IV. In 1483, she was to marry the marquess of Dorset’s heir and the Holland estates of her mother’s first husband were settled on her. The death of King Edward on April 9, 1483 changed this plan. After Richard III succeeded to the throne, the duke of Buckingham was made Anne’s guardian. Anne later married George Manners, 12th baron Ros or Roos (d. October 1513). Their children were Thomas, 1st earl of Rutland (d. September 20, 1543), Margaret (c.1486-1558+), Richard (1490-c.1550), Eleanor (1505-September 16, 1547), Catherine (c.1511-1547+), Oliver, John, Anne, Elizabeth, Anthony, Cecily, and another unnamed son. Portrait: effigy in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor.

ANNE ST. LEGER (d. 1533+)
Anne St. Leger was the daughter of Ralph St. Leger of Ulcombe, Kent (d.1470) and his wife Anne. She married Sir George Warham of Malsanger, Oakley, Hampshire. Her second husband was Edward Thwaites of Chilham, Leeds, and Stourmouth, Kent. Thwaites had an annual income of £103 13s. 4d. and earned a place in history through his passionate belief in the prophecies of the Nun of Kent. In 1527, he published an account of these called A Marvelous Worke. Unfortunately, this led to his arrest, along with the nun (Elizabeth Barton) and her other supporters. He was pardoned, partly through the influence of Sir Anthony St. Leger, Anne’s nephew. He was deprived of his holdings in Calais and of his post as Lieutenant of the Lantern at Calais Gate and fined 1000 marks. He had been residing at Leeds at the time of his arrest and his possessions, some of which belonged to Anne, were inventoried on April 19, 1533. Her wardrobe and jewels had considerable value.

ANNE ST. LEGER (1555-1636)
Anne St. Leger was the daughter of Sir Warham St. Leger (1525-1597) and his first wife, Ursula Neville (c.1528-1575). The family settled in Ireland from 1568-70, but Lady St. Leger found herself besieged in 1569 and the attempt at colonization ended the following year. From 1570-72, St. Leger had custody of the earl of Desmond at Leeds Castle in Kent. Anne married Thomas Digges of St. Mary Aldermanbury (1546-August 24, 1595), a writer in the fields of science and mathematics. Their children were Dudley (1582/3-1639), Margaret (1587-September 1619), Leonard (1588-1635), Ursula (baptized July 19,1594), William (d.yng.) and Mary (d. yng.). His entry in the History of Parliament misidentifies his wife as Agnes St. Leger, daughter of William St. Leger of Ulcomebe and Leeds Castle, Kent. It also dates his death as September 21 and gives the date his will was proved as November 1595. The will, which is reprinted at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com, was dated June 10, 1591 and proved September 1, 1595. Digges left Anne, his sole executrix, an annuity, all her apparel, chains, and jewels, and the house in London, with its staff and furnishings, until Dudley was twenty-four, but she had to pay a yearly rent on that house and on their country house at Chevening, Kent. Anne erected a monument to Digges in St. Mary Aldermanbury. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. As a wealthy widow, Anne was courted by Edward Andrews of Gray’s Inn and by Francis Brace (d. July 2, 1599), but on August 26, 1603, she married Thomas Russell of Rushock, Worcestershire and Alderminster. His will, dated October 3, 1633 and proved May 5, 1634, speaks of a bond already established to pay Anne £100 a year. He left the bulk of his estate to a friend. Russell, a poet, had been an overseer of the will of William Shakespeare in 1616. This connection is probably why Anne’’s son, Leonard, wrote commendatory verses for the First Folio and the 1640 edition of Shakespeare’s Poems.




MARY ST. LEGER (after 1540-1623)
Mary St. Leger was the eldest daughter of Sir John St. Leger of Annerly, Devon (c.1520-October 8, 1596) and Catherine Neville. In about 1565, she married Richard Grenville of Stowe, Cornwall (June 5, 1541-September 2, 1591). Their children were Roger (d. December 1565), Bernard or Barnard (1567-1636), John (d.1595), Katherine (d.1623+), Mary, Ursula (d.1643), Bridget (1579-1623+), Rebecca, and another son who died young. Mary brought the island of Lundy as her dowry. The Grenvilles were in Cork, Ireland from 1568-1579. In June 1569, Mary and Lady St. Leger (Ursula Neville, wife of Sir Warham St. Leger, Mary’s cousin) were besieged by rebels and had to seek refuge with the earl of Ormond at Kilkenny. A detailed account of this can be found in Sir Richard Grenville of the Revenge by A. L. Rowse. Their husbands were at that time in England, seeking further support against the rebels. In England, the family lived at Buckland, Bideford, and at St. Leger house in Southwark. In 1580, Sir Richard was granted the wardships of John, Dorothy, and Mary Arundell, children of Sir John of Trerice. It would have been customary for them to join the household. On February 6, 1591, the settlement for the marriage of their son Bernard also provided for Mary’s jointure. After her husband’s death she was to have the use of the manors of Kilkhampton, Wolston, and Bideford, so long as she remained unmarried. Sir Richard, who was captain of the Revenge, was killed in the Battle of Flores. Ten months later, on July 10, 1592, his eldest son and heir married Elizabeth Bevil in the church at Withiel. As a widow, Mary lived at Bideford. When her father died in 1596, her sister, Eulalia Arscott, widow of Edmund Tremayne, was granted letters of administration but she renounced the administration the following year. On the death of their brother John (d. 1605+), Mary and her sisters inherited was was left of the estate, but by that time there was little of worth remaining. Mary left a will. Along with numerous small bequests, she left the bulk of her property to her daughters Katherine and Bridget. They were also to receive a yearly allowance from their brother for the maintenance of their sister Ursula.




Elizabeth St. Loe was the daughter of Sir John St. Loe of Sutton Court, Chew Magna, Somerset (c.1479-December 1558) and the sister of William St. Loe of Tormarton, Goucestershire (d.1565). Sources disagree on her mother’s identity. Sir John St. Loe married a woman named Margaret who was still living in 1559. The History of Parliament (which gives Sir John’s life dates as 1500/1-1559) says she was Margaret Kingston, daughter of Sir William Kingston, whose ward St. Loe had been. Other sources give her surname as Poyntz or FitzNicholas (the latter from Charles Herbert Mayo in Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset, citing the Chew Magna Register). Elizabeth St. Loe was placed in household of Elizabeth Stafford, duchess of Norfolk during the reign of Mary Tudor. The duchess, who died on November 30, 1558, left her a new French hood and a silver cup with a cover in her will (proved January 19, 1558/9). Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, identifies Elizabeth St. Loe as one of the first six maids of honor of the new reign at one point in her unpublished PhD dissertation and as a maid of the Privy Chamber in another. In Appendix 1, the dates listed for Elizabeth St. Loe run from January 1558/9 to 1569. According to Mary S. Lovell, Bess of Hardwick Empire Builder, a biography of Sir William St. Loe’s second wife, in 1550, Elizabeth was to have married James, 6th Lord Mountjoy (c.1533-October 28, 1582/3) by an arrangement made with his late father. Her father and his, Charles, 5th baron, who had died in 1544, had negotiated a dowry of 500 marks for Elizabeth and Mountjoy was to have £20 when the marriage took place, but on May 17, 1558, he married someone else. According to the terms, the £200 was to go to Elizabeth, along with the 500 marks. From at least January 1559, Elizabeth was at court, receiving a fee as a gentlewoman of the privy chamber of £33. 6s. 8d. In late September, her new sister-in-law, Bess of Hardwick, sent her two chains of gold worth £21. Soon after, Bess was appointed a lady of the privy chamber. A third Elizabeth St. Loe, appears in the records in early 1560. She was a cousin who conspired against Sir William and Bess and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. According to Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day), it was the subject of this entry, not Bess of Hardwick, in whom Lady Catherine Grey confided in 1561 and who, as a consequence, was held first in an alderman’s house in London and then in the Tower. She was imprisoned there from August 20, 1561 until March 25, 1562. In June she received a payment of £30.



MARY ST. LOE (1539-1558+)
Mary St.Loe was the daughter of Sir William St.Loe of Tormarton (1518-1565/6) by his first wife, Jane Baynton (1523-1549). She entered the service of Elizabeth Tudor in 1553, when she was fourteen, at a time when her father was also part of that household. She is one of six gentlewomen about whom John Harington wrote a sonnet entitled “The prayse of six gentle Women attending of the Ladye Elizabeth her grace at Hatfield.” Her stanza calls her “stable . . . as rock within the sea.” Mary continued in Elizabeth’s service after she became queen.



MARIA de SALAZAR (1480+-1505+)
Maria de Salazar was identified by Agnes Strickland in her Lives of the Queens of England as the daughter of Captain Salazar, captain of the guard to Ferdinand of Aragon, and his wife, a connection of the noble de Foix family and therefore related to Ferdinand’s daughter, Catherine of Aragon. Maria was, in fact, the daughter of Juan (Petit) Salazar and (probably) Beatrix of Portugal (d. before 1490), an illegitimate daughter of the Portuguese royal family. Salazar was a supporter of Richard III. After the Battle of Bosworth, he was in the Low Countries with his family. In 1497, he returned to Spain with his daughter to take up a position as Captain of the Guard to Ferdinand of Aragon. In 1500, Maria was in the service of Ferdinand’s wife, Isabella of Castile. In 1501, Isabella sent her to England with Catherine, who was to marry the Prince of Wales. She is listed as Martina, daughter of Salazar, in the household list. Catherine was widowed a few months after the wedding. On September 8, 1505, Catherine wrote to her father on Maria’s behalf. The following is part of the transcript in Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies, Vol. I, by Mary Anne Everett Green (1846): “It is known to your highness how donna Maria de Salazar was lady to the queen my lady, who is in blessed glory, and how her highness sent her to come with me; and in addition to the service which she did to her highness, she has served me well, and in all this has done as a worthy woman. Wherefore I supplicate your highness that, as well on account of the one service as the other, you would command her to be paid, since I have nothing wherewith to pay her, and also because her sister, the wife of Monsieur d’Aymeria, has in view for her a marriage in Flanders, of which she cannot avail herself, nor hope that it can be accomplished, without knowing what the said donna Maria has for a marriage portion.” This wife, Gillette de Berlayment, was Maria’s stepsister, married to Louis Rolin, Lord of Aymeries.The letter goes on to ask that Ferdinand recover that which Maria’s father, Captain Salazar, gave her, and the pension Ferdinand had granted him, and his daughter after him, of two hundred milreas. Catherine suggests that Martin Sanchez de Camudio be sent to recover all that belonged to Maria “because he is near the house of her father.” Catherine further asks that this “be done quickly, in order that donna Maria de Salazar may not lose this marriage, which is most good and honorable.” What happened next is unclear. Catherine’s duenna, Elvira Manuel, was ordered to leave England in December 1505. At some point, Maria married Elvira’s son, Don Inigo Manrique, who had served as steward and master of Catherine’s pages. He entered the service of Philip the Fair and accompanied him from Flanders to Castile in January 1506. Maria’s surname has been variously spelled Saluzzi, Saluces, and even Salinas, leading some authorities to mistakenly assume that Maria de Salazar and Maria de Salinas were the same person. My thanks to Didier Descamps for providing the identities of Maria’s parents and husband.


MARIA de SALINAS (c.1490-October 19, 1539)
Maria de Salinas was the daughter of Juan Sancriz de Salinas (d. c. July 1495) and Inez Albernos. Some sources confuse her with Maria de Salizar and others with Maria de Rojas. Juan de Salinas was secretary to Isabella, Princess of Portugal, oldest sister of Catherine of Aragon. After his death, his six children were raised by his brother Martin (d. September 28, 1503) and Martin’s wife, Maria Martinez de Buendia. Maria de Salinas came to England in about 1503 to join Maria de Rojas, who may have been her cousin, as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies. In 1511, she was godmother to Charles Brandon’s daughter, Mary. By 1514, she was considered to be Queen Catherine’s closest friend. She received letters of denization on May 29, 1516. On June 5, 1516, she married William, 10th baron Willoughby d’Eresby (d.1526), master of the royal hart hounds. Their children were Henry and Francis, who died young, and Catherine (March 22, 1520-September 19, 1580).They were given the loan of Greenwich Palace for their honeymoon and the manor of Grimsthorpe, Lincolnshire as a wedding present, as well as a dowry of 1,100 marks. Maria continued to be a part of the queen’s household after her marriage and an indication of the favor in which she was held by both the king and the queen can be seen in the name of one of King Henry VIII’s new ships—the Mary Willoughby. Upon Willoughby’s death, Maria’s daughter became the ward of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and court battles ensued over the Willoughby lands and title that continued in Chancery and the Star Chamber even after Suffolk married Catherine in 1534. Maria was forced to leave Queen Catherine’s service in 1532, but she continued to correspond with the cast-off queen and send her news of her daughter, Mary Tudor. In 1535, when the former queen was ill, Maria was denied permission to visit her. She traveled to Kimbolton Castle anyway. As Garrett Mattingly, Catherine’s biographer, puts it: “It was a foul, black night, the roads were filthy, she had fallen from her horse, she did not care what his orders were, she was not going another mile.” Faced with such determination, Sir Edmund Bedingfield, Catherine’s jailer, let Maria in. She was with Catherine when she died on January 7, 1536. Maria had two dower houses, Parham Old Hall in Suffolk and the Barbican in London, and she also resided at Eresby and Grimsthorpe, where she died. She is said to have been buried near Queen Catherine. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Willoughby [née de Salinas], Maria.” Portraits: one was extant in 1910 at Uffington; a portrait said to be Maria is reproduced, without attribution, at an online genealogy site; the DNB entry indicates there is a likeness in the Peterborough Museum. NOTE: the entry in the Oxford DNB identifies Maria’s parents as Martin de Salinas and Josepha Gonzales de Sales and speculates that she came to England with Catherine of Aragon or was sent by Queen Isabella in 1501.


MARY SALISBURY (1484-July 10, 1555)
Mary Salisbury was the daughter of Sir William Salisbury of Horton, Northamptonshire and Elizabeth Wylde. Before 1511, she married William Parr, later baron Parr of Horton (c.1480-September 10, 1547). Their children were Maud (c.1507-1558/9), Anne, Elizabeth, and Mary. She attended Catherine of Aragon at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. Portrait: effigy at Horton Church.





Elizabeth Salusbury was the daughter of Sir John Salusbury of Lleweni, Denbighshire (d.1578) and Jane Myddleton (d.1578+). By 1566, she married John Salusbury of Rûg, Merioneth (1533-November 16, 1580). They had three sons and two daughters. The eldest, Robert (June 20, 1567-July 14, 1599), was brought up by Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick. On August 31, 1584, Elizabeth married Sir Henry Jones of Albermarlais, Carmarthenshire (d.1586). It has been suggested that she might have been the Mrs. Jones who was mother of maids at the court of Queen Elizabeth in 1588, but this seems unlikely since her nephew, Thomas Salusbury, was executed only two years earlier for his part on the Babington Plot, plunging the entire family into disgrace.



KATHERINE SAMPSON (1496-January 1576/7)
Katherine Sampson married Edward Dormer. They had one child, Elizabeth. Dormer wrote his will on January 21, 1538/9 and it was proved January 12, 1539/4040. On July 15, 1553, Katherine married Sir John Gresham (1495-October 26, 1556), Lord Mayor of London, as his second wife. On July 17, 1553, her daughter Elizabeth married his second son, another John Gresham (born March 13, 1529). Katherine inherited land her second husband owned at North End in Fulham. As Lady Gresham, she gave Anthony Stapleton the ring he left to Rose Trott in his 1569 will. Katherine was buried in St. Michael Bassishaw on January 9, 1576/7.

TERESA SAMPSONIA (c.1590-1668)
Teresa (Theresia/Teresia) Sampsonia was, according to her tombstone, the daughter of Samphuflux, Prince of Circassia, actually a Circassian chieftain, who was also known as Isna’il Khan. She is sometimes described as a lady of the Persian court and her aunt may have been a member of Shah Abbas’s harem. In 1608, then known as Sampsonia, she married Sir Robert Sherley of Wiston, Sussex (1581-July 13, 1528), explorer and diplomat, who was a hostage in Persia, although a well-treated one. Subsequently, she became a Roman Catholic (as he had since leaving England) and was given the name Teresa. On February 12, 1608, they left Persia, sent on a mission by the shah to recruit European support for his war against the Turk. They traveled by way of the Caspian Sea and the Volga to Moscow, then overland to Poland, arriving in Cracow in the fall and spending the winter there. In the spring, Teresa took up residence in a convent in Poland while Sherley traveled to Emperor Rudolph II’s court in Prague, where he was granted the title Count Palatine. Teresa remained in Poland while he continued on to Milan, Florence, and Rome, where he was created a count of the Lateran, and then went to Spain. He sent for his wife to join him in Madrid. She arrived in Lisbon early in 1611 and  joined him in Madrid in March. In June they traveled to Bayonne, where they took passage to Rotterdam. In the summer of 1611, they took ship from Flushing for England, arriving there in August. They went immediately to his family estate at Wiston, where their only child, Henry, was born on November 5, 1611. They left him behind when they sailed from Gravesend on January 7, 1613. With them were “Sir Thomas Powell; Tomasin, his lady” and “Leylye, a Persian woman.” They arrived back in Persia two and a half years later, six and a half years after they left, delayed by plots and conspiracies as well as by travel conditions. They left Persia for the second time in November 1615, once again on a mission for the shah, and arrived in Spain in September 1617. They remained there until 1622, when they traveled to Rome. It was there that they had their portraits painted by Sir Anthony Van Dyck. In December 1623, the Sherleys were again in England. This time they stayed three years and three months before leaving in March 1627. They returned to Persia early in 1628, and were in Qazvin when Sherley fell ill and died. He was buried under the threshold of his house there. After his death, Lady Teresa was pressured to reconvert. Instead, she left Persia, traveling to Constantinople, where she remained for three years. She left there for Rome, arriving in December 1634. She lived there, in a house near the church of Santa Maria della Scala in Travestera until her death. She gave the church several flambeaux to be lit on the anniversary of the festival of Saint Bacchus. In 1658, she had Sir Robert’s bones brought to Rome and buried in Santa Maria della Scalia, where she was later interred. Portrait: 1622 by Anthony Van Dyck.


WINIFRED SAMWELL (d.1601+) (maiden name unknown)
Winifred was the wife of Richard Samwell the younger (1578-1601+), the son of a partner in the Boar’s Head Playhouse in Whitechapel. Three generations of the Samwell family were living in the former inn in 1599/1600 when violence erupted over rights to the profits of the playhouse. On December 24, 1599, during an attempt to arrest Winifred’s husband, a raiding party that included Francis Langley and Susan Woodliffe, both of whom also claimed a share of the profits of the playhouse, seized the money they said was owed them and, failing to find Richard at home, took Winifred away with them. Her father-in-law later deposed that she had “a yonge infante then of age three weeks . . . suckinge at her Breste.” This child, Rebecca Samwell, had been baptized on November 11, 1599 and was therefore closer to six weeks old. Mother and child were locked up in the Southwark house of Alexander Foxley, bailiff of the court at the Marshalsea prison, until Samwell found money for bail. By April 4, when her husband was arrested and taken to the Marshalsea, Winifred was free. She demanded to see the writ. Langley refused and reportedly beat up both Winifred and one of the Samwell servants. On April 11, 1600, her father-in-law filed suit against Langley, Oliver and Susan Woodliffe, and others. Another daughter, Sara, was baptized on February 24, 1601.

PETRONELLA SAMYNE (d.c.1606) (maiden name unknown)
Petronella Samyne was a London widow who acted as the English representative for her two sons, who were importers of silk and spent most of their time in Verona. In 1602-3 they sent her eleven bales of silk, valued at £2,500.


see also SONDES

ELIZABETH SANDES (1532-June 16, 1585)
Elizabeth Sandes was the daughter of Sir Anthony Sandes of Throwley, Kent (d.1575) and Joan Fyneux. Her mother is listed as Anne Mann by Marion Colthorpe, “Women at Court: Royal Household.” Her surname is variously spelled Sondes, Sands, and Sandys. By 1554, Elizabeth was in the household of Elizabeth Tudor, accompanying her to the Tower of London as one of three gentlewomen. She accompanied the princess to Woodstock when she was released in May 1554. John Foxe in his Book of Martyrs, and others after him, wrongly state that Elizabeth Sandes was dismissed from the princess’s service, for refusing to attend mass,while Elizabeth Tudor was still in the Tower. On May 26, Queen Mary wrote that Elizabeth Sandes was “a person of evil opinion, and not fit to remain about our . . . sister’s person” because of her religious beliefs, but she was not sent away until June 5, 1534. According to Sir Henry Bedingfield, who had charge of the household, she left amid “great mourning both of my lady’s grace and Sandes.”  He characterized Elizabeth as having an “obstinate disposition.” She may have gone first to an uncle in Clerkenwell (London), but was soon returned to her father in Kent. From there, in March 1555, she left England with her cousins Dorothy and William Stafford and settled in Geneva. In 1557, Elizabeth and Dorothy, by then a widow, moved to Basel, where they remained until early in 1559. They returned to England by way of France and joined Queen Elizabeth’s court. Elizabeth was listed as a chamberer in August 1559. In June 1562, Elizabeth married Sir Maurice/Morris Berkeley of Bruton, Somerset (1508-August 11,1581), who served as standard bearer for Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Elizabeth. Their children were Robert (1563-before 1624), John, and Frances (sometimes called Margaret). Although the queen was godmother to their son Robert on August 21, 1563, Elizabeth was still listed as unmarried in the rosters of Elizabeth Tudor’s attendants until 1565. She remained at court until her death. She was buried at St. John’s Clerkenwell. Portrait: an effigy at Bruton, with that of her husband and his first wife (Catherine Blount, d. February 25, 1559).


ANNE SANDYS (d.1544+)
Anne Sandys was the daughter of Oliver Sandys or Sands of Shere, Surrey (d. November 7, 1515). By the end of the 1490s, she had married Richard Weston (c.1466-August 7, 1541), groom of the privy chamber to Henry VIII. Their children were Francis (1511-x. May 17, 1536), who was a royal page in 1515, Katherine (1514-1470), and Margaret. Anne was a gentlewoman in the household of Elizabeth of York. Later she served in the household of Catherine of Aragon. Weston was governor of Guernsey from 1509 and took over that post in person in 1513. He was knighted in 1514. Anne is sometimes confused with her sister-in-law, Anne Weston, who was also in the household of Elizabeth of York and later (1511) married Sir Ralph Verney (d.1525). Some genealogies mistakenly state that Weston married Anne Verney rather than an Anne Sandys. In 1521, Weston was given the manor of Sutton and there built Sutton Place, which King Henry VIII visited in 1533. Lady Weston was a correspondent of Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle. A letter, written from Sutton Place in November or December 1532 and sent to Soberton, some thirty miles away, recommends that Lady Lisle hire her former maidservant, a daughter of Sir Christopher More of Loseley (d. August 16, 1549) and brought up in Lady Bourchier’s household. She had been turned out by Sir Richard because she fell in love with one of Weston’s menservants. The young man was also turned out. It is unclear whether Lady Lisle hired the young woman, who was staying with her uncle at the time of Lady Weston’s letter.



EDITH SANDYS (1475-August 22, 1529)
Edith Sandys, sometimes called Elizabeth, was the daughter of Sir William Sandys of the Vyne, Hampshire (c.1439-October 26, 1496) and his wife, Margaret. Some genealogies give Edith’s mother’s name as Margaret Cheney and others as Margaret Rawson. After 1489, Edith married Ralph, Lord Neville (d. February 6, 1498). Their children were a son who died young, Cecily (b.c.1493), Isabel (d.1529+), and Ralph (February 21, 1497-April 24, 1550). The latter eventually succeeded his grandfather as earl of Westmorland. Before December 7, 1499, Edith married Sir Thomas Darcy of Templehurst (c.1467-x. June 30, 1537) as his second wife. They had a daughter, Elizabeth (d. before 1539). Edith was probably the Lady Neville who accompanied Margaret Tudor to Scotland in 1503, although there is some confusion because, according to a note in the Plumpton Correspondence, “Lady Darcy” met the princess at Berwick, where Darcy was captain. Barbara J. Harris, in English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550, tells us that Henry VII withheld Edith’s jointure lands for over a year, releasing them only after Darcy supplied him with 200 men to help defend Berwick-upon-Tweed. Edith’s daughter, Isabel Neville, became the second wife of Sir Robert Plumpton in 1505. A short time later, when Plumpton was desperate for money because of a feud over his inheritance, Edith arranged to forgive a debt Plumpton owed her husband. While a younger sister was with her in 1518, Edith negotiated a marriage for her and even added 100 marks to the girl’s dowry. She may have been the Lady Neville at Richmond with Princess Mary while most of the nobility of England were in France at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520, or that may have been her daughter-in-law, Catherine Stafford. Edith died at Stepney, Middlesex and was buried in the friary of the Observant Friars at Greenwich three days later.


Margaret Sandys was the daughter of William Sandys, 1st baron Sandys of the Vyne (c.1470-December 4, 1540) and Margery Bray (d. March 1539). She married Thomas Essex of Lambourn, Berkshire (c.1495-August 29, 1558). Their children were Elizabeth, William (d. before 1558), Alice (d.1584), Thomas (1518-1575), Anne, Edmund, Margery, Humphrey, George, and Mary. Portrait: effigy on tomb in Lambourn Church.




ANNE SAPCOTE (d. March 14, 1558/9)
Anne Sapcote was the daughter of Sir Guy Sapcote of Huntingdon, Chenies, Buckinghamshire, and Thornhaugh, Bedfordshire and Margaret Wolston. She married John Broughton of Toddington, Bedfordshire (d. January 24, 1518). Their children were John (d.1528), Anne (d. May 16, 1562), Katherine (d. April 23, 1535), and Elizabeth (d.1524). His will, dated July 9, 1517 and proved June 4, 1519, left each of his daughters £200 as a dowry, £300 each if one should die (as she did). For the entire will, see http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Anne married Sir Richard Jerningham (d.1526). Some accounts have him dying in 1524 and give them two sons, Edward and John, but according to his will, dated March 21, 1525 and proved July 24, 1526, he and Anne had no children. This will is also at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Anne married Sir John Russell (c.1485-March 14, 1555/6), who was created earl of Bedford in 1550. They had one son, Francis, 2nd earl of Bedford (c.1527-July 28, 1585). When Anne’s son, John Broughton, who was in the service of Cardinal Wolsey, died of the sweating sickness, his two surviving sisters inherited £700 in chattels and lands in Bedfordshire. The wardship of the younger, Katherine, was granted to Wolsey. To please his wife, Russell attempted to buy it from him. At the same time, however, two other courtiers, Sir Thomas Cheney and Sir John Wallop, attempted to win control of the Broughton fortune and were successful in getting the king to promise Anne Broughton to Sir Thomas and Katherine Broughton to Sir John. Tempers became heated over the matter and after a particularly virulent quarrel between Russell and Cheney, King Henry banished Cheney. In the end, with Queen Anne’s backing, Anne Broughton passed into Cheney’s control and eventually became his wife. The king paid Wallop £400 in compensation and let Wolsey keep Katherine Broughton’s wardship. On November 20, 1529, Agnes, dowager duchess of Norfolk, purchased it. Katherine’s mother was devastated. Russell wrote to Lord Cromwell that Katherine was “all her joy in this world,” and a family friend, Thomas Heneage, reported that Anne would be utterly undone if her suit to have Katherine failed. In 1531, Agnes arranged the marriage of Katherine to one of her sons, William Howard, later Lord Howard of Effingham. In the 1530s and 1540s, Anne was one of Princess Mary’s attendants, but she was at Chenies on July 29, 1538 when she wrote to Lord Cromwell to ask the king to send Dr. Butts or “the Spanish physician” to her husband, who was sick with “a burning ague.” She also asked for a few grains of a “powder” the king had given to the Lord Admiral. Russell was only just recovering the following October, at which time Anne, who was pregnant, was ill. There is no further mention of a child born in 1538/9. On November 17, 1541, when Jane Parker, Lady Rochford, was imprisoned in the Tower of London, she had a mental breakdown and was sent to Russell House to be cared for by Lady Russell. She was to be nursed back to health so that she could be executed, since it was illegal to execute an insane person. After her third husband’s death, Anne took over the upbringing of Magdalen Dacre, whose mother had died in 1552. Anne had owned Thornhaugh in her own right when she married John Russell. Chenies, Buckinghamshire, which had passed from Agnes, Lady Cheyne to her niece, Anne Semark, and then to Anne Semark’s granddaughter, Anne Sapcote, was the inheritance of Anne Sapcote’s son, John Broughton. After his death, it became the Russells’ main residence. In 1556, Anne founded the chapel attached to the parish church of Chenies to commemorate herself and her third husband. For some reason, the inscription gives her name as Elizabeth. A will written on December 6, 1558 by Anne’s son-in-law, Sir Thomas Cheyney of Shurland, left her £100 “in consideration of her great friendship and love borne toward me and mine.” For Anne’s will, dated August 19, 1558 and proved March 21, 1559, see http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. In addition to family bequests, she left an annuity of £20 to her servants, Hugh and Sibyl Tebanian. Portrait: effigy at Chenies.



ANNE SAUNDERS (1512-1565)
Anne Saunders was the daughter of Lawrence Saunders of Harrington, Northamptonshire (1480-1545) and Alice Brokesby. Her first husband was John Belford. After his death, she married Sir Bartholomew Tate of Laxton, Northamptonshire (d.1532). Their children were Bartholomew (d. April 23, 1601) and Anthony. Her third marriage made her Lady Longueville, but there is some confusion over the identity of this husband. Most sources say he was Sir Thomas Longueville (d.1536) and that they had no children, but Collins’ Baronetage says he was Sir John Longueville of Wolvendon and gives them four sons: Thomas, Arthur (d.1556), John, and Richard. Another online source confuses the issue by claiming that Bartholomew Tate divorced Anne and that she then married Andrew Wadham (d. 1550), a younger son of Nicholas Wadham of Merrifield, Somerset, skipping the Longueville marriage entirely. On February 13, 1548, “Lady Anne Longvyle, Andrew Wadham, her husband, and Bartholomew Tate, her son” purchased the former nunnery of Delapré (the Abbey of St. Mary de la Pré in Northamptonshire). Anne and Bartholomew later build a range of rooms on the site of the nunnery. She was buried on February 16, 1564/5.



Elizabeth Saunders was the daughter of George Saunders of London (d. March 25, 1573) and Anne Newdigate (x. May 13, 1573). After her mother was executed for the murder of her father, Elizabeth and her three brothers became “orphans of the city.” Letters between the Lord Mayor of London and Anne Stanhope Seymour, duchess of Somerset, state that Elizabeth’s custody had been granted to the duchess’s late second husband, Francis Newdigate (1519-1582). His will requested that the duchess “do see my niece, Bess Saunders, brought up and bestowed.” George Saunders’ brother, Francis Saunders, left Elizabeth £54 in his will of 1584. He had previously claimed Elizabeth’s mother’s widow’s portion and given it back to the four orphaned children. Elizabeth also received a bequest in the 1577 will of her mother’s stepmother, Elizabeth Lovett Cave Newdigate Weston.

Elizabeth Saunders was the daughter of William Saunders (Sanders/Sander) of Charlwood, Surrey (d.1572) and Elizabeth Mynes. Elizabeth belonged to the Bridgettine order of nuns and was part of an English group, formerly of Syon, based at Mechelen in the Spanish Netherlands. Her sister Margaret (d.1576) was also a nun there. In 1578, Elizabeth and several other nuns, including Mary Champney (d.1580) and Anne Stapleton (d.1578), returned to England. Elizabeth was imprisoned for her faith for part of the time she was there. By 1587, she had left again and was in Rouen. Letters written during this period are still extant. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Sander [Sanders, Saunders], Elizabeth.”



MARGARET SAUNDERS (1512-c.1563/4)
Margaret Saunders was the daughter of Nicholas Saunders of Charlwood, Surrey (d. August 29, 1553) and Alice Hungate. She married John Poyntz of Alderley, Gloucestershire (c.1487-November 29, 1544), as his second wife. Their children were William (d.1601), Robert (c.1535-1584), Elizabeth (d. 1564+), and Alice (d.1564+). The marriage settlement was dated May 1, 1544, but this appears to have been formalized some years after the actual marriage. He made his will on June 1, 1544, prior to leaving for the invasion of France, making Margaret one of his executors and leaving the care of his eldest son, Henry, age sixteen, to his stepmother. Henry was “not able, by reason of his weakness, to govern himself.” Margaret’s other young stepchildren were Matthew and Frideswide. A sketch of Poyntz was done by Hans Holbein, suggesting close ties to court, and it is possible that Margaret was the Mrs. Poyntz who was listed as mother of maids in Queen Mary’s household in 1557, although by then she was married to James Skinner of Reigate, Surrey (d. July 30, 1558). She was his third wife. He made his will July 28, 1558 and it was proved December 7, 1558. Margaret was appointed sole executor. Her will, dated September 20, 1563, was proved July 4, 1564 and can be found at http://www.Oxford-Shakespeare.com.


MARGERY SAUNDERS (1545-June 1625)
Margery (or Margaret) Saunders was the daughter of Thomas Saunders of Uxbridge, Middlesex (d.1565) and Elizabeth Wolman. On June 25, 1563, she married Robert Wolman or Woolman (1538-1571), a London mercer. In 1572, she married John Leigh of Coldrey in Froyle, Hampshire (1534-January 19, 1576). Their children were John (April 1575-January 6, 1612) and Frances. In 1576, Margaret enclosed the cemetery in Windsor Street Green in Uxbridge. In 1577, she married Sir William Killigrew of Lothbury, London and Hanworth, Middlesex (1545-November 23, 1622), gentleman pensioner and later vice chamberlain to Elizabeth Tudor. Their children were Robert (1579/80-May 1633), Catherine (1579-1641), and Elizabeth (1580-May 1626). The Killigrews were always in debt but they kept a large house in Lothbury. Margaret left a will written May 22, 1623 and proved June 14, 1625. Among other bequests, she left her daughter, Lady Jermyn (Catherine), her Persian carpet and one of the yellow chests in her lodging chamber. The other chest went to Lady Berkeley (Elizabeth), along with her plain gold chain. The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com

SABINE SAUNDERS (c.1521-1576+)
Sabine Saunders was the daughter of Thomas Saunders of Sibbertoft (d. March 1, 1528) and Margaret Cave (d.1528+). In c.1541, she married John Johnson (c.1514-1590), a draper and stapler who had been apprenticed to her uncle, Anthony Cave. Their children included Charity (b.c.1542), Rachel (b. November 1544), Faith (b.1548), Evangelist (b.1550), Edward, and one son (b.1546) who died young. Johnson’s business was centered in Calais. Sabine’s letters from 1542-1552 have been preserved. She lived primarily at Glapthorne Manor in Northamptonshire after 1544, but when her husband fell ill of an ague in Calais in November 1546, she traveled there to nurse him and brought him home to recover more fully. The Johnsons’ business went into bankruptcy in 1553. In 1555, John Johnson was committed to the Fleet for debt. He owed £8000.  He was not released until 1557. Sabine was allowed to remain at Glapthorne with their children, but after his release there was no money to support the family. With the help of William Cecil, Johnson obtained a post as a secretary to Lord Paget. This lasted until 1561. During that time the family shared a house in Lombard Street with John’s widowed sister-in-law, Maria (née Warner, married first to Otwell Johnson, who died in 1551, and then to Matthew Colclough.) In 1562, John and Sabine moved into the parsonage at West Wickham, Kent, renting it and the accompanying farm for £8 a year. Later they moved back to London. Sabine seems to have survived her husband, although the exact date of her death is not known. Biographies: Barbara Winchester’s Tudor Family Portrait (1955);  Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams, chapter eight of her unpublished PhD dissertation, Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England (1998).

ANNE SAVAGE (1506-October 1564)
Anne Savage was the daughter of Sir John Savage of Clifton and Rocksavage, Cheshire (1478-March 2, 1527) and Anne Bostock. TudorPlace.com.ar describes her as a woman “of middling stature, with a comely brown complexion, and much tender-hearted with her children.” She was at court and apparently in the household of Anne Boleyn before Anne Boleyn was queen. She was one of only four or five people to witness Anne Boleyn’s marriage to Henry VIII on January 25, 1533. Others known to have been present were Thomas Heneage, Henry Norris, and William Brereton. Brereton was the second husband of Anne Savage’s widowed sister-in-law, Elizabeth Somerset. Both Brereton and Norris were later executed as Anne Boleyn’s lovers. Anne was Anne Boleyn’s trainbearer but she did not remain long at the new queen’s court. In April 1533, she married Thomas, 6th baron Berkeley (1505-September 22, 1534), known as “the Hopeful.” They had a daughter, Elizabeth (1534-September 1, 1582) and nine weeks after her husband’s death, Anne gave birth to his son and heir, Thomas, 7th baron Berkeley (November 26, 1534-November 26, 1613). Lady Berkeley was an avid letter writer and was written about as well. A number of these missives are still extant, including one written to Lord Cromwell on May 1, 1535 to complain about the Court of Wards, which opposed the release of her jointure. A letter from John Barlow, dean of Westbury College, to Lord Cromwell, also in 1535, complains about Lady Berkeley’s interference in his attempt to prosecute a number of men who were caught playing tennis “in service time” (in other words, when they should have been in church). The incident occurred near where she was living in Yate, Gloucestershire and she actively rallied opposition to Barlow’s charges. Barlow had earlier had a run in with Lady Berkeley over some religious books found in her house, but since both Catholic and radical Protestant texts were equally frowned upon at this time, it is difficult to say what Lady Berkeley’s beliefs might have been. She was also at odds with her brother-in-law, Maurice Berkeley, who would have become the next baron Berkeley had Anne not given birth to a posthumous son. At one point during the late 1530s, she served on a commission to look into disturbances in one of her parks. According to Barbara J. Harris’s “Women and Politics in Early Tudor England,” she “sat with the panel when it selected a jury, heard evidence, and found the accused, including two of her brothers-in-law, Sir Nicholas Poyntz and Maurice Berkeley, guilty of riot and other misdemeanors.” (Poyntz was married to her late husband’s sister). In 1536, Edward Sutton wished to marry Anne. Cecily, Lady Dudley, Dorothy, Lady Mountjoy, and Thomas Wriothesley all petitioned the king and Lord Cromwell on Sutton’s behalf, but a widow could refuse to remarry and Anne did, writing on January 6 from Yate that “my stomach cannot lean there, neither as yet to any marriage.” In a letter to Wriothesley from the Dorset house of his aunt, Lady Montague, Sutton wrote: “She entertained me after the most loving sort at my first coming to her . . . when she was in her chamber sewing, she would suffer me to lie in her lap, with many other familiar fashions as I could desire . . . but at my coming with the king’s letters, I was nothing so well welcomed.” Lady Berkeley is said to have served as a Justice of the Peace, but the only evidence of this is in the memoir of a judge, writing in 1632 and recalling a story his mother told him about a “Lady Bartlet,” who was a J.P. under Queen Mary. Anne managed the family estates until her death at Callowdon (or Calloughdown), Gloucestershire. Portraits: Anne Savage is NOT the subject of the Holbein sketch at Windsor labeled “The Lady Barkley.”




ELEANOR SAVAGE (1557-1604+)
Eleanor Savage was the daughter of Sir John Savage of Clifton and Rock Savage, Cheshire (c.1523-December 5, 1597) and Elizabeth Manners (c.1527-August 8, 1570). At some point after 1577, she married Sir Henry Bagnal/Bagenal of Newry, Co. Down and Norley Castle and Stoke, Staffordshire (1556-August 14, 1598). Their three sons and four daughters included Dudley, Eleanor, and Anne. Eleanor Savage had a marriage portion of £1000. Bagnal was Marshall of Ireland. After Hugh O’Neill, earl of Tyrone, eloped with his sister, Mabel Bagnal, in 1591, the two men began a feud that ended only when Bagnal died. The estate Eleanor inherited from her husband was in such a confused state that she had to ask the Privy Council to sort it out. This took some time, but they eventually named her as administrator in 1604. In the interim, she married Sir Sackville Trevor.







ELIZABETH SAXBY (d.1514+) (maiden name unknown)
According to Alison Weir, in Elizabeth of York, Elizabeth came from an old Lincolnshire family. She may have been married to Sir Thomas Saxby of Northamptonshire, whose wife’s name is unknown. If so, their children were William (d.1517), Margaret (1475-March 1531/2) and John (d.1544). Elizabeth Saxby was in the household of Elizabeth of York as “Mrs. Saxilby.” She received a salary of £5 in 1509 as one of the ladies of Henry VIII’s sister, Mary Tudor. On September 8, 1514, received an annuity of £20. By that time she was a widow.


ANNE SAY (1489-1509+)
Anne Say was the daughter of Thomas Say of Lyston Hall, Essex (d. June 26, 1497) and his wife Joan. The History of Parliament entry for Robert Hussey incorrectly states that she was the daughter of William Saye. In 1502, Anne was in the household of Elizabeth of York when she fell ill at Woodstock during a royal progress. The queen paid for her to be boarded out at Abingdon for several weeks until she recovered. Anne’s brother, William, died before 1510, leaving Anne and her sister Elizabeth as coheirs. Anne married Sir Robert Hussey of Linwood, Halton Holegate, and Old Lafford, Lincolnshire (d. May 28, 1546), younger brother of John, Lord Hussey. Their children were Thomas (d.1559), Margaret (d.1577), Anne (d. December 1, 1562), Mary (d.1573), Dorothy, and Elizabeth (d. 1553).

MARY SAY (1485-June 5, 1535+)
Mary Say was the daughter of Sir William Say of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire (1450- December 4, 1529) and Elizabeth Fray and the sister of Elizabeth Say, first wife of William Blount, 4th baron Mountjoy. Because of this connection, she is often misidentified as Blount’s sister. By a marriage settlement dated March 12, 1497, she married Henry Bourchier, earl of Essex (1471-March 30, 1540). Their only child was Anne (1517-January 28, 1571). Her sister married Mountjoy in 1499. In 1501, Mary was in attendance on Catherine of Aragon after her marriage to Prince Arthur. By mid-1505, Essex and Mountjoy were engaged in litigation over the sisters’ dowries. The matter was not settled until 1515. In 1506, the Essex household in Knightriders Street, London and Stanstead Hall in Halstead, became a center for young courtiers including Charles Brandon, Essex’s master of horse, Walter, Lord Ferrers, Richard, earl of Kent, Sir John Hussey, and Hussey’s eldest son, William. Anne Browne, former maid of honor to Elizabeth of York and Brandon’s sometime wife was also there. Mary was one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies in waiting in 1509. In 1529, she was one of those to give testimony about whether or not Catherine’s marriage had been consummated.

According to the monument in St. Swithin, East Grinstead, Sussex, Katherine was the daughter of Thomas, Lord S(cales?) and was a lady in waiting to both Elizabeth Woodville and her daughter, Elizabeth of York. Thomas Scales, 7th baron Scales (d.1460) had only one legitimate daughter, Elizabeth. She married Anthony Woodville, who later became Lord Scales and then Earl Rivers. It is possible she was his illegitimate daughter, or that the unreadable portion of his name is something other than Scales. She married Sir Thomas Grey and may have been the Lady Grey in whose chamber at court a man was slain. Her second husband was Sir Richard Lewkenor of Brambletye (d. 1502). She left a will, in which no children are mentioned. She was buried with both husbands. Portrait: memorial brass.

MARGARET SCARGILL (d. October 17, 1575)
Margaret Scargill was the daughter and coheir of Sir Robert Scargill of Thorpe Hall, Richmond, Yorkshire and Jane Coyers (d. January 5, 1546). By 1531, she married Sir John Gascoigne of Cardington, Bedfordshire (c.1510-April 4, 1568). Their children were George (1534/5-October 7, 1577), John, and one daughter. In July 1543, she complained to the Privy Council about her husband’s behavior. In 1556, Cardinal Pole ordered Gascoigne to end his adultery with a servant. His will was probated June 1, 1568. Margaret’s will was probated on March 10, 1576.

Elizabeth Scopeham was the daughter of John (or Thomas) Scopeham of London. By 1509, she had married William Holles of Stoke, Warwickshire (1471-October 20, 1542), merchant of the staple and Lord Mayor of London in 1539/40. Their children were John (d.yng), Thomas, William (1509/10-January 26, 1591), Francis, Anne, and Joan. Elizabeth wrote her will on February 17, 1544. In it she endowed six almshouses in St. Helen’s parish, London. Although the Oxford DNB and other sources say that she died on March 13, 1544, Barbara J. Harris’s research has shown that she actually lived another ten years. One of the executors of her will, Sir Andrew Judde, was for a long time incorrectly credited with founding the almshouses.


ELIZABETH SCOTT (1504-June 1557)
Elizabeth Scott was the daughter of John Scott of Camberwell, Surrey and Elizabeth Skinner. She married Roger Appleyard of Bracon Ash and Margate Hall, Stanfield, Norfolk (1506-July 8, 1528). Their children were Philip, Frances, Anne, and John (January 26, 1529-1574+). John’s wardship was sold to Sir Thomas Wyatt for £200 and then to Sir Edward Boleyn and finally to Robert Hogan of East Bradenham, Norfolk, who married the boy to his daughter. Appleyard left his widow the manor of Stanfield, Norfolk for life. In about 1530, Elizabeth married Sir John Robsart of Syderstone, Norfolk (d. June 8, 1554). They had one child, Amye (June 7, 1532-September 8, 1560). John Robsart’s will, proved at Norwich on July 5, 1554 but written October 6, 1537, named Elizabeth his executor and left her three manors—Syderstone and Newton in Norfolk and Bostentim in Suffolk—with reversion to their daughter and her heirs. Syderstone was granted to Amye and her husband, Robert Dudley, in 1557.


ISABEL SCOTT (1459-August 15, 1528)
Isabel (sometimes called Elizabeth) Scott was the daughter of Sir John Scott of Scot’s Hall, Smeeth, Kent (1423-October 17, 1485), marshall of Calais, and Agnes Beaufitz (d. March 25, 1486/7). In about 1480, she married Sir Edward Poynings of Westenhanger, Kent (1459-October 22, 1521). They had one son, John, who predeceased them. Poynings had seven illegitimate children, three sons and four daughters, by four mistresses. The last of these, Rose Whetehill, appears to have traveled with him when he went on diplomatic missions abroad, since one of her children was born in Ghent. Poynings acquired the wardships of three boys, Henry Pympe and Humphrey Stafford in 1497 and Edward Fiennes, 9th Lord Clinton, the son of Poyning’s illegitimate daughter Jane (Joan/Mary), in 1518. This last had to be purchased and cost him nearly £135. Poynings rebuilt the castle at Westenhanger. He was comptroller of the household from 1509-1519 (a post Isabel’s father formerly held) and treasurer from 1519-21. In his will, written July 27, 1521 and proved December 19, 1521, he left Westenhanger to his oldest illegitimate son, Thomas Poynings (d.1545). Isabel received £80/year, the silver, household stuff, and 200 sheep. Portrait: brass labeled “Lady Elizabeth Powynges” in the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Brabourne, Kent.


MARGARET SCOTT (c.1453-January 29, 1513/14)
Margaret Scott was the daughter of Sir John Scott of Scot’s Hall, Smeeth, Kent (1423-October 17, 1485), marshall of Calais, and Agnes Beaufitz (d. March 25, 1486/7). In about 1478, she married Sir Edmund Bedingfield (1443-1496) as his second wife. Their children were Thomas (c.1479-1558), Alice, Robert, Edmund (c.1483-1553), Agnes, Peter, John, Elizabeth, and Margaret. Sir Edmund moved the family seat to Oxborough, Norfolk, where Margaret built a chapel to his memory in the parish church.





ELIZABETH SCROPE (d. June 26, 1537)
Elizabeth Scrope was the daughter of Sir Richard Scrope (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). On April 24, 1486, at Westminster, she married William, 2ndviscount Beaumont (d. December 19, 1507). He lost his reason in 1487 and was placed in the care of John de Vere, 13th earl of Oxford (September 8, 1442-March 10, 1513) at Wivenhoe, Essex until his death. In 1508, Elizabeth married Oxford. She was at court as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies in 1509. In his will, Oxford left Elizabeth “all manner of apparel to her person,” silk cloth, and “chains, rings, girdles, devices, beads, brooches, ouches and precious stones.” In 1520, she was at the Field of Cloth of Gold. In 1531, she bought the wardship of her nephew, John Audley (her sister Katherine’s son by Richard Audley of Swaffham, Norfolk). She wrote her will on May 30, 1537 and it was proved on November 6, 1537. She was buried at Wivenhoe with her first husband. Portrait: brass at Wivenhoe.

Elizabeth Scrope was one of the four daughters and co-heiresses of Robert Scrope of Hambledon, Buckinghamshire (1446-August 25, 1500) and Katherine Zouche. Her sisters were Agnes (m. Thomas Redmayn/Redman), Margaret (a nun at Barking), and Anne. In about 1500, Elizabeth married Sir John Peche/Pechey/Pechie/Peach/Peachey/Percehay of Lullingstone Castle, Kent (1473-1522), who was the first lieutenant of the Gentlemen Pensioners in 1509 and a champion in the lists, bearing a standard of tawny with the crest of a lion’s head crowned with ermine and the words “in everything.” They had no children. Elizabeth served in the households of both Elizabeth of York and Catherine of Aragon and received a pension from Henry VIII. She provided a refuge at Lullingstone Castle for her cousin, Margaret Scrope, Countess of Suffolk (d.1515), during Margaret’s final years. After Elizabeth’s husband died, leaving her a life interest in most of his properties, she settled an annuity on Percival Hart, his nephew, who was to inherit after her death. She later revoked this annuity, after which (c.1535) Hart accused her of wasting his inheritance by selling items he was supposed to inherit. The matter went to arbitration by Lord Cromwell and Elizabeth was obliged to sign a bond to Hart. In a will made August 1, 1541, with a codicil dated May 27, 1544, she left her sister Agnes Redman plate, pewter, a bed, and other goods and made her co-executor. It was proved July 22, 1544. She also left bequests to her other sisters and to numerous friends and servants. The will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com.


JANE SCROPE (c.1478-1521+)
Jane Scrope was the daughter of Sir Richard Scrope (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). Her mother’s second husband was Sir John Wyndham of Felbrigg, Norfolk (x.1502). It is said that the poem “Philip Sparrow” by John Skelton (1505) was inspired by the story of Jane Scrope and the pet bird she trained while living with her widowed mother, Lady Wyndham, in the convent of St. Mary at Carrow, near Norwich. The poem is a mock dirge, Jane’s lament for her bird, killed by a cat. Jane married Thomas Brewes of Little Wenham, Suffolk (d.1514). Their children were Ursula (d.1598), a nun at Denny before the Dissolution, John (December 15, 1512-February 13, 1585), and Giles (d.1558/9).


Margaret Scrope was the daughter of Sir Richard Scrope (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). She married Edward de la Pole, earl of Suffolk (1472-May 4, 1513). They had one daughter, variously called Anne and Elizabeth. Suffolk fled the realm in 1499, returned and was pardoned, and left again in 1501, hoping to gain the throne for himself with foreign support. He was outlawed on December 26, 1502. In March 1506/7, he returned to England as a prisoner. He was exempted from the general pardon of 1509 and eventually executed. Margaret was at court early in Henry VIII’s reign as a lady-in-waiting to Catherine of Aragon. King Henry paid 40 marks (£13 6s. 8d.) in April 1511 for “the profession of Edmund de la Pole’s daughter” when she became a nun at the Minories without Aldgate in London. Margaret lived with her cousin, Elizabeth Scrope, Lady Peche, at Lullingstone Castle, Kent during the last years of her life. Margaret’s will was proved May 15, 1515. She left several items, including a trussing bed and sheets, £4, and a kirtle of russet satin to her servant, Margery.


MARIA SCROPE (1534-January 12, 1607)
Maria (or Mary) Scrope was the daughter of Sir John Scrope of Spennithorne, Yorkshire and Hambleden, Buckinghamshire (c.1496-November 1547) and his second wife, Phillis Rokeby (d. May 1576). In 1553, she married Thomas More (August 8, 1531-August 19, 1606), grandson of the martyr. Their first two children, Mary (1553-1630) and Anne (1555-1630), were born at Hambleden. They had six more daughters and five sons, including Margaret (b.1556), John (1557-1599), Jane (b.1562), Magdalen (1563-1566), Katherine (1564-1638), Thomas (1565-1625), Henry (1567-1597), Grace (b.1568), and Christopher Cresacre (July 3, 1572-March 26, 1649). Portraits: versions of the More family portrait.

MARY SCROPE (d. August 15, 1548)
Mary Scrope was one of the nine daughters of Sir Richard Scrope of Upsall, Yorkshire (d.1485) and Eleanor Washbourne (d.1505/6). She was left a third part of £1000 for her dowry by her stepfather, Sir John Wyndham (d.1502). In about 1509, she married Sir Edmund (or Edward) Jerningham of Somerleyton, Suffolk (d.1515) as his second wife. Their children were Henry (1509-1571), Ferdinand, Edward, Edmund, Margaret, and Elizabeth. She had an active career at court from 1509-1527 as one of Catherine of Aragon’s ladies. On June 26, 1510, she received the gift of tawny velvet for a gown. Her husband was the queen’s cupbearer and her son Henry was a carver to Princess Mary. Edmund became a gentleman of the bedchamber to Henry VIII and Elizabeth was one of Queen Jane’s maids of honor. By the beginning of 1532, she married Sir William Kingston (by 1476-September 4, 1540), who was constable of the Tower from 1524 until his death. Although Lady Kingston was implicated in the affair of the Nun of Kent in 1533, she took part in Anne Boleyn’s coronation. In June 1534, she was ill at Wanstead. During the imprisonment of Anne Boleyn, she was called upon to hear Anne’s apology to Mary Tudor and deliver it to the king’s daughter after Anne’s execution. Lady Kingston carried Mary Tudor’s train at the christening of Prince Edward, rode in the funeral cortege of Queen Jane, and was listed as one of the thirty ladies appointed as “ordinary waiters” upon Anne of Cleves in 1539. According to some accounts, she served the first four of Henry VIII’s wives and also spent some time in the household of Princess Mary. David Loades, in his biography of Mary Tudor, says she was in charge of a joint household for Mary and Elizabeth from March 1538 until April 1539. In her will, she mentions a daughter named Margaret but not one named Elizabeth. She left her stepdaughter, Lady Anne Grey, a goblet of silver and gilt with a cover and a ring with a ruby. She was particularly generous to her servant, Margaret Harris, leaving her gowns and other clothing, bedding, and even a tenement in Leyton, Essex. She added a codicil to revoke to revoke the bed of crimson velvet and cloth of gold panes she’d given to Sir Anthony Kingson (her stepson) and left it instead to Mary Jerningham, daughter of her son Henry. She asked to be buried at Painswick, Gloucestershire with her second husband, but her memorial brass, dated 1557, is at Low Leyton, Essex, where she was apparently buried on September 4, 1548. Portrait: possible portrait in a private collection.


Jane Scudamore was the daughter of John Scudamore of Holme Lacy (c.1486-September 25, 1571) and Sybil Vaughan (d.1559). In about 1543, she married John Warnecombe of Lugwardine and Hereford (c.1517-September 24, 1552), who was mayor of Hereford in 1548-9. They had one child, Joan or Jane (b.1544). He made his will on September 22, 1552 and it was proved on December 2, 1552. His principal heir was their daughter, who became a ward of the Crown. To his wife, Warnecombe left two parts of the manor of Lugwardine for life on the condition that she not remarry without the permission of her father, her brother-in-law, and Ward’s uncle, Thomas Bromwell. Jane was later charged with trespass and had to be pardoned. She was licensed to enter the property in February 1553 after paying a fine of £22. In 1554 (marriage settlement dated November 12), Jane married William Devereux of Merevale, Warwickshire (d. September 28, 1579), a younger son of the 3rdbaron Ferrers of Chartley. Their children were Barbara and Margaret. A variety of life dates are given online for these two girls, most of them unlikely, but Barbara was still living in 1618. Devereux left a will, proved on November 2, 1579, appointing his wife as one of his executors. Before his death, he settled estates on his daughter. Merevale went to Jane for her lifetime, after which it reverted to Lord Ferrers of Chartley.




MARGARET SCUTT (July 1537?-1592/3)
Margaret Scutt was the daughter of John Scutt or Skutt (before 1498-1557), a gentleman who was one of the royal tailors from 1519-1547 and made clothing for all six of Henry VIII’s wives as well as for private clients like Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle. He was master of the Merchant Taylors Company in 1536. Scutt’s first wife, whose name is unknown, died in July 1537. Some sources give Margaret’s age as eighteen in 1557. It seems likely she was a little older, and that her mother died giving birth to her, but if she was born in 1539, then Scutt was married three times. In 1545, his wife was Bridget Malte (d. November 30, 1557), younger daughter of another royal tailor, John Malte. Bridget has been described as “a verye lustye yonge woman.” She and Scutt had a son, Anthony (1545-January 7, 1588) and according to John Malte’s 1546 will, Anthony had a brother, Edward Scutt, although he is not identified as Bridget’s child. Malte left Anthony the parsonage at Woolstone, Berkshire and Bridget the manor of Uffington, Berkshire. John Scutt was granted arms on November 12, 1546. After the death of Henry VIII he retired to the manor of Stanton Drew, Somerset, where he was the tenant of Sir John St. Loe. The next part of Margaret’s story comes primarily from Mary S. Lovell’s Bess of Hardwick. Scutt had a reputation for mistreating his wife and when he suddenly died there were whispers of poison. The whispers grew louder when Bridget remarried a fortnight after her husband’s death. Her second husband was Edward St. Loe (c.1520-1578), one of Sir John’s sons. Before Edward married her, he had arranged for his brother, Sir William St. Loe, to purchase the wardship of Anthony Scutt. He’d also asked William to refuse their father’s suggestion that he (William) marry Margaret Scutt. Later it came out that Bridget was three months pregnant with St. Loe’s child at the time of the marriage. Two months after the marriage, she was dead. Six months after that, Edward St. Loe married Margaret Scutt. Their children were John, Ann, and Margaret (d.1591). The marriage was long and apparently happy, but early on there were difficulties that grew out of St. Loe’s jealousy of his older brother. In 1560, Edward and Margaret moved into Sutton Court at Chew, Somerset, one of Sir William’s properties, where Edward filled the post of steward. Edward, however, thought the property should have been his outright. In early 1561, his sister-in-law, Bess of Hardwick, fell ill shortly after a visit from Edward and his mother. A letter from Edward’s mother indicates that even she suspected her son of poisoning Bess and attempting to poison Sir William. Although others, including a cousin, were arrested and charged, Edward was not. Edward and Margaret St. Loe next appear in the records of a case in civil court. Edward claimed that his father, who had died in December 1558, had meant to leave Sutton Court to Margaret. He also accused Bess of Hardwick of bewitching his brother into marriage. Countercharges from Sir William St. Loe concerned the condition of Sutton Court. In the end, Edward and Margaret remained in residence, playing rent to William and Bess, but a portion of the rents from the estate were returned to Edward as income. Shortly thereafter, William took the precaution of making a will that left everything he owned to Bess, assuring that Edward would not inherit even if William and Bess remained childless. Edward was with William when he fell ill and died unexpectedly early in 1565 and afterward produced a document that ceded Sutton Court to him and his wife. Once again there was a suspicion of poison but no proof and no charges were brought. The matter of who owned Sutton Court went before a judge. The ruling, in 1567, granted Margaret a lifetime interest with the property. It would revert to Bess on Margaret’s death. Edward, meanwhile, had been posted to Ireland until the matter was settled and remained there until 1568. After an accidental explosion in Londonderry, which caused a great fire, he abandoned his post. Shortly after Bess of Hardwick’s marriage in early 1568 to the earl of Shrewsbury, she purchased Margaret’s life interest in Sutton Court for £500. Margaret and Edward moved to the manor of Knighton in Broad Chalke, Wiltshire, where they appear to have led a respectable existence. Margaret may have been the Margaret Sketuse or Sketts listed as a hoodmaker in royal accounts from 1583-93, although Janet Arnold in Queen Elizabeth’s Wardrobe Unlock’d suggests that Sketuze was the married name of Margaret Barney, listed as a hoodmaker in 1580. Margaret wrote her will on August 11, 1592 and it was proved February 2, 1592/3. Among other bequests, she left one of her grandsons a ring with the Scutt arms engraved on it.

CATHERINE SEBORNE (d. October 2, 1625)
Catherine Seborne was the daughter of John Seborne of Sutton St. Michael, Hereford and Sibil Monington. She married Christopher Roper, 2nd baron Teynham (c.1561-April 16, 1622). Their children were John, 3rd baron (c.1591-February 27, 1627/8), Margaret, and Mary. Portrait: sculpture beside the effigy of her husband, Lynsted Church, Kent.



MARY SETON (c.1541-1615+)
Mary Seton was the daughter of George, 4th baron Seton (d.1549) and Marie Pierres or Pieris, one of Marie of Guise’s French ladies-in-waiting. Her date of birth is usually given as 1548, but since she is said to have traveled to France with Mary, queen of Scots as one of the “four Maries” in 1548, this is unlikely. Upon their arrival, King Henri sent the girls (the others were Mary Beaton, Mary Fleming, and Mary Livingston) to Poissy to be educated, supervised by the abbess, Françoise de Vieuxpont, after which they took up their duties as maids of honor to the Scots queen at the French court. They returned with her to Scotland in September 1561. Mary Seton was the tallest of the queen’s Marys and so was able to disguise herself as the queen while Mary escaped from Loch Leven. She later joined her mistress at Carlisle and shared her captivity in England. In 1568 she had a maid of her own named Janet Spittell and a manservant named John Dumfries. She served as Mary’s hairdresser and was, according to Sir Francis Knollys, the finest busker of a woman’s head and hair in any country. Mary was courted by Christopher Norton, with whom Mary may have been plotting the queen’s escape from England. Norton was charged with treason after the Rebellion of the Northern Earls in 1569 and executed. In August 1570, Mary’s mother and brother were arrested in Scotland because of a letter to the queen that had been prompted by reports of Mary’s illness. They were released, possibly at the urging of Queen Elizabeth, after promising not to try to write to the queen of Scots again. Andrew Beaton, who took over as master of the queen’s household in 1572, wanted to marry Mary. She put him off, at one point claiming his lineage was unequal to hers and at another that she had taken a vow of chastity. On January 12, 1577, Queen Mary was dismissive of this excuse and Mary was eventually persuaded to marry Beaton if her vow could be overturned. On November 5, 1577, however, Beaton died of smallpox. By 1581, Mary was in ill health. She withdrew from the queen’s service in September 1583 and traveled to France with another maid of honor, Marie Courcelles, to enter the convent of St Pierre aux Dames in Rheims, where the abbess was Marie of Guise’s sister. She lived there for the rest of her life, although it does not seem that she took vows. In 1602, she made a will during another bout of illness but revoked after she recovered. At that time, she had some personal wealth, but by 1613 she was living on the charity of the abbess. A number of her letters are extant, the last one dated April 6, 1615. Biographies: Rosalind Marshall, Queen Mary’s Women; Oxford DNB in “Queen’s Maries.” Portrait: represented in a painting of all four Marys on wooden panels at Mary Queen of Scot’s house, Jedburgh.

JOAN SEWELL (d. July 2, 1532)
Joan or Johanna Sewell became a Bridgettine nun at Syon, Isleworth in 1500. She was given a copy of Hilton’s Scale of Perfection by a Carthusian monk, James Grenehalgh, who was at Sheen, just across the river. On a blank page at the end, he drew a diagram, perhaps meant to represent a plan of Syon. Her name is inscribed at the center, surrounded by the names of the four saints associated with the house—St. Bridget, the Virgin Mary, St. Augustine, and St. Saviour. This book and others annotated by Grenehalgh for Joan, supposedly to enhance her spiritual training, were looked upon with disfavor by his superiors. In 1507 or 1508, he was removed to the Charterhouse in Coventry. Joan may also have been disciplined.


ANNE SEYMOUR (1538-February 1587/88)
Anne Seymour was the oldest daughter of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-x. January 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (c.1510-April 15, 1587) and may have been born as early as 1536. Together with her sisters, Margaret and Jane, she was educated in a manner similar to the way Sir Thomas More’s daughters were taught. Thomas Cranmer was their tutor for three years, followed by Nicholas Denisot, who encouraged them to write a poem in honor of his former mistress, the queen of Navarre. When he returned to France, he took the result with him. It was published in 1550 as “Annae, Margaritae, Janae, Sonorum Virginum, heroidum Anglasum in mortem Margaritae Valesiae Navarrouim Reginae Hedadistichon.” The work inspired French poets to like efforts. Anne was also known for her religious studies and corresponded with John Calvin. On June 3, 1550 she married John Dudley, earl of Warwick (by 1528-October 21, 1554), son of the duke of Northumberland, in an effort to reconcile their fathers. When Anne’s father was executed by Northumberland in 1552, she suffered a physical collapse. Northumberland himself was executed in 1553, at which time Anne’s husband was in the Tower and condemned to death. He died ten days after his release the following year. On April 29, 1555, Anne married Sir Edward Unton or Umpton of Wadley, near Faringdon, Berkshire (d. September 16, 1582). Their children were Edward (d.1589), Henry (1557-1596), Cecily (d. June 16, 1618), Francis, Anne, and two others who died young. Queen Elizabeth visited the Unton manor of Langley in Oxfordshire on her summer progresses in 1572, 1574, and 1575, but Anne may not have been there to welcome her. She lived mostly at Wadley and throughout the period from 1566 to 1588 was said to suffer periodic bouts of insanity. In October 1582, she was officially declared of unsound mind, “a lunatic enjoying lucid intervals,” and her custody was granted to her son Edward. The sermon preached at her funeral mourned her as a “noble lady, a faithful wife, a virtuous woman, and a godly widow.” Biography: Anne is included in the Oxford DNB entry for her sister, under “Seymour, Lady Jane.” Portraits: The memorial portrait of the life of Sir Henry Unton shows Anne in the scene depicting his birth in 1557.


Dorothy Seymour was the youngest daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall/Wulfhall, Wiltshire (c.1474-December 21, 1536) and Margery Wentworth (c.1478-October 18, 1550) and the sister of Queen Jane Seymour. By 1536, she married Clement Smith/Smyth of Little Baddow, Essex (d. August 26, 1552). Their three sons and four daughters included John. Smith, a Catholic, was knighted in 1546. He spent a few weeks in the Fleet for hearing mass in April of 1550, in spite of the fact that his nephew was the king. In his will, he left nothing to his wife because the king had already given her “fair lands which with the poor jointure and other such lands as I have put her in jointly with me for the term of her life . . . and her dowry be double as much as all my lands, manors, and tenements.” Dorothy was granted a pension of 100 marks a year to cover the expenses of raising her niece, the Lord Protector’s youngest daughter, Elizabeth (1550-June 3, 1602). By November 1553, Dorothy married Thomas Leventhorpe of Sawbridgeworth and Albury Hall, Hertfordshire (d. June 8, 1588).

ELIZABETH SEYMOUR (1511-June 1563)
Elizabeth Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour of Wolf Hall/Wulfhall, Wiltshire (c.1474-December 21, 1536) and Margery Wentworth (c.1478-October 18, 1550) and the younger sister of Queen Jane Seymour. In January 1530/1, she married Sir Anthony Ughtred of Kexby (1498-December 20, 1534). They had two children, Henry (1533-1598) and Margery (born posthumously in 1535). They lived at Château de Mont-Orgueil after he was appointed governor of Jersey in 1532. Some sources say that Lady Ughtred was at court when Anne Boleyn was queen, but Jane Seymour’s biographer, Elizabeth Norton, says Elizabeth lived primarily in the north, away from both court and family. The January 1534 list of New Years’ gifts to the king includes one from Lady Oughtrede. She was courted, but not assiduously, by Sir Arthur Darcy in 1536. In a letter he wrote to her in that year, he predicted that some southern lord would make her forget the north. In March of 1537, after her sister married Henry VIII, the widowed Elizabeth, living in York, wrote to Lord Cromwell to ask for the grant of goods from one of the dissolved monasteries. Instead, Cromwell proposed that she marry his son, Gregory (c.1514-July 4,1551). Elizabeth traveled south, residing at Leeds Castle, Kent at Cromwell’s expense until the wedding on August 3, 1537. Some sources say the ceremony took place at Wulfhall, the Seymour seat, and others at the minister’s house in Mortlake. Their children were Henry (1538-November 20, 1592), Edward (b. 1539), Thomas (c.1540-c.1611), Catherine (b.1541), and Frances (c.1544-February 7, 1561/2). In the spring of 1538, Elizabeth and her husband were living at Lewes in Sussex, but soon returned to Leeds Castle, where their first two sons were born. In late 1539, Gregory was in Calais, awaiting the arrival of Anne of Cleves, when he wrote a letter to his wife in which he addresses her as “my right loving bedfellow.” Cromwell’s fall from power in 1540 was a setback for the family, but Gregory was not implicated and he was restored as baron Cromwell of Oakham in December of that same year. In 1551, when Elizabeth’s brother, Edward Seymour, then Lord Protector, was arrested, Elizabeth was given charge of his four younger daughters. Later that year, Gregory Cromwell died of the sweat. Elizabeth was ill at Launde Abbey in Leicestershire but recovered. In October 25, 1552, she wrote to William Cecil in the hope that she could be relieved of her responsibility for her nieces, who did not take her advice “in such good part as my good meaning was, nor according to my expectation in them.” In the spring of 1554, she married John Paulet, baron St. John (1517-1576), son and heir of the marquis of Winchester. Her son, Henry Ughtred, married her new husband’s daughter, Elizabeth, widow of William Courtenay. By 1560, another son, Henry Cromwell, had married Paulet’s daughter, Mary. Elizabeth was living March 13, 1561/2 but died before June 9, 1563. She was buried at Basing, Hampshire.  Portrait: c.1538 by Hans Holbein (previously identified as “Catherine Howard” and then called “A Lady of the Cromwell Family”).

ELIZABETH SEYMOUR (1551-June 3, 1602)
Elizabeth Seymour was the youngest child of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-x. January 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (1510-April 16, 1587). She was sent to her aunt, Dorothy Seymour Smith, after her father’s execution and 100 marks/year was provided for her maintenance. Later she was raised by her mother and stepfather in the country. She had little to do with the court. In 1577, she married Sir Richard Knightley of Fawsley, Northamptonshire (1534-September 1, 1615), as his second wife. Their children were Anne (1578-1584), Seymour (May 15, 1580-July 1640), Dudley (June 27, 1582-April 11, 1602), Anne, John (August 1, 1585-1615), Nathaniel, Robert (September 15, 1588-1643), Francis (January 19, 1590-February 1619), and Ferdinando. Portrait: tomb effigy in All Saints, Norton, Northamptonshire; possible portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c. 1591 (“unknown lady” at the Yale Center for British Art, Paul Mellon Collection).

see FRANCES HOWARD (two entries)


JANE SEYMOUR (c.1508-October 24, 1537)
Jane Seymour was the daughter of Sir John Seymour (c.1474-December 21, 1536) and Margery Wentworth (c.1478-October 18, 1550). She came to court as a maid of honor to Catherine of Aragon and also held this post after Anne Boleyn became queen. King Henry VIII married Jane following Queen Anne’s execution and she gave him the one thing he wanted most, a male heir, the future Edward VI (1537-1553). She died of complications from the birth. Biographies: Pamela M. Gross’s Jane, the Quene, Third Consort of Henry VIII; Elizabeth Norton’s Jane Seymour: Henry VIII’s True Love (2009); William Seymour’s Ordeal by Ambition (a group biography of Jane and her two brothers). Portraits: by Hans Holbein the Younger in the Hague; Holbein’s preliminary drawing, Windsor Castle; “family portrait” at Hampton Court.

JANE SEYMOUR (1541-March 20, 1561)
Jane Seymour was the daughter of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-xJanuary 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (c.1510-April 16,1587). Like her sisters, Anne and Margaret, she was a scholar. She wrote poetry and a number of her letters are extant. There was talk of marrying her to her cousin, King Edward VI. In 1551, a marriage was proposed with the earl of Derby’s son, Lord Strange. In May 1552, after her father was executed and while her mother was in prison, Jane and her younger sisters were sent to live with their aunt, Lady Cromwell. Jane was at court as a maid of honor during the reign of Mary Tudor. In the summer of 1558, she traveled in a horse-drawn litter to Hanworth, her mother’s country estate, to recover from an illness. Her close friend, Lady Catherine Grey, went with her. In December 1560, when both were maids of honor to Queen Elizabeth, she was a witness when Lady Catherine secretly married her brother, Edward Seymour. Early in 1561, Jane fell ill again and was excused from her duties. She died in her rooms at Whitehall and was buried in St. Edmund’s Chapel, Westminster. Her brother later placed a memorial tablet over her grave. The inscription, now missing, “On the Death of Lady Jane Somerset,” praised her “genius fam’d,” her beauty, and her voice that “harmonious notes improv’d.” Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Seymour, Lady Jane.”


MARGARET SEYMOUR (c.1478-before June 1517)
Margaret Seymour was the daughter of John Seymour of Wolfhall, Wiltshire (c.1450-1491) and Elizabeth Darrell (c.1451-c.1478) and the aunt of Queen Jane Seymour. She was the second of the four wives of Sir Nicholas Wadham of Merrifield, Somerset (by 1472-March 5, 1542). Their children were Nicholas (d.1551) and Jane (c.1517-1551+). Sir Nicholas was Captain of the Isle of Wight from 1509-1520. While she and her husband lived there, Margaret founded a hospital for the infirm. Portrait: effigy in St. Mary the Virgin, Carisbrook, Isle of Wight.


MARY SEYMOUR (d.1555+) (maiden name unknown)
Mary’s first husband was Robert Imber (d. November 7, 1512), a London mercer by whom she had two daughters. At the time of his inquisition post mortem, June 21, 1513, the eldest daughter, Katherine, was over fourteen and the younger girl, Alice, was more than twelve. Katherine inherited the corner tenement in St. Mary Magdalene, Milk Street in Cripplegate ward, valued at five marks per annum. From at least 1505, Imber was a tenant in All Hallows on the west side of Honey Lane. Mary married Thomas Seymour or Semer of Saffron Walden, Essex (d. December 11, 1535), a London alderman from 1515-35, who was knighted in 1520 and was Lord Mayor of London in 1526/7. He was a mercer, a merchant adventurer, and a merchant of the staple of Calais. In 1522, he was one of the three richest men in London. His house in London was assessed at a value of £3500 in goods. In 1515, Seymour was committed to ward by the court of aldermen for refusing to give up custody of one of his stepdaughters. Seymour and Mary had no children. His daughter and heir, Grace, who married Edward Elrington/Erlington, was illegitimate. Mary successfully supported Grace’s claim when Seymour’s nephew, another Thomas, contested the will, which was proved January 31, 1536. This involved lands that would be inherited after Mary’s death, an estate that included Widdrington and two other manors in Essex, Hoxton in Middlesex (where Seymour lived the last few years of his life), a manor in Gloucestershire, and three manors in Lancashire. As a widow living in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, Lady Seymour had numerous servants, including Elizabeth Barton, a widow who made her will in 1543 and left 12d. apiece to each of the other Seymour servants. In 1544, Lady Seymour gave a yellow and white altar cloth, curtains, and a chalice to the new church built by the Mercers. In 1546, she was sent dishes from the election banquet by the Mercers. This was done in hope of a generous bequest in her will. This will, made in 1555, requested that she be buried in the parish church of St. Leonard, Shorditch, where Seymour had been laid to rest.

MARY SEYMOUR (August 30, 1548-1550?)
Mary Seymour was the daughter of Katherine Parr (d. September 5, 1548), widow of King Henry VIII, and Thomas Seymour, baron Seymour of Sudeley (x. March 20, 1549). Elizabeth Aglionby, formerly one of Katherine Parr’s ladies, was her governess. She looked after Mary at Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire, where she was born, then at her uncle’s residence, Syon House, and finally, after Seymour’s execution, at Grimsthorpe in Lincolnshire. Catherine Willoughby, duchess of Suffolk, was Mary’s guardian. According to her, Mary’s mother’s family, the Parrs, refused to take her. In addition to her governess, Mary had two maids and several other servants. She had an income of just under £500 a year from the Court of Wards, but this money was not transferred from the duke of Somerset to the duchess of Suffolk. Mary was restored in blood on January 22, 1550, but after that she disappears from the records. John Strype (1643-1737) appears to be the source of the story that Mary died as a child. Edmund Lodge (1756-1839) wrote that she died at thirteen. This would be consistent with Mrs. Aglionby’s reappearance at court in 1562 as mother of maids under Queen Elizabeth, but is not proof. Agnes Strickland, writing in the late nineteenth century, states that Mary lived to adulthood, married Sir Edward Bushel, and had a daughter by him. Unfortunately, she offers no documentation for this claim.

MARY SEYMOUR (c.1547-1619/20)
Mary Seymour was the daughter of Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset (1502-x. January 22, 1552) and Anne Stanhope (1510-April 16, 1587). The story that her first husband was Francis Cosby of Ireland (1510-September 8, 1580) is not true. Cosby was married to a woman named Elizabeth Palmer by November 23, 1563 and she survived him. In about 1575, Mary married Sir Andrew Rogers of Bryanston, Dorset (d.c.1599). On September 4, 1582, writing from Paul’s Wharf, Mary appealed to Lord Burghley to intercede with her mother, who was not speaking to her. This may have been in connection with the furor in the summer of 1581 over the entanglement of young Lord Beauchamp with Honora Rogers. They claimed to be married but were kept apart by the earl of Hertford (who was Beauchamp’s father and Mary’s brother). In 1600, Mary sued for her jointure. In 1607, she married Sir Henry Peyton or Payton (d.1622), a soldier who was appointed a gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Prince Henry in 1610. They do not appear to have had any children. In his will, written on April 11, 1618, “for the singular love of which I beare unto the Ladie Marie my wife,” he set up provisions to prevent Mary from being burdened with his debts after his death.



Martha Shackleton was married at fifteen to William Webb (1551-1604). According to the records left by Simon Forman, she had affairs with Sir Thomas Walsingham, Forman himself, and others. She had eight children by 1599, including one named Thomas. According to Forman, she was “very fair, of good stature, plump face, little mouth, kind and loving.”


GRACE SHAKERLEY (d. August 1558)
Grace Shakerley was the daughter of Robert Shakerley of Little Longstone, Derbyshire (d. June 17, 1507+) and his second wife, Alice Bagshaw. She married Francis Careless or Carless. In a secret ceremony in about 1553, she married Francis Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury (1500-September 24, 1560). In September 1553, she was at court while he was in the north. By June 15, 1554, she was in York when she was visited by her stepson, George Talbot, and his wife, Gertrude Manners. She wrote to her husband to tell him that “the building at Sheffield Lodge goeth well forward.” The marriage was a love match and Shrewsbury was reported to be devastated by her death.


JUDITH SHAKESPEARE (January 1585-February 1662)
Judith Shakespeare was the daughter of William Shakespeare (April 1564-April 23, 1616) and Anne Hathaway (1556-August 8, 1623). Little is known about her early life, other than that her twin brother, Hamnet, died young. Germaine Greer, in Shakespeare’s Wife, suggests that Judith was either apprenticed to Bess Quiney in 1602 or went to work for her as a nursemaid. In 1611, Judith witnessed a deed for Bess and her son Adrian. She signed with a squiggle that indicates she could not write. At thirty-one, on February 10, 1615, she married Thomas Quiney, who was twenty-seven and ran a tavern next door to his mother’s house. Their children were Shakespeare (November 1616-May 1617), Richard (February 1618-February 1639), and Thomas (January 1620-January 1639). In March they had to answer charges that they had wed without the proper license. Greer suggests that a marriage between the two might have been considered years earlier and that it did not take place sooner because the marriage settlement Shakespeare made for his older daughter, Susanna, had the effect of disinheriting Judith.


SUSANNA SHAKESPEARE (May 1583-July 11, 1649)
Susanna Shakespeare was the daughter of William Shakespeare (April 1564-April 23, 1616) and Anne Hathaway (1556-August 8, 1623). We know that she could read and write, but not much else about her. In 1607 she married John Hall (d. November 25, 1636), a doctor. They had one daughter, Elizabeth (1608-February 17, 1670). In June 1613, for unknown reasons, a man named John Lane accused Susanna of adultery with Ralph Smith, a thirty-five year old haberdasher, and claimed she’d caught a venereal disease from Smith. Five weeks later, the Halls brought suit against Lane in the Consistory Court at Worcester. Lane was found guilty of libel and excommunicated. Susanna inherited New Place in Stratford from her father and a house in London from her husband.


GRACE SHARINGTON (1552-July 27, 1620)
Grace Sharington was the daughter of Sir Henry Sharington of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire (d.1581) and Anne Paget (d.1607). She was educated by a Mrs. Hamblyn, her father’s niece. In 1567, she married Sir Anthony Mildmay of Apethorpe, Northamptonshire (c.1549-September 2, 1617). They had one daughter, Mary (1582-1640). Grace kept a journal from 1570 until 1617, in which she recorded the events of her early life as well as the day-to-day activities of a puritan wife and mother. She included extensive notes on home remedies. She is described as follows by Rachel Weigall in “An Elizabethan Gentlewoman,” Quarterly Review, 215 (1911), pp. 119-138: small face, delicate features, grave brown eyes, thin lips, sad smile. Grace’s motto was “The mind always employed in good things avoideth evil, pleaseth God, and promiseth a happy end.” King James visited Apethorpe in April 1603 and returned often thereafter. He was drawn, it was said, by Grace’s confectionary. Mildmay made his will on February 14, 1615, leaving his “well beloved wife” his “caroche” and coach horses, plate, jewels, household goods, and the cattle, nags, and geldings at Apethorpe and at Leistrop, Leicestershire. Grace erected an elaborate monument in his memory. Biographies: Linda Pollack’s With Faith and Physic: The Life of a Tudor Gentlewoman, Lady Grace Mildmay 1552-1620; Oxford DNB entry under “Mildmay [née Sharington], Grace.” Portraits: onr painted in 1613 is believed to come alive at night and go out to give sixpence to those in need; effigy on tomb at St. Leonard’s Church, Apethorpe, Northamptonshire.


Olive (sometimes called Anne) Sharington was the fourth daughter of Sir Henry Sharington of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire (d.1581) and Anne Paget (d.1607). On September 13, 1574, she married John Talbot of Solway or Salwarp/Salwarpe, Worcestershire (1545-December 9, 1581). Their children were John (c.1575-1581), Sherrington (1577-1642), Thomas, and Dorothy. As a widow, Olive lived at Lacock with her children. In 1583, she received a letter from Queen Elizabeth concerning the suitability of a second marriage to Sir Robert Stapleton of Wighill, Yorkshire (c.1547-1606), a widower with two sons and a daughter. The History of Parliament entry for Stapleton incorrectly gives the date of this recommendation as January 1579 and says that he hoped to gain over £1,200 a year from the marriage. That it was a recommendation is unclear. In 1579, Stapleton had been sentenced to three years in prison and a fine of £300 for his involvement in a scheme to discredit the archbishop of York. He was released sometime in 1584, after which he married Olive. Their children were Bryan (baptized in April 1585), Edward, Olive, Ursula, and Grace.

Ursula Sharington was the daughter of Thomas Sharington of Sherrington, Derham, Norfolk (d.1527) and Catherine Pirton or Pyrton. Between 1524 and 1527, she married Francis Hall of Grantham, Lincolnshire (d. June 10, 1552; Magna Carta Ancestry says July 1553), who was not yet twenty years old. Hall refers to a married daughter in a letter of January 1539. Their other children were Mary (before 1532-1557+), Elizabeth (b.c.1534), Jane (November 1536-May 11, 1598), Arthur (November 1539-December 29, 1605), Henry, and Robert. According to the speculations of M. St. Clare Byrne in The Lisle Letters, by 1533-4 the Halls lived in Calais with Francis’s uncle, Sir Robert Wingfield. Wingfield left Francis a considerable inheritance in 1538 and, in a smaller bequest, willed a milch cow to Ursula. The Halls remained in Calais, where Francis eventually became controller. Several of his letters are preserved, in which he makes frequent references to his wife. In 1540, Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle, was put under house arrest in the custody of Francis Hall. At that time (June 5, 1540), a letter from the earl of Sussex and Sir John Gage to Lord Cromwell characterizes Ursula as “a sober honest woman.” In his will, dated July 20, 1551 and proved November 25, 1560, Francis asked that Ursula be given the wardship of their surviving son, Arthur, but it went instead to Sir William Cecil. He refers to “my three daughters.” He also left 100 marks to Dorothy Leighton, “whom I do use to call daughter,” on her marriage. Ursula married John Banaster or Bannaster of Calais and Beningbrough in Newton-upon-Ouse, Yorkshire (d.1556). She was buried at Grantham, Lincolnshire on July 5, 1569.




ELEANOR SHEFFIELD (c.1538-1568+)
Eleanor Sheffield was the daughter of Edmund, 1st baron Sheffield (November 22,1521-July 3,1549) and Anne de Vere (c.1522-February 1571/2). She married Denzil Holles of Irby-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire (1536-April 12, 1590). Their children were William, John, 1st earl of Clare (May, 1564-October 4,1637), Frances, Jane, three more sons, and two more daughters. According to Holles family tradition, Eleanor found a love letter from the earl of Leicester to her sister-in-law, Douglas Howard, Lady Sheffield, and revealed their affair to her brother. He, so the story goes, was on his way to London to divorce Douglas when he fell ill and died—poisoned, it was said, by Leicester. According to the History of Parliament, Holles “had an immoderate love of women from which neither the virtue nor fertility of a noble wife could at all reclaim him.”

ELIZABETH SHEFFIELD (d. November 1600)
Elizabeth Sheffield was the daughter of John, 2nd baron Sheffield (c.1538-December 10, 1568) and Douglas Howard (1542/3-December 1608). Her widowed mother was somewhat notorious at the English court as the paramour/wife of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. Elizabeth appears to have been at court, as well, since her wedding to Thomas Butler, 10th earl of Ormond and 3rd earl of Ossory (1532-November 22, 1614) took palce there on November 2, 1582, only two months after the death of his estranged first wife. Their children were James (1583-1590), Elizabeth (c.1585-October 10, 1628), and Thomas (d. January 17, 1605/6). The “Countess of Ormond’s Galliard” was supposedly composed for her. It appeared in A banquet of daintie conceits (1588) by Anthony Munday. Elizabeth was buried, in St. Canice’s Cathedral, Kilkenny on April 21, 1601.

Frances Sheffield was the daughter of Edmund Sheffield, 3rd baron Sheffield and 1st earl of Mulgrave (1566-1646) and Ursula Tyrwhitt (d. before 1619). In 1607, she married Philip Fairfax of Sheeton, Bolton Percy, Yorkshire (1586-1612+). Their children were William (1609/10-1644), Edmund, John, Thomas, Mary, and Ursula. Portrait: she is probably the subject of the portrait of Lady Frances Fairfax by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c.1605-1615.


ELIZABETH SHELDON (c.1553-October 23, 1622)
Elizabeth Sheldon was the daughter of Sir Ralph Sheldon of Beoley, Worcestershire (1537-1613), a manufacturer of tapestry maps, and Anne Throckmorton (c.1540-1603). On May 13, 1575, with a dowry of £550, she married John Russell of Strensham, Worcestershire (1551-1593). Their children were Thomas (1577-December 30, 1632), John, and Frances (1582-1622?). He was quarrelsome, feuding with his stepmother and her second husband over her dower lands and finding fault with Elizabeth and her father in the matter of religion because they were recusants. By 1578, he was attempting to disinherit their children. In spite of this, the couple occasionally lived together until around 1583 when , after arbitration, an income was established for Elizabeth. In March 1584, he complained that this was too high and made a counteroffer. Russell attacked Ralph Sheldon’s house, trying to take away his daughter. Elizabeth’s brother attacked Russell’s house in London. Russell brought suit in Star Chamber, accusing the Sheldons of papistry. In July 1585, the children were restored as Russell’s heirs. In the will he wrote on April 24, 1587, before leaving for the Low Countries (proved July 31, 1598), he left his daughter 2000 marks at eighteen or when she married. In a will dated November 20, 1612, Elizabeth’s father left her a silver basin and “my little watch made by Samuel.”


MARY SHELDON (d.1548+)
Mary Sheldon was the daughter of Ralph Sheldon of Beoley, Worcestershire and Weston Park, Long Compton, Warwickshire (d. September 11, 1546) and Philippa Heath (d.1548/9). Mary was placed in the household of Ursula (neé de Vere) Knightley, widow of Sir Edmund Knightley, at Offchurch, Warwickshire. While there, she fell in love with one of Lady Knightley’s servants, a man called Sylvestre. When her father died, Mary was sent to live at Balford Hall in Beoley, but since she was by then pregnant by Sylvestre, she wrote to Lady Knightley, asking to be taken back into her household. She didn’t want her mother to find out. Lady Knightley wrote to the head of the family, William Sheldon, telling him the whole story and asking for permission to take Mary in. William refused and sent his errant sister to relatives, John and Alice Fox. Mary ran away from the Fox house, returned to Offchurch, and married her lover. All this led to a complaint in the Star Chamber by William and his mother against Lady Knightley. They charged her with abduction, claiming that Lady Knightley had been at fault for allowing Mary to become pregnant, that her tenants had ridden to John Fox’s house and taken Mary away, and that she had persuaded Mary to wed Sylvestre. Lady Knightley countercharged that Mary was “unmannerly” and insisted Philippa Sheldon was guilty of cruelty. The results of the case are not known, nor is the fate of the child Mary conceived before her marriage. Mary later married George Ferrers of Wetherley/Witherby, Warwickshire, third son of Sir Edward Ferrers of Baddesley Clinton.



Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of John Shelley of Michaelgrove, Sussex (c.1455-January 3, 1526) and Elizabeth Michaelgrove (c.1458-June 30, 1518 or 1450-July 3, 1514). In 1527, she was elected abbess of the Benedictine abbey of Nunnaminster (Abbey of St. Mary, Winchester). She was a correspondent of Honor Grenville, Lady Lisle. One of Lady Lisle’s stepdaughters, Bridget Plantagenet, was for a time in the school for girls at St. Mary’s. The nunnery was given a good report by the commissioners who visited it on May 15, 1536. Elizabeth paid a bribe of £333 6s. 8d. to save her house in the first round of closings, but in September 1538 an order was issued to close St. Mary’s and disperse the 102 people who lived there, including twenty-six nuns and thirteen lay sisters. Elizabeth surrendered the premises on November 15, 1539 and accepted a pension of £26 13s. 4d. This was on the low side for an abbess. The prioress received £5, two nuns received £4 each, two £2 16.s. 8d. each, and seventeen others each received £2 13s. 4d. Elizabeth continued to live in the abbess’s lodging in Winchester until her death. This consisted of seven chambers, a hall, parlor, and domestic offices, until her death. She shared the premises with six nuns who had been under her jurisdiction as abbess. One was her niece, Margaret Shelley. They were mentioned in her will, dated March 2, 1547, as was her brother, Richard. Other bequests suggest she had a modest wardrobe in her secular life. Elizabeth was buried in the Winchester College chapel. Biographies: article in Oxford DNB under “Shelley, Elizabeth;” Mary C. Erler, Reading and Writing During the Dissolution: Monks, Friars, and Nuns 1530-1558, pp. 74-78.

ELIZABETH SHELLEY (c.1510-December 24, 1560)
Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of Sir William Shelley of Michaelgrove, Sussex (c.1480-January 4, 1549) and Alice Belknap (d.1536). She married Roger Copley of Roughey, Sussex and Gatton, Surrey (c.1473-September 10, 1549) as his second wife. Their children included Thomas (1532-September 25, 1584), whose godfather was Thomas Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, Bridget (c.1534-1583+),and Margaret (1539-1576+). Some sources say that in 1554, as a widow, Elizabeth was elected M.P. for Gatton, although it was actually her son who went to London and took a seat in Parliament. More accurately, from 1549-1559, she was sole elector for Grafton and returned her son to three Marian parliaments.

ELIZABETH SHELLEY (c.1533-1581+)
Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of Sir John Shelley of Michelgrove, Sussex (1506-December 16, 1550) and Mary Fitzwilliam (b.c.1510). By 1560, she married Sir Thomas Guildford of Hemsted, Kent (c.1535-June 1575). Their children were Mary, Barbara (d. June 20, 1641), Elizabeth (d.1589+), and Henry (b.1566). As Lady Guildford, she was arrested along with her son and daughter, a priest, and several others on Palm Sunday 1574 for allowing mass to be said in her home in Trinity Lane, Queenshithe, London. Guildford’s will, made on November 1, 1574, granted Elizabeth a life interest in his lease of a farm at Clapham. He appealed to her “not to train up any of my children in papistry,” but she ignored his request. By 1581, she married John Gage of Firle, Sussex (d. October 10, 1598), a fellow Catholic.

Elizabeth Shelley was the daughter of John Shelley of Woodborough, Nottinghamshire. Her first husband was Marmaduke Constable. Her second was Thomas Carleton of Carleton, Cumberland (June 19, 1568-May 11, 1639). They had no children and lived quietly on his estate because Elizabeth was blind. They used the excuse of wishing to spare her the “trouble and thankless charge of entertaining the judges” to avoid Carleton having to serve as sheriff in 1631.

JANE SHELLEY (c. 1485-1533+)
Jane Shelley was the daughter of John Shelley of Michelgrove, Sussex (c.1455-January 3, 1526/7) and Elizabeth Michelgrove (c.1458-June 30, 1518 or 1450-July 3,1514). She married Sir Edward Bellingham of Erringham, Sussex (d. c.1514). Their children were Katherine (b.1500), John (d. November 1, 1540), and Edward (d. April 10, 1550). In December 1514, she bought her younger son Edward’s wardship from the 2nd duke of Norfolk with the help of her new husband, William Everard (d.1524), and her brothers, John and William Shelley. Her sons were still minors when her second husband died. Jane is probably the Lady Jane Bellingham who was implicated in the affair of Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent, in 1533.

ANNE SHELTON (d. September 17, 1563)
Anne Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556), the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn’s father. By 1527, Anne married Sir Edmund Knyvett of Buckenham Castle, Norfolk (d.  May 1, 1551). Their children included Thomas (d. September 22, 1569), Edmund, Henry, and Anthony. As he was not knighted until 1538/9, she may have been the Mistress Anne Knyvett in the household of Princess Mary in Wales in 1525-7. In 1538, her aunt, Alice Boleyn Clere, left her “a tablet of gold with the picture of the Salutation of Our Lady in it with 8 rubies and 24 pearls in the same.” Anne married Christopher Coote of Blonorton. They may have had a son, Richard (d.1563+).


Elizabeth Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556). Her aunt, Alice Boleyn Clere, left her a ring with an emerald in it in 1538. Her uncle, James Boleyn of Blickling, Norfolk (c.1480-1561) left her 200 marks in his will, written August 20, 1561 and proved November 21, 1561. He asked the queen to provide the money out of the arrears of an annuity. The following December, Elizabeth Shelton was granted an annuity of £30. On January 24, 1566, her sister Amy (or Amica), also received an annuity of £30 from Queen Elizabeth for “services” to the queen.

ETHELRED or AUDREY SHELTON (June 10, 1568-1631)
Ethelred or Audrey Shelton was the daughter of Sir Ralph Shelton (d.1580) and Mary Wodehouse or Woodhouse. She married Thomas Walsingham of Scadbury, Chislehurst, Kent (1568-August 11, 1630). Their children were Thomas (d.1669) and, Mary. In July 1597, the queen visited Lady Walsingham at Scadbury. In 1598, George Chapman dedicated his continuation of Christopher Marlowe’s Hero and Leander to Lady Walsingham. Ingram Frizer, who figures in the death of Marlowe, was later Lady Walsingham’s servant. In January 1600, she was listed as a lady of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth. On July 30, 1601, she was sworn in as a lady of the privy chamber. In 1603, she and her husband walked in Queen Elizabeth’s funeral procession. Later she went to Scotland to attend Queen Anne. She was appointed keeper of the queen’s robes, a post she held jointly with her husband from 1608. In 1604, she received a pension of £200 for life. In 1608, Lady Walsingham’s lodging by the Tilt Yard was the setting for the marriage between Sir Robert Cecil’s son, William, and Katherine Howard, daughter of the earl of Suffolk. Audrey was a close friend of Cecil’s and one of several women rumored to have been his mistress. She was buried in Chislehurst Church on August 24, 1631.

MARGARET SHELTON (1500+-before September 11, 1583)
Known as “Madge,” Margaret Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556), the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn’s father. By 1535, Madge was at court as a maid of honor to her cousin. She is said to have been Henry VIII’s mistress for about six months, from February of that year. Francis Weston, who was married, flirted with Margaret later in 1535 and she was courted by Henry Norris, a widower. Both Norris and Weston were arrested and executed in 1536 in connection with Anne Boleyn’s alleged adultery. Kimberley Schutte, in her biography of Lady Margaret Douglas, describes Madge Shelton as a “pretty girl with dimples . . . very gentle in countenance” and “soft of speech,” but she also seems to think Margaret and her sister Mary were the same person and further identifies Madge as the “handsome young lady at court” who may have been the king’s mistress in 1534. In The Mistresses of Henry VIII, Kelly Hart also identifies “Madge” as Mary Shelton, but it makes more sense that Margaret was Henry’s mistress. Some accounts also say Madge was with Anne Boleyn in Calais in 1532 and with Queen Anne on the scaffold. Others repeat the story of Queen Anne berating a maid of honor for writing secular poems in a religious book and identify that girl as Mistress Shelton, but the same story is told about Anne Gainsford. The name “Mistress Shelton” again crops up in connection with the king in 1538, as both a potential mistress and in describing Christina of Milan, who was said to resemble her. Christina’s portrait, painted by Hans Holbein the younger, bears little resemblance to the Holbein sketch of Mary Shelton, making it even more likely Margaret was the one referred to. It seems unlikely that King Henry was considering Margaret as a mistress in 1538. By then she was married to Thomas Wodehouse or Woodhouse of Kimberley, Norfolk (1510-September 10, 1547). Prior to Wodehouse’s death in the battle of Musselborough, they had six children: Roger (c.1541-April 4, 1588), John (b.c.1543), Anne, Elizabeth, Mary, and Henry (b. January 3, 1546).


MARY SHELTON (1512?-January 1571)
Mary Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton of Shelton and Carrow, Norfolk (c.1472-December 21, 1539) and Anne Boleyn (c.1475-December 1556), the sister of Queen Anne Boleyn’s father. Suggestions for the date of her birth range from 1512 to 1520. A number of biographers, including Kelly Hart in The Mistresses of Henry VIII, argue that Mary Shelton was the king’s mistress in 1535 and a candidate to become his fourth wife. The single mention of Mistress Shelton as one of two ladies in whom the king was interested in 1538, however, comes in a letter that says nothing about marriage. The comment could as easily refer to the king’s choice of one of the women mentioned as his next mistress. Hart also says that Mary entered the convent of St. Helen’s, Bishopsgate following her father’s death in 1539, but that is impossible. The priory had been dissolved more than a year earlier (November 25, 1538). There was a Mary Shelton there at that time, but she was a nun. She was granted an annuity of £4 and was required by law to remain single. The Mary Shelton who is the subject of this entry may have been in attendance upon Queen Catherine Howard. After Catherine’s arrest, Mary spent most of the next year at Kenninghall in Norfolk with her friends Lady Mary Howard, duchess of Richmond, and Lady Margaret Douglas. She contributed to and edited the “Devonshire Manuscript,” a collection of poems, some of them original, that was passed around among members of their circle. Two of the poems suggest that Sir Thomas Wyatt pursued Mary and was rejected by her. Mary was in love with Thomas Clere, one of the earl of Surrey’s close friends, and they intended to marry, but Clere died on April 14, 1545. He made Mary his principal heir and she is mentioned in the elegy Surrey wrote to Clere. In about 1546, Mary married Sir Anthony Heveningham (c.1507-November 22, 1557). Their children were Mary, Anne, Jane, Bridget, Arthur (d.October 8, 1630), Abigail (d.1611+), Henry, John, and Dorothy. It is as Lady Heveningham that Surrey wrote to her while she was staying at the house of her brother, Jerome Shelton. This letter led to the suggestion that she be questioned after Surrey was arrested for treason in 1547. Mary may have been the Lady Heveningham at court in 1558/9. Mary married Philip Appleyard  of Shropham, Norfolk (c.1528-1571+). They had one daughter, Anne. In 1567, they jointly received a crown lease of property at Whaplode, Lincolnshire, in which they were described as “Queen’s servants.” Biographies: Paul G. Remley, “Mary Shelton and her Tudor Literary Milieu” in Rethinking the Tudor Era; Elizabeth Heale, ed., The Devonshire Manuscript: A Womans Book of Courtly Poetry; Oxford DNB entry under “Shelton, Mary.” NOTE: The DNB gives the date of death for Mary’s mother as 1555, says Mary had only five children, and names only Arthur and Abigail. Portrait: the Holbein sketch labeled “The Lady Henegham” in the Royal Library at Windsor.

MARY SHELTON (c.1550-November 15, 1603)
Mary Shelton was the daughter of Sir John Shelton (1503-1558) and Margaret Parker. She was at court as a chamberer to Queen Elizabeth from January 1, 1571. In January 1573/4, she secretly married Sir James Scudamore of Holme Lacy, Herefordshire (1542-April 15,1623), a gentleman usher, as his second wife. They had no children. Queen Elizabeth is said to have been so angry that they married without her permission that she attacked Mary and broke her finger, but she did not banish her. In spite of this incident, Mary continued as a chamberer and became quite influential at court as a favorite with the queen. On October 26, 1574, the queen gave her a forepart of cloth of silver with a fringe. Other royal gifts included £400 in 1591 and £300 in 1594. In 1587, she was given the job of helping Mary Radcliffe, keeper of jewels, with the bundles of furs sent to the queen by the tsar of Russia. Many letters by and about her are extant. She was buried at Holme Lacy on August 15, 1603. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Scudamore [née Shelton], Mary;” Occasional Papers no.29: “Lady Mary Scudamore (c.1550-1603), Courtier” by Warren Skidmore. Portrait: The portrait of Lady Scudamore attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger c.1601 is Mary but it is sometimes misidentified as Eleanor Croft (d.1569), Sybill Vaughan (d.1559), or Ursula Pakington (d.1558).


JANE SHEPPARD (1568-1622)
Jane Sheppard was the daughter of Robert and Elizabeth Sheppard. Her father held a minor post at court. She was baptized at St. Margaret’s, Westminster on November 1, 1568. She was known in the family as “Jennet.” In about 1593, she married John Davenant (1565-1622), a vintner. They lived in St. James Garlickhythe. Jane consulted Simon Forman in January 1598, thinking she was with child, but she was not. By that time she had already lost several children. She’d lost six by 1600, when the Davenants moved to Oxford. There they ran a wine tavern, the Crown, with about twenty rooms. William Shakespeare often stayed there on his way from London to Stratford. Over the next twenty years Jane had numerous children, seven of whom, including Jane (1601-1672), Nicholas, William (1606-1668), and Robert, lived to adulthood. It has been suggested that one of them, William, was William Shakespeare’s illegitimate son, but this is unlikely. It is possible, however, that Shakespeare served as his godfather when William was baptized at St. Martin’s, Carfax on March 3, 1606. William Davenant grew up to be Sir William, the poet laureate. According to John Aubrey, Jane was “a very beautiful woman & of a very good witt and of conversation extremely agreable.” She died two weeks before her husband in the year he was Lord Mayor of Oxford. After Davenant’s death, his apprentice, Thomas Hallom, was granted his freedom early, married their eldest daughter, Jane, and continued the business. After Hallom’s death in 1636, his widow five apprentices of her own.

CECILY or CECILIA SHERLEY (1570-July 31, 1662)
Cecily or Cecilia Sherley was the youngest daughter of Sir Thomas Sherley or Shirley of Wiston, Sussex (May 9, 1542-October 16, 1612) and Anne Kempe (c.1544-1623). In November 1596, she married her father’s godson, Thomas West, 3rd baron de la Warr (July 9, 1577-June 7, 1618). Their children were Joan (c.1601-c.1650), Henry, 4th baron (October 3, 1603-June 1, 1628), Anne (c.1605-c.1660), Elizabeth (c.1606-c.1660), Cecily (c.1609-1638), Lucy (c.1611-c.1660), John (1615-October 6, 1683), Twyford (b.1616), and Catherine (c.1618-c.1660). He served in the Low Countries. In 1602, he was imprisoned for supporting the earl of Essex. In 1609/10, he was appointed first Governor of Virginia. He sailed there in 1610, returning to England in 1611. On his second voyage there, in 1617, he died at sea. Several of Cecily’s daughters acted with their mother in a court masque at Twelfth Night 1616/17. On September 19, 1619, Cecily was granted a pension for thirty-one years. It was renewed in 1634, stopped by the Civil War, and restored in 1662.


ISABEL SHERLEY (d. July 1533+)
Isabel Sherley was one of the daughters of Sir Ralph Sherley or Shirley of Wiston, Sussex (1433-1510) and Jane Bellingham. On January 17, 1508, she married Sir John Dawtrey of Southampton (c.1433-November 24, 1518). Their son was Francis (1510-July 1533+). Dawtrey and his first wife, Joan Scardeville, had what is now known as “The Tudor House” built for them in Southampton in 1495. After Dawtrey’s death, Isabel continued to trade as a merchant of Southampton, dealing in millstones. By 1533, she marriedSir Richard Lister or Lyster (c.1480-March 16, 1553/4), a chief justice of the King’s Bench. Sir Richard’s wife is often misidentified as Jane Sherley, largely because Isabel’s sister also married a man named Sir John Dawtrey. This other Sir John was of Petworth and Moor House, Sussex and did not die until September 21, 1542. The Oxford DNB incorrectly lists Isabel’s children by Lister as Richard, Charles, and possibly Elizabeth (1520-1572), and calls Michael (d.1551) the child of a later wife, Elizabeth Stoke (d.1567+), but by 1529, Michael was already married. Richard and Charles were his sons, not Sir Richard’s. Sir Richard’s will, proved April 16, 1554, makes Richard, “son and heir of my late son Michael,” his principal heir and identifies Charles, who was not yet twenty-one, as the younger son of Michael and his second wife. The will also mentions his daughter, Elizabeth and her husband, Richard Blount. Elizabeth may have been Isabel’s daughter. Portrait: Isabel is the most likely possibility to be the subject of the Holbein sketch labeled “Lady Lister” and dated c.1532-1543. Another possibility is Michael Lister’s second wife, Margery Horsman.




Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Elizabeth Shipman as the wife of William Hyde of Sandon, Hertfordshire (d. July 1580) and as the Mrs. Hyde who was Mother of Maids. She probably took up the post after the previous Mother died on November 24, 1573 and held it until c.1581. The queen stayed with the Hydes August 3-4, 1564. Elizabeth and William Hyde had at least two daughters, Dudley and Lucy. Lucy or Luce was a gentlewoman of the bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth in the 1590s.




ELIZABETH SHIRLEY (c.1555-1624+)
Elizabeth Shirley was the daughter of Francis Shirley of West Grinstead, Sussex (c.1524-March 20, 1577/8) and Barbara Blount (c.1538-February 28, 1563/4). They were a recusant family. By 1582, she married William Wyborne (Wyborn/Wybarn) of Hawkswell, Sussex (c.1540-c.1612). They do not appear to have had any children but took in the orphaned sons and daughters of his sister Ellen or Eleanor—John, Walter, William Margaret, and Mary Windsor. Upon her husband’s death, Elizabeth inherited the estate of Little Hawkswell and her husband’s debts, which far outweighed his assets. On April 2, 1612, she conveyed all her goods, household stuff, chattels and goods to his executors, Sir Richard Blunt and Dudley Norton, retaining only £30 for herself. About April 4, 1612, Elizabeth married Ambrose Vaux (c.1570-April 1626), a younger son of Lord Vaux of Harrowden who had been knighted by the Franciscans in Jerusalem but was only an esquire under English law. He had been abroad as a religious exile and had only just returned to England. Almost at once, he was thrown into the King’s Bench prison, probably for debt. When he married Elizabeth, he was under the impression that she was a wealthy widow. Soon after their marriage, Elizabeth was persuaded by her late husband’s friends to leave Vaux. In August, Ambrose heard that Elizabeth had gone to a play at the Globe with Dudley Norton. When he went there to find her and attempted to abduct her agains her will, Norton and several other men assaulted him.When the case was heard in the Star Chamber in May 1613, their marriage was declared valid. Whether they ever lived together is unknown, but Vaux did not support her. In January 1620, Elizabeth moved into rooms in St. Mary-le-Strand. She found fault with them, the landlord took offense, and a brawl ensued during which a door was broken and the landlor was injured. The case went to the Star Chamber in 1621. At some point, King James granted Elizabeth two thirds of the lands belonging to Edward Wyborne, her recusant brother-in-law. In 1624, when Wyborne died, she received a similar grant from the lands of his son Benjamin. Biographies: material in Jessie Childs, in Gods Traitors: Terror and Faith in Elizabethan England and Godfrey Anstruther’s Vaux of Harrowden.

ELIZABETH SHIRLEY (1564/5-September 1, 1641)
Elizabeth Shirley was the daughter of Sir John Shirley of Shirley, Leicestershire (1535-September 12, 1570) and Jane Lovett. She was raised in the Church of England but at about the age of twenty went to live with her brother, George Shirley (1559-April 27, 1622), a recusant, as his housekeeper. There she was converted to Catholicism. Following George’s marriage to Frances Berkeley (c.1560-December 9, 1595) in 1586/7, Elizabeth joined the cloister of St. Ursula in Louvain in Flanders, where she was professed as a nun on September 10, 1596. This was a Flemish house, but since 1569 had been ruled by an English prioress, Margaret Clement (d.1612). In 1606, Clement retired and the English nuns began to make plans for a separate convent. They established the English Augustinian cloister of St. Monica’s at Louvain on February 10, 1609, thanks in large part to Elizabeth Shirley’s handling of the finances. From that November until 1637, she served as sub-prioress. Jane (Sister Mary) Wiseman was elected as the first prioress. In 1626, Elizabeth wrote a biography of Margaret Clement that included a history of the English Augustinians in Louvain. This was probably the earliest biography of a woman written in English by someone who had known the subject during her lifetime. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Shirley, Elizabeth.”




SUSAN SHORE (c.1577-January 1648)
Susan Shore may have been the daughter of a player with Worcester’s Men c.1593. Through her husbands, she was part owner of three playhouses in the London area, the Boar’s Head, the Red Bull in Shoreditch, and the Fortune. Her first husband was Robert Browne (d. October 1603), an actor with Derby’s Men in 1599-1600 and a shareholder in the Boar’s Head. Their children were Robert (c.1599-1612+), Susan (1600-1612+), William (1602-1634), Elizabeth (1603-1612+), and Anne (1604-1612+). William was a paid actor with Queen Anne’s Men by 1616. In October 1603, Joan Alleyn wrote to her husband, player Edward Alleyn, that “Browne of the Boar’s Head is dead, and died very poor.” He left no will. Susan, who was six months pregnant when she was widowed, was granted administration of his estate on January 9, 1604. She married Thomas Greene (d.1612), a sharer in the Queen’s Men. He was best known as a comedian. In c.1606, Greene and Susan leased the Boar’s Head to another company. At the time of his death, Greene owned nine of the eighteen shares in the Red Bull in Clerkenwell. He was buried on August 7, 1612 in St. James, Clerkenwell and soon after his widow made a claim on the company of players for £117 due to her late husband. An agreement was made whereby they would pay her half their profits until the debt was cleared. In June 1613, Susan married James Baskerville (d.1623+). He purchased a life pension from Queen Anne’s Men for £57 10s. The payout was supposed to be twenty pence a day as long as he and Susan lived. By June 1616, having failed to make payments, the company agreed to pay an additional two shillings daily, or 3s. 8d/day, until the difference had been made up. In a slightly different account of the terms, the additional two shillings were to go to Susan, or to her son, Francis Browne, in exchange for a further investment of £38. Whatever the exact agreement was, payments were in arrears as early as July 26, 1616. According to the reply of Susan Baskerville made to a later bill of complaint by the players, her third husband fled to Ireland at Lent 1617. It seems he was a bigamist. Susan subsequently instituted proceedings to collect the pension. At one point it was agreed that she would receive 3s. 8d. daily for each performance if any four of the company played together at any playhouse or public stage other than the Red Bull, that was within London or two miles of it. In the agreement made on June 3, 1617, payment was to be made to her at the Cockpit in Drury Lane. Yet another report of the settlement says that when Susan died, the money was to go to William Browne, who was by then an actor with the company, but the company reneged again. By this point, although Susan now controlled her husband’s stake in the Queen’s Men, which she retained until at least 1626, she may have lost her claim on earnings at the Cockpit in Drury Lane. She was buried in Clerkenwell. The most recent scholarship on the ins and outs of theatrical companies of this era is Theater, Community and Court Engagement in Jacobean London (2011) by Mark Bayer. See also Herbert Berry, The Boar’s Head Playhouse.




ANNE SIDNEY (c.1525-June 11, 1602)
Anne Sidney was the daughter of Sir William Sidney (1482-1554) and Anne Pagenham (d. October 22, 1544). She married William Fitzwilliam of Gaynes Park, Essex (1526-June 22, 1599). Their children were William (c.1550-1618), John (1554-1612), Mary, Margaret, and Philippa (1564-1596). Her wedding settlement, dated January 4, 1543, gave her the use of all of his Essex lands for life should he die before her. For the most part, Anne raised the children on her own, since her husband was so often in Ireland. She was with him part of the time. In 1571, when he was suffering from an ague, she wrote to the queen to ask that he be recalled. Instead, he was appointed Lord Deputy. His enemies claimed Anne made all his decisions for him. Certainly he trusted her. In 1575, he sent her to England to make a personal appeal to the queen for his recall. This time she succeeded. He was in England for most of the period from 1575 to 1588. The queen visited his house at Gaynes Park on September 19, 1578, but Anne had gone to Bath for her health. Fitzwilliam was again sent to Ireland as Lord Deputy in 1588. His service there left him in debt and he was forced to sell property that had been assured to Anne at their marriage. Late in life he went blind. His will left Anne apparel, ornaments, plate, and jewels and warned her not to trust their son William. Portraits: possible portrait c. 1545; by George Gower c. 1577; “Lady Fitzwilliam” by George Gower 1577; monument in Theydon Garnon Church, Essex.



ELIZABETH SIDNEY (November 1585-1614)
Elizabeth Sidney was the daughter of Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554-October 17, 1586) and Frances Walsingham (c. October 1567-February 17, 1633). Playwright Ben Jonson said of Elizabeth Sidney that she was “nothing inferior to her father in poetry,” although examples of her writing do not seem to have survived. On March 5, 1599, she married Roger Manners, 5th earl of Rutland (October 6, 1576-June 26, 1612). On January 5, 1606, Elizabeth participated in the climax of the court masque, Hymenaei, created by Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones. She represented one of the Powers and in order to participate paid £80 to Mr. Bethall, the gentleman usher, £10 for cutwork lace, £4 8s. for silk, and £12 3s. for a coronet, a pair of silk hose, a ruff, and a pair of shoes, all part of her costume. Because of his marriage to Elizabeth, her husband became involved in the treasonous schemes of her stepfather, the earl of Essex, in 1601. Elizabeth herself figures in two controversies. One concerns her portrait or portraits. The argument has been made that she is the subject of the portrait by William Segar c.1590 usually identified as her mother, Frances, and that by comparing the face in that portrait to the unknown lady c.1595 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, this, too, can be identified as Elizabeth Sidney. There are several problems with this. For one thing, in 1595, Elizabeth was only eleven years old. For another, the lady shown is obviously pregnant and Elizabeth Sidney never had any children. It is also possible that Elizabeth, not her mother, is the subject of the portrait of a lady in Persian dress (c.1600 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger). The second controversy is over the death of Elizabeth’s husband death. Several sources online claim she poisoned him to free herself from an unhappy marriage and that a short time later she was herself killed in revenge for his death. The Oxford DNB (under “Manners, Roger”), says that Frances died “within a fortnight of her husband’s funeral (in 1612), occasioning wild rumours that she had been poisoned by medicine supplied by Sir Walter Raleigh.” The entry also reports gossip that Sir Thomas Overbury was in love with Elizabeth. Reputable biographies of her father and grandfather, however, give the date 1614 for Elizabeth’s death, and one source says September 1, 1615. She was buried near her father in at St. Paul’s, although she shares a memorial at Bottesford with her husband.

FRANCES SIDNEY (c.1531-March 9, 1588/9)
Frances Sidney was the daughter of Sir William Sidney (1482-1554) and Anne Pagenham (d.October 22, 1544). On April 26, 1555, she married Thomas Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter (1526-June 9, 1583) at Hampton Court. They had no children. King Philip attended the wedding ceremony and participated in the tournament held afterward. The Oxford DNB places Frances in Ireland with her husband from 1556-1564, but although Fitzwalter (earl of Sussex after February 1557) was based in Dublin (as was Frances’s brother, Sir Henry Sidney), and Frances was sometimes with him, he spent thirty-five months of his eight year term in England. At Christmas 1557, both Frances and her husband were at court and in high favor with Queen Mary. Frances also seems to have gotten along well with Queen Elizabeth. In September 1565, she was delegated to escort Cecilia of Sweden to court. Frances was in Berwick during her husband’s tenure as Lord President of the North. She caught smallpox there in the summer of 1571. Also in 1571, she twice entertained the queen at Bermondsey House. Charlotte Merton, in The Women who served Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, describes her as “bedevilled with ill health,” citing illnesses at court in spring 1571, winter 1575, and in 1582. The Oxford DNB entry reports that Frances had enemies who turned her husband and the queen against her during the last months of his life (early 1583), although before that she had been “a loved and loyal wife.” After his death, she enjoyed an income of £2062 from his estates and had possession of the house in Bermondsdy for life. Frances was a patron of the arts, receiving a number of dedications. After her husband’s death, she continued to sponsor his company of players, now called the Countess of Sussex’s Men. The DNB entry recounts Frances’s courtship by Arthur Hall (1539-December 29, 1605) c. 1586. Rejected, he wrote a book purported to be the story of their relationship. Hungaryous Hystory offended the queen and was suppressed. Hall was later confined in the Marshalsea, and then the Fleet (1588-9) when he continued his harrassment. By 1587, Frances was engaged in a dispute with her brother-in-law, the new earl. She had puritan leanings and a deep interest in education. In her will she left £5000 to found the Lady Frances Sidney-Sussex College at Cambridge. Construction there was begun in 1596. She was buried in the chapel of St. Paul in Westminster Abbey, where an inscription describes her as “adorned with many and most rare gifts of both mynde and bodye; towards God trulie and zelousle religious; to her friends and kinefoulke most liberall; to the poore, to prisoners and to the ministers of the worde of God, allwaies most charitable.” Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Radcliffe [née Sidney] Frances.” Portraits: by Steven van der Meulen c.1565; by George Gower, c.1575; effigy in Westminster Abbey; statue at Sidney-Sussex College.


LUCY SIDNEY (c.1520-c.1591)
Lucy Sidney was the daughter of Sir William Sidney (1482-1554) and Anne Pagenham (d. October 22, 1544). She married Sir James Harington of Exton, Rutland (1511- January 24, 1592) by 1539. Their eight sons and nine daughters included John (c.1540-August 23, 1613), Catherine, Elizabeth (d. May 19,1618), Mabel (d. June 21, 1603), Henry (d. December 24, 1612), James (c.1542-February 2, 1613/14), Mary, Margaret (d.1601), Anne, Theodosia (c.1560-January 1649/50), and Sarah (1566-September 1629). Portrait: tomb effigy in Exton Parish Church, Exton, Rutland.


MARY SIDNEY (October 27, 1561-September 25, 1621)
Mary Sidney was the daughter of Sir Henry Sidney (June 20, 1529-May 5, 1586) and Mary Dudley (1532-August 1586) and the sister of Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586). She was probably the daughter placed with Mildred Cooke, Lady Burghley, while the Sidneys were in Ireland in 1569. She was one of Queen Elizabeth’s ladies before her marriage. On April 21, 1577 she married Henry Herbert, 2nd earl of Pembroke (1540-January 19, 1601). Their children were William (April 8, 1580-April 10, 1630), Katherine (1581-1584),  Anne (b.1583), and Philip (1584-1650). She was one of the foremost patrons of the arts as well as a poet and translator in her own right. Biographies: by Frances Young; by Margaret P. Hannay (Philip’s Phoenix); Oxford DNB entry under “Herbert [née Sidney], Mary.” Portraits: a painting by Marcus Gheeraerts once identified as Mary Sidney is actually Mary Throckmorton, Lady Scudamore; miniature in the Victoria & Albert Museum; engraving by Simon van de Passe, c.1618.

MARY SIDNEY (October 18, 1587-c.1652)
Mary Sidney was the daughter of Robert Sidney (1563-1626) and Barbara Gamage (1562-1621). On September 24, 1604, she married Sir Robert Wroth (c.1576-March 1614). They had one son, James (February 1614-July 5, 1616). When she was widowed, her husband’s estate was deeply in debt, so she wrote to earn money. The Countesse of Mountgomeries’s Urania was published in 1621. Although it contained poems, it was the first prose fiction written in English by a woman. She also the first woman known to have written a sonnet sequence. She received many dedications from other writers, as well as being mentioned in some of their works. During her widowhood, she gave birth to two children, William and Katherine, fathered by her cousin, William Herbert, 3rd earl of Pembroke (1580-1630). Biographies: Mary Sidney Wroth by Margaret P. Hannay (2010); Oxford DNB entry under “Wroth [née Sidney], Mary.” Portraits: group portrait by Marcus Gheerearts the younger, 1596; portrait by Marcus Gheerearts the younger, c. 1620; portrait attributed to John de Critz, c.1620.



FRANÇISCA de SILVA y RIBERA (c.1450-August 2, 1534)
A Doña Françisca de Silva is named in the account book of Isabella of Castile for 1477-1504 and she is probably the same woman who was part of Catherine of Aragon’s household when Catherine first came to England to marry Arthur Tudor in 1501. One of Doña Françisca’s sons was also part of that household. It seems likely that this woman was the widow of Honorato de Mendoza y Manrique, Señor de la Parrilla (d. c. 1490). She was the daughter of Juan de Silva, count of Cifuentes (1399-October 6, 1464) and his second wife, Iñez de Ribera. Françisca and Honorato’s children were Iñez, Juan, Rodrigo, Pedro, Diego (d.1542), Garcia, Francisco, Maria, and Teresa. It is unclear when Françisca returned to Spain, but she was not with Catherine when she became queen in 1509. Françisca died in Cuenca de Campos, Valladolid, in present-day Spain.


THOMASINE SKARLETT (1535-1615+) (maiden name unknown)

Thomasine Skarlett performed surgery and claimed to be able to cure the pox. Extrapolating from details given by Eleanor Hubbard in City Women: Money, Sex & the Social Order in Early Modern London, it appears that, in 1598, Thomasine was called to explain herself to the governors of Bridewell when she was suspected of inducing an abortion with the purgations she gave to a pregnant widow. She was summoned before the College of Physicians six times between 1588 and 1611 for practicing medicine without a license. At the age of eighty, she testified in consistory court concerning her advice that a patient’s wife abstain from sexual intercourse with her diseased husband. Hubbard refers readers to Margaret Pelling’s Medical Conflicts in Early Modern London: Patronage, Physicians, and Irregular Practitioners 1550-1640 for more information.



ELIZABETH SKEFFINGTON (d. November 19, 1584)
Elizabeth Skeffington was the daughter of Sir John Skeffington of London (c.1485-July 10, 1525) and Elizabeth Peche (d.1549). Her father was a merchant tailor of Fisherwick in Lichfield St. Michael. Elizabeth married Sir George Griffith of Wichnor in Tatenhill, Staffordshire (1511-1559). Their children were Walter (1535-1574) and three daughters. By the spring of 1540, Griffith had abandoned his wife for his mistress. Both Lord Cromwell and Bishop Rowland Lee took him to task for this action and Cromwell ordered him to either take Elizabeth back or pay her her jointure. Since Griffith was unable to afford the second choice, he opted for the first.


In 1503, Alice was in the household of Elizabeth of York and paid £5 /year.

MARGERY SKELTON (x.1574) (maiden name unknown)
Margery was the wife of William Skelton, a laborer in Little Wakering, Essex. She was a healer. In 1566, she was called to testify for the prosecution in a case against several women accused of witchcraft. On July 29, 1571, she and her husband were indicted at Barley on the charge that she had bewitched Agnes Collen, aged one and a half, the daughter of William Collen, who had “languished a long time” before dying. They were also accused of bewitching John Churcheman of Barley, who died at once. Another indictment, this one against “Margery Skelton, spinster” (her profession rather than her marital status) accused her of bewitching Phyllis Pyckett, daughter of Richard Pyckett, yeoman. This child languished until October 20, 1571 before dying. William was accused of bewitching a different girl. Margery pled not guilty but was convicted at the assizes in Chelmsford on March 2, 1573/4 and hanged.

Jane Skennard was the daughter of Henry Skennard, Skineardon, Skenard, or Skynnerton of Aldington, Northamptonshire and Margaret Harwedon or Harowdon. She married Sir Richard Knightley of Fawsley, Northamptonshire (c.1500-December 8, 1534). Their twelve children included Richard (d. March 30, 1537/8), Thomas (d. October 18, 1516), Edmond (d. September 12, 1542 or 1543), John, Valentine (d.1566), and Susan (d.1549+). Jane was sole executor of her husband’s will and responsible for their tomb and a window containing a dedication. As a widow, she offered Thomas Cromwell the mastership of the game in her park and sent him a horse in an effort to gain favor. Portrait: alabaster effigy in St. Mary the Virgin Church, Fawsley with her family badge of the hawk’s lure but no life dates. In 2008, the tomb was vandalized and the effigy of Sir Richard was damaged. The cost of repairs was estimated at £1000.




BRIDGET SKIPWITH (d. January 26, 1587/8)
Bridget Skipwith was the daughter of Sir William Skipwith of South Ormesby, Lincolnshire (d.1586) and Elizabeth Page (1516-August 1573). Bridget’s mother had been one of Kathryn Parr’s chamberers. Bridget was one of Elizabeth Tudor’s attendants when John Harington wrote his sonnet in praise of her six gentlewomen. Of Bridget. he wrote: “If Skypwith should escape/Without her gift most rare/Dyana wold me hate/and fill my Life with care/syns in her Temple chaste/full highe uppon the wall/Her bowe thear hangith fast/unbroke and ever shall.” Bridget was a maid of the Privy Chamber after Elizabeth became queen. She married Brian Cave of Ingarsby, Leicestershire (d. September 12, 1592) but all his children seem to have been with his first wife, Margaret Throckmorton. Bridget did not leave the queen’s service until after 1584 and may have remained in the Privy Chamber until her death.

CATHERINE SKIPWITH (c.1484-c.1575)
Catherine Skipwith was the daughter of John Skipwith/Skipworth of South Ormesby, Lincolnshire (c.1460-January 5, 1517/18) and Catherine Fitzwilliam (d.1502+). In 1515, she married Sir Thomas Heneage of Hainton, Lincolnshire (c.1480-August 21, 1553), a gentleman pensioner. They had one child, Elizabeth (1518-December 1, 1555). Catherine rode in the funeral procession of Queen Jane Seymour, was a gentlewoman in attendance on Queen Anne of Cleves in January 1540, and served in the household of Catherine Howard. Catherine and Sir Thomas lived together at court and at Hampton Court occupied a two story brick house on the palace grounds. In his will in September 1542, her cousin William Fitzwilliam, earl of Southampton, forgave her debt of £20. Catherine’s will was proved September 2, 1576. She was buried in the chancel of Hainton parish church. Portrait: memorial brass.


MARGARET SKIPWITH (1520+-May 6, 1583)
Margaret Skipwith was the daughter of Sir William Skipwith of Kettleby and South Ormesby, Lincolnshire (c.1487-July 7, 1547) and Alice Dymoke (d. June 29, 1550). In 1538, when Henry VIII was a widower looking for a foreign bride, Margaret Skipwith was rumored to be his mistress. In April 1539, she married George, Lord Talboys (1523-September 1540), son of King Henry’s former mistress, Elizabeth Blount. Margaret was at court regularly in 1538, 1540, and 1541, when her name appears in royal household expenses. After she was widowed, she was granted the wardship of a son of Anthony Tottoft. In 1546, Sir Peter Carew (1514-November 27, 1575) asked King Henry’s help in persuading Margaret to marry him. At first the king was unwilling to help, but later changed his mind and wrote to Margaret on Sir Peter’s behalf. They were married on February 20, 1547, the same day Edward VI was crowned king. Sir Peter participated in the tournaments celebrating the coronation. Margaret, who continued to be called Lady Talboys, spent most of the next few years in Lincolnshire, where she owned eight manors. Carew, who was sheriff of Devon, divided his time between the two counties. In December 1552, he owed the Crown £2100. When Mary Tudor became queen, Carew was one of the leaders in Wyatt’s Rebellion and went into exile when the uprising failed. The story goes that Margaret dreamed her husband slipped while boarding the ship on which he was to escape and drowned. In fact, although he did slip, he was rescued. Carew’s lands were forfeit to the Crown but his moveable property was sold back to Margaret in June 1554. She was a tireless campaigner on her husband’s behalf. She petitioned Queen Mary and King Philip, asking permission to write to her husband and send him “material relief.” On September 17, 1554, she sent “an ambling grey gelding” worth 10s. to Sir William Petre, a member of the Privy Council. Five days later, she was called before the Privy Council and told she could correspond with Sir Peter and, one time only, send him money. She wisely demanded a written copy of this permission. It was at about this time that Queen Mary called her “a good and loving wife.” Margaret continued to be her husband’s advocate, seeking a pardon for him from the queen. In April of 1555, Sir Peter, who had gone as far as Venice, returned to England in secret. That autumn, Margaret journeyed to Brussels to plead with King Philip for permission for her husband to return permanently. She carried a letter from Sir Peter, who was then in Strasbourg. On November 24, 1555, Queen Mary agreed to pardon Carew. Carew, then in Antwerp, reached Brussels by mid-December. The pardon was officially issued on December 9, 1555, but copies did not reach Brussels until March 15, 1556. Margaret, who was still there with her husband, then needed a pardon of her own before she could return to England, since she had remained out of the country longer than her license to travel allowed. She returned home ahead of Carew, who was still on the Continent in May. On May 15, 1556, he was arrested, in spite of the pardon, and for two weeks his whereabouts were unknown. On June 1, he was in the Tower of London. It is possible this was a ruse to cover the fact that he betrayed some of his friends in return for the pardon. If so, Margaret was not told. She once again worked diligently on her husband’s behalf. On July 7, he was given better accomodations and allowed conjugal visits. Margaret spent that summer campaigning for his release. On October 19, 1556, in return for the settlement of old debts, Carew was released. He received a regrant of some of the lands that had been forfeit to the Crown and others were granted in reversion, but he still owed £820. The eight manors Carew and his wife held in Lincolnshire plus two in Somersetshire yielded a yearly rent of £133 6s. 8d. Under Elizabeth Tudor, Carew spent much of his time in Ireland. He sent for Margaret to join him there in March 1569, but she lived primarily in Lincolnshire and at Mohuns Ottery in Devon and was not with Sir Peter when he died at Ross. Although he has a monument in Exeter Cathedral, he was buried in Waterford. His will, written July 4, 1574, named Margaret executrix, but she declined to serve in this capacity. In 1579, she married Sir John Clifton of Barrington, Somerset (c.1541-c.1593). She had no children by any of her husbands. When she died, most of Sir Peter’s debts were still outstanding.





MARY SLANEY (1560-April 26, 1623)
Mary Slaney was the daughter of Sir Stephen Slaney (1524-December 27, 1608) and Margaret Phesant (d.1618). Slaney was Lord Mayor of London in 1595 and a member of the Skinner’s Company. Mary married another skinner, Richard Bradgate (d.1589), from whom she inherited an annuity of £60. Her second husband was Sir Humphrey Weld (1547-November 29,1610), a member of the Grocer’s Company who had a house in Allhallows Lane by the Standard in Cheapside. In 1608, they moved into a mansion in St. Olave Jewry. Mary inherited, on condition that she not remarry, the bulk of his considerable estate and the responsibility for raising her stepchildren, Joane (1579-1618), John (1582-1623), and Anne (b.1584). She had no children of her own. Her contributions to charity were generous, both in life and in her will, which also made provision for a funeral that cost £1200, a tenth of the amount of her cash bequests. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Weld [née Slaney], Mary.”

Elizabeth Slighfield was the sister of Henry and Walter Slighfield, probably of Peckham, Kent. She married Robert Huicke (Huike/Hewyke/Hewicke) (d. September 6, 1580), royal physician to Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Queen Elizabeth. He also attended Queen Katherine Parr. “A relative of Dr. Huicke” was a maid of honor to Queen Katherine. Elizabeth may also have been part of the royal household. In early 1546, Huicke tried to divorce Elizabeth on the grounds that she was an “ill woman,” which may mean he doubted he was the father of the daughter, Anne (d.1580+), born at around that time. When the judge, John Croke, found in Elizabeth’s favor, Huicke appealed to the Privy Council. Both parties testified at Greenwich on May 11 and 12, 1546, after which the consensus was that Huicke had exhibited “crueltie and circumvencion” for “little cause” on the part of his wife. The divorce was denied. This should have surprised no one. Divorce at this time was all but impossible to obtain, and even when a divorce was granted, remarriage was not permitted while the first spouse still lived. In that same year, 1546, Dr. William Huicke, “a kinsman of Dr. Robert Huicke,” was arrested as a heretic, but this does not seem to have affected Robert’s position at court. Shortly after King Henry VIII died, a commission under Archbishop Cranmer reconsidered Huicke’s request for a divorce. According to the entry in The History of Parliament, the results are unknown but it is possible that Elizabeth and Huicke were reconciled. His daughter Atalanta was born in 1562. It is equally possible that Elizabeth died and he remarried, but there is no record of another marriage until a license dated November 2, 1575. In his will, dated August 21, 1580, Huicke divided his movable goods between his wife, Mary Woodcocke of London, and a third daughter, Elizabeth, who was evidently old enough by that time to be named an executrix and therefore may have been the daughter of Elizabeth Slighfield. Huicke left his land to Atalanta, who was married to William Chetwynd. Anne Huicke was still alive, but was not mentioned in the will.



Elizabeth Smart was the only daughter and heir of Henry Smart of London. She inherited twelve houses in Helmet Court, Fleet Street (some accounts say on the Strand) and other property in the Savoy. She had to sue the two overseers of her father’s will over her inheritance. On October 24, 1596, at St. Lawrence Poultney, she married Henry Condell, an actor. They had nine children, most of whom died young. All were baptized at St. Mary Aldermanbury. The first unnamed child was buried October 26, 1599. The others were Elizabeth (1598-April 1599), Anne (1601-1610), Richard, Elizabeth (d.1603), Elizabeth, Mary, Henry (May 1610-March 1629), William, and Edward (d.1614). In 1602, Henry and Elizabeth Condell bought property in St. Bride’s, including the Queen’s Head tavern in Fleet Street. They also had a country house in Fulham. As a widow, Elizabeth sold her twelve houses for £1450.


DOROTHY SMITH (1564-1639)
Dorothy Smith was the daughter of Humphrey (Ambrose) Smith or Smythe of Cheapside (d.1584), a silk merchant, and Johanna Cole (d.1601). One source says that Dorothy’s father was Queen Elizabeth’s silkman. He did deliver silk to the court on at least one occasion. Since royal silkwoman Alice Mountague was Alice Smythe, widow, before her 1562 marriage, it seems likely she was married to a relative of Humphrey’s, perhaps a brother. Dorothy Smith married four times and three of her daughters married peers. Her first husband was Benedict Barnham (1559-1598), a merchant and the benefactor of St. Alban’s Hall, Oxford. They had eight children, four of whom lived to adulthood: Alice (1588-June 29, 1640; viscountess Verulam), Elizabeth (1591-c.1623; countess of Castlehaven), Dorothy (b.1595), and Bridget (b.1596). In November 1598, Dorothy married Sir John Pakington of Westwood, Worcestershire (1549-January 1625), nicknamed “Lusty Pakington” by Queen Elizabeth for his height (over 6′) and strength. Their children were John (1600-October 1624), Anne (1598-1667; countess of Chesterfield), and Mary. In February 1607, John Chamberlain wrote in a letter that “Sir John Pakington and his little violent lady are parted on foul terms.” He does not give details. Shortly thereafter, Dorothy was at odds with her son-in-law, Francis Bacon (later viscount Verulam). She charged that he had forced her twelve-year-old daughter, Dorothy Barnham, into marriage with Sir John Constable. On June 21, 1617, the Pakingtons were again mentioned in one of John Chamberlain’s letters, when he wrote of “great warres between Sir John and his lady.” An accusation she made against her husband resulted in his imprisonment. The matter went to arbitration by the Lord Keeper. Unfortunately for Dorothy, the Lord Keeper was her estranged son-in-law, Francis Bacon, and the decision went against her. After Pakington’s death, Dorothy quarreled with her daughter Anne’s husband, Sir Humphrey Ferrers (it was Anne’s second husband whowas earl of Chesterfield), and with her daughter Mary’s husband, Sir Richard Brooke, over the administration of Pakington’s estate. It was transferred to her sons-in-law by February 1629. Soon after, Dorothy married Robert Needham, 1st viscount Kilmorey of Shavington, Shropshire (c.1565-November 1631), as his fourth wife. After his death, she wed Thomas Erskine, 1st earl of Killie (d. June 12, 1639). Portrait: companion piece with that of Sir John Pakington at Kentchurch Court (see Country Life 22, December 1966 p. 1689).


ELEANOR SMITH (c.1547-1596+)
Eleanor Smith was the daughter and heir of Bernard Smith of Totnes, Devonshire (d. July 16, 1591), who was mayor of Totnes in 1549/50. She was a heiress much sought after in marriage. Her first husband was John Charles of Tavistock (d. August 17, 1568). On January 30, 1570, she married Sir John Fulford of Fulford, Devonshire (1524/5-August 23, 1580) as his second wife. He was one of the wealthiest men in Devon and after their marriage he completed the rebuilding of Fulford. They had no children. Her third husband was John Wray or Wrey of Trebigh, Cornwall (1566-1596). He died in Spain. In 1596, she married Ambrose Bellott of Downton, Devonshire (c.1561-1637).


ELLEN SMITH (x. April 1579) (maiden name unknown)

Ellen was the daughter of Alice Chandler/Chaundeler (x.1574) (maiden name unknown) of Maldon, Essex. After her mother was executed for witchcraft, Ellen was accused of bewitching her stepfather, John Chandler, to death. She was also accused of bewitching a girl her daughter had quarreled with and a man who had spoken harshly to her son when he begged for alms. The son, who was thirteen, testified at the trial, claiming that his mother had three familiars, Great Dick, Little Dick, and Willet. She was hanged.






ANNE SMYTH (d.1575)
Anne Smyth was the daughter of Robert Smyth of London. She married Robert Paget or Pagett of London. Their children were William and Grace. Her second husband was Sir John Yorke of York (d.1569), an official  of the mint until 1553 and later a merchant adventurer. Their children were Peter (1525-1589), Edmund, Edward (d.1622), Rowland (d.1588), Anne (d.1600+), Elizabeth, William, Henry, Jane, and possibly others who died young. From 1546, the family lived in St. Stephen Walbrook, London. It was at Lady Yorke’s house in Walbrook that her son Edward and Edward de Vere, 17th earl of Oxford, stayed before departing for the Continent in 1574. She also had a house in Pancake Lane, London. Anne made her will on August 9, 1575 and it was proved December 2, 1575. Among other bequests, she left £20 to her maid, Ellen, to be paid upon Ellen’s marriage. Anne was buried August 21, 1575 at St. Stephen Walbrook. For her will and that of her husband, see http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com.






JOAN SMYTHE (1560-1622)
Joan Smythe was the daughter of Thomas “Customer” Smythe (1522-June 7, 1591), collector of customs duties for the port of London, and Alice Judde (c.1533-1593). On December 22, 1578, she married Thomas Fanshawe of Ware Park, Hertfordshire (1533-1600). Their eight children included Thomas, William, Alice, and Katherine. Her husband’s son, Henry (1569-1616), later married Joan’s younger sister, Elizabeth (1572-1631). Portrait: by Cornelius Ketel, 1579.

Katherine Smythe was the daughter of Thomas “Customer” Smythe (1522-June 7, 1591), collector of customs duties for the port of London, and Alice Judde (c.1533-1593). In about 1578, she married Rowland Hayward (d. December 5, 1593), a clothworker who was Lord Mayor of London in 1590. Their children were George (March 10, 1587-July 1615), John (c.1591-April 11, 1636), Alice, Katherine, Mary (d.1662), Anne, and two more who died as infants. His mansion was King’s Place in Hackney, later sold to the countess of Oxford. Hayward’s will, dated November 17, 1592 and proved March 4, 1595, can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. The queen visited Katherine, Lady Hayward in Hackney, Middlesex in July 1594. In about 1600, Katherine married Sir John Scott of Nettlestead, Kent (1570-December 28, 1616), to whom she was married c.1600 as his second wife. Some genealogies say she also married Sir Richard Sandys, but his wife seems to have been her daughter, Katherine Hayward, who was first married to Richard Scott. Portrait: possible portrait by Cornelius Ketel 1579; monument in St. Mary the Virgin, Nettlestead, Kent. A grant from the Rochester Bridge Trust in 2010 paved the way for restoration of this monument at an estimated cost of £20,000. That there is a child shown kneeling behind her.


ANNE SNAGGE (d.1606+)
Anne Snagge was the daughter of Thomas Snagge of Letchworth, Hertfordshire (d.1571) and Elizabeth or Ellen Calton. She married Edward Dallison (d.1589). In 1605, Anne was named sole executor for her brother, Robert Snagge. He left her his manor house near Hitchen, Hertfordshire and land in Letchworth, along with instructions to bury him “in a comely manner.” His will was proved May 14, 1606. Portrait: brass in Cransley, Northamptonshire.


HELEN SNAWE (d.1539+)
Helen (or Ellen) Snawe (or Snow) was one of nineteen nuns at Elstow, near Bedford, when Abbess Agnes Gascoigne died in July 1529. Helen was subsacrist. In the voting for a new abbess, she received two votes. Helen and most of the other nuns voted for Elizabeth Boifeld or Boyvill. Helen was one of two proctors chosen to seek confirmation of Elizabeth’s election from the bishop. Additional details of the political machinations that followed can be found on pp. 46-47 of Eileen Power’s Medieval English Nunneries. In 1530, after his August visitation, the bishop suspended the abbess and deprived the prioress, Dame Anne Wake, of her post. He appointed Helen Snawe in her place. When her election was announced, however, eight nuns and the sub-prioress rose up in a body and left the chapter house in protest. The examinations of the nuns by the vicar general are also discussed in Power’s book (pp. 48-51). The nuns were enjoined to be obedient to their abbess and prioress. Further protests were quelled by the threat of excommunication. In 1537, the nuns at Elstow had to give up their “households”—the places within the abbey where they entertained friends. They were also required to stop their “little parties” in Bedford. When Elstow was dissolved on August 26, 1539, there were twenty-three nuns in residence. The abbess received a pension of £50. Helen Snawe received £4. The former prioress, Dame Anne Wake, was granted 66s. 8d.

ELIZABETH SNEYD (d. January 28, 1579/80)
Elizabeth Sneyd was the daughter of Richard Sneyd (d.1537), recorder of Chester and Anne Fouleshurst. She married Henry Gee (d. September 6, 1545), a draper who was twice mayor of Chester. He left his wife £105 and custody of her stepdaughter Anne, along with property in Little Moldsworth and Chester. In 1550, Elizabeth married Sir Walter Calverley (d.1570/1) as his second wife. They had one daughter, Beatrice (d.1624). On February 16, 1565, Elizabeth, her husband, and her brother Ralph were among members of the local gentry who witnessed the examination of “the Maid of Chester,” Anne Mylner, by John Lane, who later attempted an exorcism to rid Anne of demons. Elizabeth was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Chester where her inscription reads:

Dame Elizabeth here interred is
That Lady was of late
To Calverley, knight, but first espoused
to Henry Gee, her mate,
Who ruled here a patron rare
As city well can show.
Thus she is worship run her race
And still in virtue grew,
And so died Jan 28/79




Catherine Soday was the daughter of John de Soda or de Soto of Perpignam, county Roussillon (d.1551), the French-born apothecary who accompanied Catherine of Aragon to England in 1501 and remained in her service until her death in 1536, after which he served her daughter, Princess Mary, until 1547, and then entered the service of King Edward VI. His eldest son, also named John, was appointed royal apothecary when Mary became queen in 1553. His wife’s name is unknown, but she may have been Spanish, and she was probably the “wife of John Soday” buried in St. Dunstan-in-the-East in 1556. Catherine married Jasper Allyn (d. July 11, 1551), a London draper. His eldest son, John, was baptized in St. Nicholas Acon on June 30, 1546. Their other children were William and Margery. Allyn made his will on November 4, 1548. The inquisition post mortem was taken in 1554 before Lord Mayor Thomas White. The messuage Allyn owned in the parish of St. Gabriel, Fenchurch went to the widow for life. Catherine married Ralph Greenway (d.1557), alderman and grocer of London. Her brother, Ralph Soday, acted in Spain as factor for Greenway. Greenway was buried in St. Dunstan-in-the-East. Stow gives the date as 1559, but the marriage of Catherine Greenway to John White of Aldershot, Hampshire (d. June 9, 1573), another London grocer, is recorded in Machyn’s diary as taking place in 1558 with a great feast, goodly masques, and dancing. She was his second wife. The baptism of their son on May 25, 1559, is also recorded by Machyn. The godparents were the marquess of Winchester, the bishop of Winchester, and Lady Laxton. Machyn further records the baptism of a second son, Thomas, on February 3, 1561. His godparents were Sir Thomas Offley, Alderman Latham, and the wife of Alderman Champion. Catherine and John White also had a daughter, Katherine (d.1636+). White was a successful merchant in the Spanish trade. He was in Spain in August 1562 but was back in England in time to serve as Lord Mayor of London for 1563-4. He wrote his will on May 29, 1573 and it was proved August 20, 1573. Catherine also left a will. She was buried in St. Dunstan-in-the-East on October 9, 1576.

MARY SOMER (d.1607)
Mary Somer was the daughter and coheir of John Somer or Sommer of St. Margaret’s Parish in Rochester, Kent, possibly the same John Somer of Hoo St. Mary who was a clerk of the signet and died c.1585. In 1590, at St. Bride’s, Fleet Street, she married Thomas Penyston/Peniston (d.c.1601), a wealthy wool merchant. They had two sons and two daughters, including Thomas of Leigh, Sussex (c.1591-c.1644). They lived in the house Mary had inherited from her father. In Penyston’s will she received her jewels, including gold chains, pearls, and a diamond that had belonged to John Somer. In 1602, she married Sir Alexander Temple of Etchingham, Sussex and Long House, Chadwell, Essex (c.1582-December 1629). Their children were Susan, James (1606-c.1674), and another son who died in 1627. She was buried in Rochester Cathedral, as were both of her husbands. Portrait: by Robert Peake the elder, 1598, with her son Thomas.

ANNE SOMERSET (1538-October 17, 1596)
Anne Somerset was the daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester (1499-November 26, 1549) and Elizabeth Browne (1500-1565). She is probably the Lady Anne Somerset who was a maid of honor to Queen Mary in 1557 and therefore is also likely the “Anne Neville” Charlotte Merton misidentifies in her PhD dissertation as the recipient of a wedding gift from the queen of twenty-three ruby buttons and two sapphires. On June 12, 1558, she married Thomas Percy, 7th earl of Northumberland (1528-August 22, 1572). Their children were Elizabeth (b.1559), Thomas (1560-1560), Mary (1563-1643), Lucy (d.1625), and Jane or Joan. In 1569, together with Jane Howard, countess of Westmorland, Anne was an instigator of the Northern Rebellion. Her husband was hesitant, but when, in the dead of night, his servants came to tell him that his enemies were surrounding him, he and his countess fled to Branspeth, Westmorland’s house, and from there launched an uprising against Queen Elizabeth. Lord Hunsdon, at the head of the queen’s troops, reported that Lady Northumberland was “stouter” than her husband and rode “up and down with the army.” When the rebellion failed, Northumberland sought refuge with Hector Graham, a borderlands robber, but Graham betrayed him to the earl of Moray. Anne was pregnant during the uprising. She gave birth on June 11, 1570 in Old Aberdeen, Scotland. On August 23, she and her baby fled to the Continent, arriving in Bruges on August 31, 1570. Anne hoped to raise enough money to ransom her husband. She persuaded both King Philip II and the Pope to contribute to her cause, but her effort was in vain. Elizabeth of England outbid her, took charge of the prisoner, and executed him. Anne spent the rest of her life in exile. There is some mystery about her youngest child. Genealogical research on the Belgian family of Percy or Persy indicates that although the baby was given the name Maria, no sex was recorded, and argues that the child was a boy, subsequently called John Percy. A second John Percy shows up in records in Brussels in 1620, claiming to the the son of “Jean Piercy,” son of Thomas, earl of Northumberland, who came to Flanders with his mother. This claim was apparently recognized by Spanish authorities. Although some English genealogists over the years have identified the child born in 1570 with the Mary Percy who founded a convent in Brussels, her epitaph there clearly states that she was “in England for a long time” before she first came to the Netherlands. Other sources say that this Mary was eighty at the time of her death in 1643, which would be consistent with a 1563 birth date. Anne Somerset’s daughters had to be abandoned in England when the rebellion failed. Two of them were found at Wressel, the family seat, in a pitiful state, nearly frozen, half starved, and terrified. The servants with whom they’d been left had been murdered and the house ransacked. Their uncle, Henry Percy, who subsequently was granted their father’s title, took his brother’s daughters into his own household and they were raised at Petworth. Meanwhile, their mother was at Liège, living on a pension from Philip II. There she wrote “Discours des troubles du Comte de Northumberland” and involved herself in Catholic plots. She spent the next decade moving from place to place in the Spanish Netherlands, staying in contact with other exiles. She was living at Malines in 1572, in Mechlin in 1573, in Brussels in 1574 and again in 1576, and was back in Liège in 1575. In 1576 she was briefly expelled from the territory in an attempt to placate Queen Elizabeth, but she returned almost immediately. In September 1591, Charles Paget, an English exile in Antwerp, wrote to the Percy family in London to say that Anne had died and to request that her youngest daughter, Jane, come to Flanders to claim her mother’s belongings. This appears to have been a ruse to allow Jane to visit her mother. Anne died of smallpox while living in the convent at Namur, but not until five years later.

ANNE SOMERSET (c.1575-1614+)
Lady Anne Somerset was the third daughter of Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester (1553-March 3, 1628) and Elizabeth Hastings (1550-August 24, 1621). On August 11. 1595, she married Edward Wynter of the White Cross at Lydney, Gloucestershire (1561-March 3, 1619). Their children included Edward (1597-before 1604), Anne (d. March 10, 1675), John (1602-1676), Robert, William (1603-1666), a second Edward (1604-1628), Henry Frederic, Elizabeth, and Mary. Her new husband had spent the earlier part of his life at sea. He was knighted on November 23, 1601. At the White Cross the Wynters employed a black man, Edward Swarthye, as their porter. He was one of some twenty servants. Miranda Kaufmann, in Black Tudors, tells the story (in more detail than I can recount here) of a local feud in which, in October 1596, a man at odds with Edward Wynter was set upon and badly wounded while walking near the boundary of the White Cross estate. When his son-in-law appealed to Lady Anne for help, she sent her maid, Elizabeth Dixton, to fetch white wine to wash the injured man’s wounds. The incident frightened Lady Anne. Later two Wynter retainers, Samuel Parker and John Bromfield, were arrested and Wynter bailed them out. The situation was complicated by Wynter’s position as the local justice of the peace. Wynter himself was sued the following year in the Court of the Star Chamber over the incident. On June 25, 1615, Wynter and his wife were listed as recusants, which meant they were subject to a fine of £20 a month for non-attendance at church.


BLANCHE SOMERSET (1583/4-October 28, 1649)
Blanche Somerset was the sixth daughter of Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester (1553-March 3, 1628) and Elizabeth Hastings (1550-August 24, 1621). She was one of the young women who danced at her brother’s wedding to Anne Russell in 1600. In 1607, she married Thomas Arundell, 2nd baron Arundell of Wardour (c.1586-May 19, 1643). In the  absence of her husband and her son, Henry (February 1608-1694), during the Civil War, Blanche was called upon to defend their home, Wardour Castle, Wiltshire. She held out from May 2 until May 8, at which point the castle was ransacked and she was taken prisoner. She was already ill when she was taken from Wardour to Doncaster. With Blanche at Wardour were her daughter-in-law, Cecily Compton, and her three grandchildren. They were separated after the castle fell. Blanche was released before the end of May and went to Salisbury. It was there that she was finally told that, while she was a prisoner, her husband died from wounds suffered in battle. That September, Blanche’s son laid siege to Wardour Castle and retook it the following March. Two months later, his children were released in a prisoner exchange. Blanche died at Winchester and was buried at Tisbury. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Arundell, Blanche [née Lady Blanche Somerset].” Portrait: engraving by Edward Scriven after an unknown artist.


Eleanor Somerset was the daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester (1499-November 26, 1549) and Elizabeth Browne (1500-1565), although some sources place her date of birth in 1522 and make her the daughter of Worcester’s first wife, Margaret Courtenay (c.1499-April 14, 1526). Eleanor was at court in 1558/9 with her sister Jane, although she may not have held any particular position there. She married Sir Roger Vaughan of Porthaml, Talgarth, Breconshire (d. June 1571) as his second wife. They had no children. She married Sir Henry Jones of Albermarlais, Carmarthenshire (d.1586) as his second of three wives. He married his third wife, Elizabeth Salusbury, on August 31, 1584.


Elizabeth Somerset was the daughter of Charles Somerset, 1st earl of Worcester (c.1460-April 15, 1526/7) and Elizabeth Herbert (d.1508). On November 6, 1510, she married John Savage of Old Hall, Clifton, Cheshire (1493-July 27, 1528). Their children were Margaret, Mary, John (October 1524-December 5, 1597), and Henry. In 1529 or 1530, widowed and without much money, Elizabeth married Sir William Brereton of Aldford, Cheshire (1498-x. May 17, 1536), chamberlain of Chester and courtier to Henry VIII. They had two sons, Henry and Thomas. Accused of having an affair with Queen Anne Boleyn in late 1533, when he was a member of her household, Brereton was arrested, tried on May 12, 1536, and beheaded five days later. He was buried in the same grave as Mark Smeaton in the churchyard of St. Peter ad Vincula in the Tower of London. His last words were reported as “I have offended God and the King; pray for me” but he maintained he was innocent of the charges against him. At the time of his arrest, his lands were valued at £1,236 12s. 8d. On June 20, 1536, his widow was granted “all the goods, chattels, rents, fees, and annuities belonging to the said William at the time of his attainder.” Although Brereton was reportedly a “seducer of women” in his younger days, Elizabeth believed him when he denied having had an affair with Anne Boleyn. In her will, she left her son a gold bracelet “the which was the last token his father sent me.” Portrait: tomb effigy, St. Michael’s Church, Macclesfield, Cheshire.

ELIZABETH SOMERSET (c.1576-August 9, 1627)
Elizabeth Somerset was the daughter of Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester (1553-March 3, 1628) and Elizabeth Hastings (c.1546-August 24, 1621). She and her sister Katherine went to court in 1593 as maids of honor to the queen and were married in a double wedding on November 8, 1596 at Essex House, for which the poet Edmund Spenser wrote his Prothalamion. Elizabeth married Sir Henry Guildford of Hemstead Place, Kent (1574-1646). They had a son, Edward. Her sister Katherine (c.1575-October 30, 1624) married William, 2nd baron Petre (d. 1637). Portrait: c.1625.

Elizabeth or Elsbeth Somerset was the only daughter and heir of Charles Somerset of Chepstow, Monmouthshire (d. March 3, 1598/9), fourth son of Henry, 2nd earl of Worcester. Her mother was Eme Brayne or Brague (d. before 1599), widow of Giles Morgan (d.1570). Elizabeth married Radcliffe Gerard of Gerards Bromley, Staffordshire and Little Hoole, Lancashire (d.1596). Their children were Charles, Thomas, Gilbert, and Radcliffe. By 1599, she married Sir Edward Fox of Gwernoga, Montgomeryshire (d.1615+), as his second wife. Their children were Somerset, Thomas, and Henry. Her father’s will was dated December 18,1598 and proved October 6, 1599. Elizabeth inherited the lands that came to her father iure uxoris. By 1602, the allocation of those lands was being challenged in a lawsuit in Chancery by the families of both her husbands. She died before 1611, when Fox married Katherine Thynne, widow of Sir Walter Long.


JANE SOMERSET (1535-October 16, 1597)
Jane Somerset was the daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester (1499-November 26, 1549) and Elizabeth Browne (1500-1565). She was at court in 1558/9 with her sister Eleanor, although she may not have held any particular position there. She married Sir Edward Mansell (Maunsell/Mansfield) of Oxwich, Glamorganshire (1527-August 5, 1595). Their children were Elizabeth, Thomas (d. December 20, 1631), Francis (d.c.1628), Cecily, Rhys (d.1596), Anthony, Charles, Philip, Christopher, Edward, Henry, William, Mary, Anne, and Robert (1573-before June 20, 1656). They lived at Penrice Castle, Glamorganshire. She was buried in Margam Abbey.

KATHERINE SOMERSET (c.1575-October 30, 1624)
Katherine Somerset was one of the daughters of Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester (1553-March 3, 1628) and Elizabeth Hastings (c.1546-August 24, 1621). She and her sister Elizabeth (c.1576-1625+) went to court in 1593 as maids of honor to the queen and were married in a double wedding on November 8, 1596 at Essex House, for which the poet Edmund Spenser wrote his Prothalamion. Katherine married William, 2nd baron Petre (June 24, 1575-May 5, 1637). Their children were John (d.1613), Robert (1599-October 23, 1638), Mary (1600-1640), William (1602-1677), Edward (1603-1664), Thomas (b.1606), Catherine (June 10, 1607-August 15, 1681), Anne (July 2, 1609-October 18, 1610), Henry (March 27, 1611-c.1648), George, and Elizabeth. Another of Katherine’s sisters was named Catherine (c.1591-November 6, 1654). She married Thomas, 6th baron Windsor (September 29, 1591-December 6, 1642). Portrait: 1599 by Marcus Gheerearts.

LUCY SOMERSET (1524-February 23, 1582/3)
Lucy Somerset is the “daughter” of the mysterious “Madam Albart” mentioned in a letter from Ambassador Chapuys to Charles V in 1542. He names her as one of three young ladies in whom King Henry VIII was showing a marked interest. Queen Catherine Howard was at that time in the Tower, facing execution, and the king was known to be looking for a sixth bride. Lucy was the daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester and Lord Herbert of Ragland (1499-November 26, 1549) and his first wife, Margaret Courtenay (c.1499-April 14, 1526). She may have been styled Lady Lucy Herbert and Chapuys’s “Albart” would be typical of his misspellings of English names. Lucy’s stepmother was Elizabeth Browne (1500-1565), the sister of Sir Anthony Browne, thus explaining Chapuys’s further identification of her as Browne’s niece. “The Lady Lucy” was a maid of honor to Catherine Howard. In 1545, she married Queen Katherine Parr’s stepson, John Neville, 4th baron Latimer (c.1520-April 22, 1577). Their children were Catherine (1546-October 28, 1596), Dorothy (1547-March 23, 1608/9), Lucy (d. April 39, 1608), and Elizabeth (c.1550-1630). Lady Latimer was part of Katherine’s household. Her will, written November 16, 1582 and proved March 16, 1583, instructed that an alabaster tomb with pictures of herself and her four daughters be erected and left 500 marks for this purpose. Various bequests to her daughters and others included a cross of diamonds, a new carpet, “my jewel named Cupid,” beds, cups, and sums of money. She left £200 to her granddaughter, Lucy Cecil, but only £40 to another granddaughter, Lucy Danvers. To Blanche Parry, she left “one piece of gold called a portague of the value of three pounds ten shillings.”To Bridget Keys, wife of John Keys, avener of the queen’s stables, she left a ring of gold set with rubies and opals and a portrait of “old Lady Lennox.” Lucy Keys, her goddaughter, got a portague. Her servants, William and Elizabeth Hargill, received money, beds, and all her books, as well as the residue of her goods and chattels. Their daughter, another Lucy, got £20 and “my silver jug with two ears.” Three more female servants (Mary Thornill, Lucy Preston and Elizabeth Kyrkebye) were also left money, if they were still with her at her death. She was buried in Hackney. Portrait: Effigy in church of St. John at Hackney (engraving from An Inventory of the Historical Monuments of London).


Mary Somerset was the daughter of Henry Somerset, 2nd earl of Worcester (1499-November 26, 1549) and Elizabeth Browne (1500-1565), although she is not always listed among the earl’s children. In 1536, rumors were circulating about her pregnant mother’s infidelity and it is tempting to place Mary’s birth in that year. In 1572, she married Edward Dale, who acquired Legsby, Lincolnshire from his father, Thomas. Their son John was probably the father of Governor Thomas Dale of Virginia. There was a Mrs. Dale in Queen Elizabeth’s household in 1577-8. This might be Mary Somerset, although ordinarily, as an earl’s daughter, she would have been called Lady Mary. One online source gives her burial place as St. Mary’s Priory Church, Chepstow.

Elizabeth Somerville was the daughter of John Somerville of Edstone and Widenhay, Warwickshire (d.c.1579) and Elizabeth Corbett. According to Chris Laoutaris in Shakespeare and the Countess, Elizabeth Somerville was described in contemporary documents as “a very perverse and malicious papist” who had “of late been beyond the seas.” Because she had visited St. Omer, she was suspected of being a spy as well as a papist. It may be that she had gone abroad to enter a convent. She returned to England c.1583 because her mother was ill. At home, after reading a small section of a forbidden volume titled The Book of Prayers and Meditation (translated from Spanish into English by Michael Hopkins and printed in Paris in 1582) with Edward Grant, she asked him to let her borrow it. When he refused to lend her the book, she discovered its hiding place and took it without his consent. She loaned it to her brother, John Somerville the younger (1560-1583). He was arrested shortly thereafter for treason because of a plan to assassinate the queen. Elizabeth was indicted at Warwick on December 2, 1583 as an abettor of treason. Some have speculated that William Shakespeare, a kinsman of Somerville’s wife, also read this book, and that he obtained it from Elizabeth Somerville, but there is no proof of this. John Somerville was sentenced to death but committed suicide before he could be executed. The Mistress Somerville who was in the Tower of London on December 8th or 9th 1583 was Somerville’s wife. She was later pardoned. What happened to Elizabeth after 1583 is unknown.



FRANCES SONDES (1591-1634+)
Frances Sondes was the daughter of Thomas Sondes of Throwley Park, Kent (d. February 7, 1592/3) and Margaret Brooke (June 2, 1563-1621). Before her birth, her father claimed she was not his child. He tried to disown her, but he died before the matter could be settled in court. Frances and her mother lived at Cobham Hall, where Margaret, who had gone insane, was cared for by a nurse provided by her brother, Henry, 11th baron Cobham. When Cobham was arrested for treason in 1603, his estate was forfeited to the Crown. In an attempt to get his Tower gaoler’s son, Gawen Hervey, to help him escape, Cobham promised him he could marry Frances. Hervey was under the mistaken impression that she had a dowry of £10,000. According to David McKeen’s A Memory of Honour: the life of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, Frances had £100/year or a dowry of £2000. Her mother’s jointure was worth £333 6s. 8d. Frances went to live as a boarder with the Leveson family and later married the younger John Leveson of Cuxton, Kent (d. December 1613 of the plague). They had two daughters, Christian (d.1655) and Frances (b. February 1614). On May 19, 1618, she married Thomas Savile of Howley, Yorkshire (1590-c.1659). In 1624, Frances made a claim to inherit her mother’s estate of £6,900. Savile was created Viscount Savile in the Irish peerage in 1628 and became 2nd baron Savile of Pomfret in 1630. Some years after Frances died he was created earl of Sussex. Frances had no children by her second marriage.

JANE SONDES (June 1574-1616+)
Jane Sondes was the daughter of Sir Michael Sondes of Throwley Park, Kent (d.1617) and Mary Fynch (d.1603). Even before her marriage and the escapades reported in A. L. Rowse’s Sex and Society in Shakespeare’s Age, Jane had an active sex life. David McKeen in his biography of William Brooke, Lord Cobham, places her in the household of her uncle, Thomas Sondes as companion to Margaret Brooke Sondes, his second wife, and implies that Jane had numerous affairs while living there before her marriage. On January 5, 1593/4, she married Edward Fludd of Bearsted, Kent (c.1563-1600), son of the treasurer of war in the Netherlands. They had one child, Mary. In 1600, probably accompanied by her maid, Susan Rigden, she visited the astrologer Simon Forman to ask if Sir Calisthenes Brooke and Sir Thomas Gates and others still loved her. In the course of the consultation she gave Forman names and details, which he recorded. Sir Calisthenes Brooke, nephew of Lord Cobham, was a soldier for whom Jane wore a bramble. Their affair had begun around 1596 and she kept his letters under her pillow. After him came Henry Wotton and Sir Thomas Gates, another soldier, for whom she wore thyme. Her current lover was Sir Thomas Walsingham of Chislehurst. Forman recorded that she’d also loved Copell (the rector of her parish church at Throwley from 1597-1605), Sir Robert Rivington, Robin Jones (her father’s man, a clerk), Wilmar (Sir Thomas Fludd’s man, deceased by 1600, for whom she wore a willow), “Lady Vane’s son of Kent,” who “took her garter from her leg to wear for her sake”—this could be either Sir Thomas Vane or Henry Vane of Hadlow. In May 1600, she returned to Forman, now a widow, to ask if Vincent Randall, son and heir of Edward Randall of Gayseham Hall, Essex, with whom she had fallen in love, would marry her. He did not, and Forman’s horoscope predicted that she would not wed for some time and that when she did, it would be to “a miserable, ungodly, untoward old fellow.” Of Jane, he wrote: “She is not to be trusted, though she has a fair tongue, but will backbite and speak evil of her best friends. She professes virtue, loyalty, chastity—yet is full of vice, apt to be in love with many; hath loved men of worth and base fearing creatures, and some of the clergy. She spends much in pride and is in debt, poor in respect. She is wavering-minded, light of conditions and will overthrow her own estate.” Jane’s family does not appear to have had any knowledge of her extracurricular activities. When her father-in-law, who died on May 30, 1607, wrote his will, he left her a house in Bearsted called Otterash, with barns, an orchard, yards, and arable land attached. By that time, she had married the well-to-do Sir Thomas May of Mayfield, Sussex (d. July 1616). They had four daughters. Toward the end of 1609, Jane paid a third visit to Simon Forman, this time to learn the fate of her one-time lover, Sir Thomas Gates, who was aboard the missing ship Sea Venture, which had become separated from the fleet on a voyage to Jamestown, Virginia. It was the following year before those in England learned that although a hurricane had wrecked the ship in Bermuda, all aboard had survived. This is the event that probably inspired Shakespeare’s The Tempest. Although Forman’s predictions about the sort of man Jane would marry do not seem to have been accurate, he did appear to be correct that she would “overthrow her own estate.” By the time Thomas May died, there was very little money left, forcing Jane’s stepson, Thomas May (1595-1650) to turn to writing to earn his living. Jane later married Sir Thomas Palmer of Angmering (d. 1626) as his second wife.




There is some question as to whether this woman existed at all, but from 1641 through the Victorian era, there were books published about her and her prophesies. The best summary of these can be found at https://publicdomainreview.org/2018/10/24/divining-the-witch-of-york-propaganda-and-prophecy/  Ursula is said to have been born in a cave in Yorkshire, the child of a girl named Agatha Soothtell and the devil. She was said to have been extraordinarily ugly. In 1512, she married Toby Shipton, a carpenter, and came to be known as Mother Shipton, famous for her prophecies. She is said to have foretold the death of Cardinal Wolsey and may be the “witch of York” Henry VIII refers to in a letter to the duke of Norfolk in 1537.


TRYPHOSA SOPER (1526-1547+)
There is a lovely story online about the two daughters of a barber named Soper who had a shop on the east end of London Bridge. They were supposedly named Tryphena and Tryphosa and were very pretty, so pretty that Tryphosa was chosen, in October 1547, to be the “Chariot Maiden” for the Mercers’s Company in the Lord Mayor’s Show. Unfortunately, as a result of this honor, she was horribly sunburned, destroying her beauty. Even more unfortunately, this story comes from a novel published in 1860 and is unlikely to be true. For one thing, although the livery companies of London certainly did go in for pageantry, it is unlikely that they would give a featured role to a girl who was not the daughter of one of their members. Also, while it is possible that girls might be given obscure Greek names in the early sixteenth century, there are only a few instances of this. Dionysia Lily is one, but she was the daughter of a Greek scholar, not a barber.

Alice Sotehill was the daughter of Henry Sotehill (Sothill/Southill/Soothill/Suttell) (d. before 1493), a lawyer, and Anne Boyville, heiress to Stockfastion (Stockerston), Leicestershire (d.1493+). She married Sir John Harington of Exton, Rutland (d.1524) before 1499. They had at least two sons, John (d. August 25, 1553) and Robert. Portrait: tomb effigy in Exton Parish Church, Exton, Rutland.

ELIZABETH SOTEHILL (May 21, 1505-May 19, 1575)
Elizabeth Sotehill was the daughter of Henry Sotehill of Stoke Faston, Leicestershire (1470-1505) and Joan Empson (c.1466-1510+) and the twin of Joan Sotehill. They were raised by their mother’s second husband, Sir William Pierrepont. Elizabeth married Sir William Drury of Hawstead (c.1500-January 11, 1557/8) as his second wife. Their children were Elizabeth (d.1621), Mary (d.1594), Robert (d. December 1557), Henry (d. 1587), Anne (d.1561), Dorothy (d.1602), Francis (d.1621), and Bridget (b. September 11, 1534). Elizabeth wrote her will on March 5, 1573 and it was proved November 7, 1575. In it she identified herself as being of Lawshall, Suffolk. It is a very detailed will, especially concerning various debts. She left £8 and a silver and gilt cup to each of her surviving daughters. To her gentlewoman, Bridget Jervis, she doubled the legacy of £6 13s. 4d left to Bridget by Sir William and added a gown and the bed and furniture Bridget used, including blankets, sheets, and so forth. She left other gowns to others and her separate bequests to her daughters included such things as beds and saddles. She was buried at Hawstead on May 20, 1575.

Elizabeth Sotehill was the daughter of Thomas Sotehill of Soothill, Yorkshire and Margery FitzWilliam. Through her mother, she was heir to the FitzWilliam properties of Emley Park and Dewsbury. In 1517, her father bought the right to arrange the marriage of Henry Savile of Thornhill, Tankersley and Elland, Yorkshire (1498/9-April 20, 1558) and on August 29, 1519 married him to Elizabeth. Their children were Edward (1538/9-1603), John (d. yng.), and Dorothy (d.1558+). The marriage was not a happy one. As early as 1526, Elizabeth was consulting Thomas Wolsey about the possibility of a divorce on grounds of cruelty. Savile took Margaret Barkson (daughter of Peter Barkson or Barlaston), one of the gentlewomen waiting on Elizabeth, as his mistress and had two sons by her. Elizabeth apparently made several attempts to get a divorce but was never successful. According the History of Parliament their marital difficulties were an issue in the feud (c.1523- c.1537) between Savile and two other Yorkshire men, Thomas, Lord Darcy of Temple Hurst and Sir Richard Tempest. In his will, made on February 15, 1555/6, Savile made his daughter Dorothy his executor and left most of his lands to her. “To Elizabethe my wyffe all my corne in Dewsburye and Emlay peryshes, also all maner of my goodes there, my playtt onelye except, which playtte wythe all my goodes wythein the peryshes of Thornhill and Tankersley I gyve to Edwarde Savyle, my sonne.” Dorothy declined to serve as executor and on July 28, 1558, Elizabeth requested and received the right to administer the will. At the inquisition post mortem held August 25, 1558, Elizabeth was upheld in her right to the manors of “Soytyll, Rowtonstall, Laxton, Hadlesay, Daryngton and Emley,” and of ten watermills, one windmill, acreage in pasture, wood, heath and furze, as well as rents and the advowson of the parish church of Emley. Her remaining son, who should have been the heir, was declared mentally unstable in 1560 and lived the rest of his life in the care of the earls of Shrewsbury. Elizabeth married Richard Gascoigne of Barnborough, Yorkshire. The site http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk, which reprints Savile wills, gives his name as Thomas Gascoigne of Barnbow, Esq. and says they had issue. This site also gives both April 23 (inquisition post mortem) and April 25 (Dewsbury register) for the date of death for Henry Savile.


JANE SOTEHILL (May 21, 1505-1556+)
Jane Sotehill was the daughter and coheir of Henry Sotehill of Stoke Faston, Lincolnshire (1470-1505) and Jane Empson (c.1466-1510+) and the twin sister of Elizabeth (d. May 19, 1575). They were raised by Sir William Pierrepont, their mother’s second husband. By February 1521, Jane married Sir John Constable of Tibthorpe, Yorkshire (d. c.1555). Their children were Anne (d. August 1611), Catherine, and Cecily. Jane’s dowry included several manors in Yorkshire and Kinoulton (Knowlton), Nottinghamshire, which became the family seat. Constable made his will on June 19, 1554. It was proved October 8, 1556. Jane was his executor and was to hold the lease on Kinoulton and all his other lands for life. After her death, they passed to her daughter Cecily’s sons, William and Edward Oglethorpe.

Elizabeth Souldon was a chamberer to Queen Catherine of Aragon. In August 1520, she was given a gown of black and crimson velvet lined with cotton and buckram and a kirtle of russet satin and crimson velvet.


ANNE SOUTHCOTE (c.1557-1585+)
Anne Southcote was the daughter of John Southcote of Witham, Essex (1510/11-April 18, 1585), a judge, and Elizabeth Robins (d.1580+). Her father was remembered after his death as being “governed by his wife.” On December 12, 1574, Anne married Francis Curzon of Waterperry, Oxfordshire (1552-October 31. 1610) in St. Gregory, London. Their children were John, Richard, Francis, Elizabeth, Anne, and Mary. Elizabeth and Anne became nuns. Portrait: tomb effigy in St. Mary’s Church, Waterperry.

Martha Southcote was the daughter of John Southcote of Witham, Essex (1510/11-April 18, 1585), a judge, and Elizabeth Robins (d.1580+). Her father was remembered after his death as being “governed by his wife.” Martha married Francis Stonor of Blount’s Court, Oxfordshire (1551-October 21, 1625) by 1579. They had three sons and two daughters, including Henry and William (1594-1653). After 1581, her husband had custody of his mother and, for a time, his brother John, who had been arrested for harboring priests and hiding a printing press at Stonor Park. Although Francis (eventually Sir Francis) was also Catholic, only Martha, her sister-in-law (Elizabeth Stonor, wife of Sir Edward Lenthall of Pyrton), and her daughter were imprisoned for recusancy. A letter written in August 1612 reports that she took the oath of allegiance.






Dorothy Southwell was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Richard Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk (1502/3-January 11, 1564) and Mary Darcy (d. by July 1561), to whom he was married after Dorothy’s birth. Southwell’s will refers to her as “Dorothy Southwell, alias Darcy, daughter to the said Dame Mary Southwell, my late wife.” She and her sister Mary were left “all such chains and other jewels of gold and stones as remaineth in the keeping of Dame Elizabeth Lovell [née Paris], wife to Sir Thomas Lovell, to be equally divided between the same Mary and Dorothy and either of them.” Dorothy’s first husband was Thomas Higgins of Norfolk. Her second, as his second wife, was John Wentworth of Little Horkesley and Gosfield (1540-1588). His will was proved January 29, 1589. Her third husband was Sir Edward Moore of Mellefont, Ireland.

Elizabeth Southwell was the daughter of Sir Thomas Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk (c.1542-c.1572) and his third wife, Nazaret Newton (c.1541-April 16, 1583). She was at court as a maid of honor by 1588/9 and in 1591 suffered from “lameness in her leg”—she was pregnant. Thomas Vavasour (1560-1620), brother of Ann, a former maid of honor whose pregnancy a decade earlier had cost her the queen’s favor, took the blame for her condition and was imprisoned for misconduct. Elizabeth gave birth to a boy named Walter (1591-c.1641) who was given to Lettice, countess of Essex and Leicester, to be raised at Drayton Bassett. In May 1595, the queen learned that the father of young Walter was not Thomas Vavasour but rather Robert Devereux, earl of Essex. Queen Elizabeth was furious, not only because the child had been fathered by Essex, her on- and off-again favorite, but because she had been deceived. By March 22, 1598, Elizabeth had agreed to marry Sir Barrington (Barentine) Molyns (Moleyns, Mullens, Mullins) (d. 1618+). According to Paul E. J. Hammer’s The Polarisation of Elizabethan Politics, Molyns was almost blind, weakened by wounds he’d received in service to the queen, and “notorious for his ugliness.” The records kept by Simon Forman the astrologer indicate he had other health problems. Despite these, in April he was considering abandoning the match with Elizabeth if he could persuade another woman, Mary Hampden, to marry him. In June he was issued a license to marry Elizabeth. They were married by December 1599, when she attended the christening of Robert Sidney’s daughter, Barbara. In 1600, Forman noted that Elizabeth Southwell had three suitors and that she was thirty years old. In 1602 she gave birth to a son.

ELIZABETH SOUTHWELL (c.1586-September 13, 1631)
Elizabeth Southwell was the daughter of Robert Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk (1563-October 12, 1598 or 1599) and Elizabeth Howard (d.1646). On January 5, 1599, Rowland Whyte wrote to Sir Robert Sidney that “the young faire Mrs. Southwell shall this Day be sworn Mayde of Honor.” As the daughter of Elizabeth Howard and the granddaughter of Catherine Carey, she was the third generation to serve in Queen Elizabeth’s Privy Chamber. She was still there when Queen Elizabeth died in 1603. On October 26, 1604, her mother married John Stewart, earl of Carrick (d.c.1644). Elizabeth herself must have had many opportunities to make a good marriage under James I and she is known to have been courted by Sir Clement Heigham, but instead of marrying, she became the mistress of Sir Robert Dudley (August 7, 1574-September 6, 1649), a married man who had seven daughters. He was the illegitimate son of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester. In July 1605, disguised as a boy, Elizabeth eloped with him and fled with him to the Continent. They were married by special Papal dispensation. They had thirteen children, including Henry, Anna (d.1629), Mary, Carlo (1614-October 26, 1686), Ambrose, Fernando, Teresa, Cosmo, and Anthony Enrico (b. September 12, 1631). She died in Italy on the day following her youngest son’s birth. The Oxford DNB entry for her husband attributes her death to the plague.



MARY SOUTHWELL (c.1550-1622)
Mary Southwell was the illegitimate daughter of Sir Richard Southwell of Woodrising, Norfolk (c.1502/3-January 11, 1564 ) and his longtime mistress and later wife, Mary Darcy (d. by July 1561). She married Henry Paston (d. before 1570). Some records give his name as Sir Thomas Paston (his father) and give them a son, Edward, but since Edward was born in 1577, this is obviously incorrect. Her father left her and her sister Dorothy all the chains and other jewels of gold and stones remaining in the custody of Dame Elizabeth Lovell (née Paris), wife of Sir Thomas. Her second husband was William Drury of Brettshall in the parish of Tendring, Essex (d. May 7, 1589), a judge. Their children were John (1573-December 18, 1619), Bridget (b.1575), Elizabeth (b.1577), George (b.1580), William (b. 1584), and Robert (1586-November 5, 1623), a Jesuit. Drury was buried in St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish Street, London. His inquisition post mortem is dated December 14, 1589. The Records of the English province of the Society of Jesus . . . in the sixteenth century (1877) by Henry Foley states that Mary was a Catholic early in her life, fell into a schism, but was reconciled to the Church in the early 1600s. All of her children except Elizabeth were Catholics. On April 3, 1592, she married Robert Forth (d. October 3, 1595). After 1595, she became the third wife of Thomas Gresley of Drakelow, Derbyshire (May 3, 1552-September 5, 1610). In his will, he named his daughter Dorothy as executor and left her most of his goods, plate, and jewelry.

MARY SOUTHWELL (1566-December 19, 1603)
Mary Southwell was the daughter of Sir Francis Southwell of Wyndham Hall, Wymondham, Lakeham, and Norwich, Norfolk (d.1582) and Barbara Spencer. Her father’s will, dated October 6, 1581 and proved February 9, 1582 names her as his heir after her brothers Miles and Francis and also leaves her £666 13s. 4d., together with “parcels” of plate and jewels which were to go to her at eighteen or when she married, whichever came first. She was also to have her choice of a bed. In a codicil, he left her his white nag. She married Thomas Sydney of Wyken, Norfolk. They had three daughters, Eleanor (d. yng.), Anne (d. October 3, 1602) and Thomasin. She married Nicholas Gorges of London and Alderton (d.1594). She married Sir Conyers Clifford of Bobbinge Court, Kent, Governor of Connaught (1566-c.1599). Their children were Henry, Conyers (d.1625), and Frances (d. yng). He died in battle in Ireland, serving the earl of Essex. She married Sir Anthony St. Leger (d.1612/13), Master of Rolls for Ireland, as his second wife. Their children were Frances (d. yng) and Anthony (c.1599-1661). She brought she brought Bobbinge Court, Kent to the marriage. The History of Parliament entry for her second husband misidentifies her as the widow of Sir Anthony St. Leger. She was buried in St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin, where her monument states she died in childbed on December 19, 1603 at the age of thirty-seven.




Elizabeth Sparrow was the daughter of Thomas Sparrow of Somersham, Suffolk and Elizabeth Snelling. She had three brothers, John, Nicholas, and Thomas. She married a man named Peckiswell. They had four children, including a daughter named Joan. Her brother John, a mercer in Ipswich, was extremely generous to Elizabeth and her family in his will. Dated November 15, 1545 and proved May 21, 1546, it left Elizabeth £40, another £6 13s. 4d., and all the timber, boards, and planks from Whitefriars (no dobut one of the religious houses dissolved by Henry VIII) to build a house wherever she thought fit. He also provided £20 and a house for Joan Peckiswell and another £20 was left to the other Peckiswell children. Elizabeth was one of the executors of the will.

RACHEL SPEGHT (c.1597-before 1661)
Rachel Speght was for years said to be the daughter of Thomas Speght, a schoolmaster who, in 1598, edited Chaucer’s works. He was no doubt related to her, but her real father was James Speght (d.1637), rector of St. Mary Magdalen, Milk Street, London. Her mother’s name is not known, but her godmother, to whom Rachel dedicated her third book, was Mary Mountfort (née Hill), wife of a well-known London physician. In 1615, Joseph Swetnam published The Araignment of Lewd, Idle, Froward, and Unconstant women. In response, Rachel Speght, who was not yet twenty, wrote A Mouzell for Melastomus (1617). She later complained that readers believed it had been written by her father. Two other responses to Swetnam’s books were most likely written by men using female pseudonyms. Rachel also wrote Certain Quaeres to the Bayter of Women and, in 1621, Mortalities Memorandum, published together with the long poem, The Dreame. On August 6, 1621, Rachel married William Proctor (1593-1661), a cleric. They had at least three children, Rachel (b.1627), William (b.1630), and Joseph (b.1634). She stopped publishing her writing after her marriage. Proctor was curate of the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate from 1627 until 1631, when they moved to Stradishall, Suffolk. In 1644, after her husband was ejected from his living for his radical views, Rachel was ordered to move three miles out of town or lose the income to maintain herself and her children. The family appears to have stayed in Stradishall, where Proctor ran a school in their home. Rachel is not mentioned in his 1661 will, suggesting that she died before him. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Speght [married name Proctor], Rachel.”




CATHERINE SPELMAN (d. before 1608)
Catherine Spelman was the daughter of Francis Spelman and Margaret Hill. In about 1570, she married William Davison (1541-December 21, 1608). Their children were Francis (1573/4-1613+), William (1578-1605), Walter (c.1581-1608+), Christopher (b. December 1581), and two daughters. In August 1577, Davison requested that his friend Henry Killigrew help him transport Catherine to the Netherlands, where he was serving as the English ambassador. He wrote: “I think every day a year until I hear of her safe arrival, faring as a merchant who has all his riches in one venture.” She joined him in Antwerp in November with their son Francis (called Frank). Their son Christopher’s godparents in 1581 were Sir Christopher Hatton and Catherine’s grandmother, Elizabeth Isley, Lady Mason (widow of Richard Hill). Davison fell out of royal favor in 1587, after the execution of Mary,queen of Scots, because he was the one who obtained Queen Elizabeth’s signature on the warrant for Mary’s execution. Accused of tricking the queen into signing, he was kept in the tower for a number of months and fined. After his release he lived a retired life.

ALICE SPENCER (May 4, 1559-January 16, 1637)
Alice Spencer was the sixth daughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe (d.1586) and Katherine Kytson. In 1579, she married Ferdinando Stanley, Lord Strange (1559-April 16, 1594). They had three daughters, Anne (1580-1647), Frances (May 1, 1585-March 11, 1635), and Elizabeth (1587-1633). Her husband became earl of Derby on September 24, 1593. When he died at Lathom House, Lancashire less than seven months later, there were rumors he had been poisoned or bewitched to death. He was buried at Ormskirk without an inquest. For a month after his death, his company of players performed as the Countess of Derby’s Men and as such may have given the first performance of William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream at the wedding of the dowager countess of Southampton. They had been at Lathom House shortly before the earl’s death. As Alice had no sons, her brother-in-law inherited the title. The queen visited Alice in Holborn in June 1599. In October, 1600 she married Sir Thomas Egerton (1540-March 15, 1616/17), who later became Baron Ellesmere (1603) and then Viscount Brackley (1616). Under the terms of her first husband’s will, this marriage cost her the residue of lands he’d left her to augment her dower. She brought a retinue of forty and expenses estimated at £650/year to Egerton’s household. John Chamberlain, upon hearing of the marriage, wrote “God send him good luck.” Alice’s daughter Frances married Egerton’s son John shortly after their parents’ wedding. In 1601, Egerton purchased Harefield Place in Middlesex and entertained the queen there in July of 1602. In 1603, Alice’s daughter, Elizabeth, married Henry Hastings, earl of Huntingdon. When Alice visited them at Ashby-de-la-Zouche in 1607, a masque by John Marston was performed in her honor. Together with her second husband, Alice founded the Bridgewater Library. By 1610, however, the couple was at odds. Egerton complained of her “cursed railing and bitter tongue.” His History of Parliament entry says he described her as extravagant, greedy, and ill-tempered. Egerton’s estate, worth about £12,000/year at his death, was left to his son. Alice contested the will but it was upheld. In 1634, John Milton’s Arcades was presented at Harefield by the four sons and eleven daughters of Alice’s daughter Frances, by then countess of Bridgewater. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Spencer [married names Stanley, Egerton], Alice.” Portraits: portrait in NPG; anonymous engraving; another likeness that has been tentatively identified as Alice Spencer and attributed to the circle of Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger by Dr. Roy Strong; monument with her three daughters in St. Mary’s Church, Harefield, built to the countess’s specifications shortly before her death.


ANNE SPENCER (c.1555-September 22, 1618)
Anne Spencer was the fifth daughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe (d.1586) and Katherine Kytson. In 1575, she married William Stanley, 3rd baron Mounteagle (1527-November 10, 1581). In 1582, she married Henry, 1st baron Compton (1538-1589). They had two sons, including Henry (c.1584-c.1649). Poet Edmund Spenser dedicated his Mother Hubbard’s Tale to Anne in 1591 and she was probably the “bountiful Charillis” of his Colin Clout’s Come Home Again(1595). On December 4, 1592 she married Robert Sackville, 2nd earl of Dorset (1561-1609) In 1608/9, he sought a separation from her on the grounds of misconduct and she, in turn, invaded King James’s Privy Chamber to bring her side of the matter to the king’s attention. Dorset died before he could negotiate a formal separation or a divorce. He called Anne the woman “whom without great grief and sorrow inconsolable I cannot remember, in regard of her exceeding unkindness and intolerable evil usage towards myself and my late good lord and father deceased.” He left her a life interest in five rings set with diamonds and sapphires (she was wont to wear them in her hair) with the admonition that “if she have in her any spark of the grace of God or any remorse of conscience for those horrible abuses that she hath offered to my lord, my father, that she do not make an increase thereof by embezzling away these rings.”

ELIZABETH SPENCER (June 29, 1552-February 25, 1618)
Elizabeth Spencer was the second daughter and sixth child of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe (d.1586) and Katherine Kytson. On December 29, 1574, she married Sir George Carey (1547-September 9,1603), who became 2nd baron Hunsdon in 1596. They had one child, Elizabeth (May 24, 1576-April 23, 1635). Her second husband was Ralph, 3rd baron Eure (September 24, 1558-April 1, 1617), to whom she was “newly married” in January 1613. Like her sisters, she was a patron of the arts and received dedications from Edmund Spenser and Thomas Nashe. She is said to have inspired Nashe to write his Muiopotmos (1590) when he saw her sitting at her loom. John Dowland, the musician, wrote “My Lady Hunsdon’s Puffe” for her. Elizabeth was buried in Westminster Abbey on March 2, 1618. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Carey [Carew], Elizabeth.” Portrait: a miniature by Nicholas Hilliard which has been mislabeled “Catherine Carey, wife of Lord Hunsdon.”

Elizabeth Spencer was the daughter of Robert Spencer, 1st baron Spencer of Wormleighton, Northamptonshire (1570-October 25, 1627) and Margaret Willoughby (c.1570-August 17, 1597). She married Sir George Fane of Burston, Kent (c.1581-June 26, 1640) on September 3, 1607. They had no children. She was buried on November 19, 1618. Her husband erected an elaborate alabaster and marble monument to her in St. Nicholas’s chapel in Westminster Abbey. Her effigy kneels in prayer while Sir George, although he was not buried with her, is shown with his hand on the skull placed on the desk between them. The inscription, in Latin, praises Elizabeth for her virtue and calls her “chaste, modest, and religious” and also “matchless.” Sir George remarried and had six children by his second wife.

ELIZABETH SPENCER (d. May 8, 1632)
Elizabeth Spencer was the daughter of Sir John Spencer (d. March 3, 1610), Master of the Clothworker’s Company and Lord Mayor of London in 1594/5, and Alice Bromfield (d. March 27, 1610). Elizabeth’s father was extremely wealthy, keeping houses at Crosby Place in London and Canonbury in Islington, where the queen is said to have visited him in 1581. He also made loans to peers. Elizabeth was a prize on the marriage market, reputed to have a dowry of £40,000. One of her earliest suitors, c. 1584, was elderly alderman Anthony Ratcliffe. There was talk of a marriage to a member of the Heveningham family, although the DNB and Lawrence Stone’s article in History Today, “The Peer and the Alderman’s Daughter,” disagree on whether this was Sir Arthur or his son. Sometime in 1598, Elizabeth met and fell in love with William, 2nd baron Compton (created earl of Northampton in 1618). Compton (1568-June 24, 1630) was deeply in debt and in need of £10,000 to pay down his debts and another £18,000 to redeem mortgages. Elizabeth’s father tried to discourage the match. In January 1599, he hid her away and further claimed she had a pre-contract with Heveningham. Compton retaliated by persuading the Privy Council to imprison Spencer in the Fleet. Upon his release, Spencer allegedly beat Elizabeth in an attempt to make her change her mind. This time Compton used his influence at court to have her removed from her father’s care, Legend has him disguising himself as a baker’s boy and smuggling Elizabeth out of the house wrapped in a blanket, or in a baker’s basket from Canonbury. Shortly after March 15, 1599, Elizabeth and Compton were married. Reconciliation with her father was slow in coming, even though Elizabeth’s first child was named Spencer (May 1601-March 19, 1643). Her second, Elizabeth, was born in her father’s house. A third child was named Mary (d. August 17, 1675). Compton, meanwhile, continued to accumulate debt. When Elizabeth’s father died, followed a few weeks later by her mother, Elizabeth and Compton inherited everything because there was no will. The estate was valued at between £300,000 and £800,000. Almost at once rumors began that there had been a will and Compton had destroyed it. The tales were fueled when Compton apparently “fell mad” and had to be confined in the Tower for about a month before he recovered his wits and was released. There was an investigation, but Compton was not charged. Once he had control of his late father-in-law’s fortune, he was said to have spent £72,000 in eight weeks, gambling and buying horses. Elizabeth apparently had no trouble in spending money, either. A letter quoted in detail in the History Today article lists, among other items, expenses of £1,600 a year for clothing, £600 a year for charitable works, the purchase of three horses, wages for two gentlewomen, and the upkeep of two coaches. Portrait: effigy on her parents’ tomb in St. Helen’s Bishopsgate.

ISABEL SPENCER (1515-November 2, 1578)
Isabel Spencer was the daughter of Sir William Spencer of Althorp, Northamptonshire (d. June 22, 1532) and Susan Knightley (d.1539). In his will, proved July 8, 1532, her father provided for his daughters until they married and left each of them five hundred marks, so long as they heeded the advice of his executors in choosing their husbands. Isabel’s mother was one of the executors. Isabel married Sir John Cotton of Landwade and Chevveley, Cambridgeshire (1512/13-April 21, 1593). They had eight sons and five daughters, including John (c.1543-1620/1), Frances, Robert, Alice, Anne, Sarah, and Edmund. Portrait: effigy in the north chapel at Landwade.


Jane Spencer was the daughter of John Spencer of Hodnell, Warwickshire (d.1496/7) and Anne Empson. She married William Saunders of Banbury, Oxfordshire (d.1493). Their children were Anne, Isabel, Joyce, and Alice (d.1510). An unborn child is mentioned in the codicil Saunders added to his will on November 22, 1493, but nothing further is known about this fifth child. The will was proved January 29, 1494. Although some sources say there was another daughter, Joan (d.1516), this is not the case. She was the daughter of William Saunders of Surrey. Jane married William Cope (c.1440-April 7, 1513), cofferer to King Henry the Seventh. Their children were Anthony (d.1551), William, and John (d. January 22, 1558). His son Stephen married her daughter Anne. He made his will on February 7, 1513 and it was proved May 24, 1513. In her will, dated January 29, 1526 and proved May 2, 1526, Jane left Stephen Cope “an ouche of gold with a red stone in the midst of the same ouche, with a garter enamelled going about the same ouche, conditionally so that he do not sue nor trouble mine executors for any debt heretofore due nor for no other cause.” The complete document can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com, as can the wills of several other members of her family.

JANE SPENCER (1496-1560)
Jane Spencer was the daughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorp, Northamptonshire (c.1470- April 14, 1522) and Isabel Graunt (1474-1558). In 1521/2, by the same arrangement whereby her brother married his sister, she wed Richard Knightley of Upton and Fawsley, Northamptonshire (d. March 30, 1538). They had five daughters, two of whom, Jane and Mary, were still living at the time of their father’s death. Susan, Anne, and Frances were not. Since Knightley’s heir was his brother, Jane was left with debts and harrassed by the Knightleys. According to the History of Parliament entry for Knightley, her solution to the problem was to marry Sir Robert Stafford of Dodford, Northamptonshire (1501-1574), “who defended her rights.”

KATHERINE SPENCER (1477-October 1542)
Katherine Spencer was the daughter of Sir Robert Spencer of Spencercombe, Devon (c.1430-March 13, 1492+) and Eleanor Beaufort, countess of Wiltshire (c.1431-August 16, 1501). She married Henry Percy, 5th earl of Northumberland (January 14, 1478-May 19, 1527). Their children were Margaret (c.1495-c.1540), Henry, 6th earl (1502-January 30, 1537), Thomas (c.1504-x. June 2, 1537) Ingram (or Ingelram) (1505+-1538), and Maud (d. yng). After Northumberland’s death at Wressle, the earl of Cumberland was sent by Cardinal Wolsey and the king to administer his estate. A letter to Thomas Heneage, gentleman usher to Wolsey, written on July 17, 1527, indicates that, according to instructions, Cumberland requested that Katherine and her sister take up residence in his house of Bolton, in Craven. The countess claimed to be too weak and ill to make the journey. Her preference was to remain where she was or to go to Lady Pickering, in the same county. A letter included in Mary Anne Everett Green’s Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies, written to Thomas Cromwell from Katherine’s manor at Semer or Seamer (near Scarborough) on January 11, 1535 asks the king’s secretary to intervene on behalf of one of her servants who is being held in jail for a crime he did not commit. According to her, his enemies lied, claiming he’d spoken out against the king. In February 1537, Katherine herself was arrested on the charge that she’d forwarded a letter to her son Thomas from Sir Francis Bigod, one of the rebel leaders in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Thomas was executed and his brother Ingram was imprisoned. Katherine is generally believed to have taken an active role in supporting the rebels. Sir Ingram’s will, written on June 7, 1538 and proved March 21, 1538/9, left his mother a tablet of gold and control of the £20 he left to his illegitimate daughter, Isabel, until the child was of age. Katherine’s goods and properties were seized and inventoried when she was arrested, but upon her release in early October they were returned to her. From her son, the earl of Northumberland, Katherine held an annuity of £413. 6s. 8d in lieu of a jointure and this apparently continued after his death. She left a will dated October 14, 1542 and proved November 9, 1542. She was buried on October 18, 1542 at Beverley, Yorkshire.




GRACE SPOONER (d.1585+) (maiden name unknown)
Grace and her husband, Lawrence Spooner of Myrryhill, Warwickshire, were cloth merchants. What is remarkable about Grace is that she apparently traveled a regular circuit through the Midlands, riding from one market to another with her goods on a second horse behind her. For nearly twenty years, she traveled some 120 km. between Monday and Saturday, setting up her “standing” (stall) in a different town every day. She specialized in linen and other kinds of cloth, ranging from fine lawn to housewife’s flax. We know this about Grace because of an Exchequer case against her husband (who was legally responsible for the business) in which it was charged that they sold cloth in the open market at Tamworth, Staffordshire on March 27, 1585 in violation of the local ordinances against anyone who was not a freeman of the borough selling there. The cloth seized was valued at £127 15s. Grace was the one who actually sold the cloth. Lawrence seems to have traveled only to make purchasing trips to the larger cities and fairs.





ALICE SQUIRE (c.1500-1560)
Alice Squire was the daughter of Sir Oliver Squire (Squier/Squyer) of Southby, Hampshire (c.1480-c.1505). Her mother’s name is sometimes given as Margaret Myrrffun. Alice married John Brigandine (Bryganten, Brykynden, or Brockenden) of Southampton. Their children were Alice (x. March 14,1551) and John (d.1563+). Her second husband was Edward Mirfyn of London (d.1528). They had no children. She married Edward North of Kirtling, Cambridgeshire (1496-December 31, 1564). Their children were Christiana (c.1529-March 20, 1563/4), Roger (February 27, 1530-December 3, 1600), Thomas (1535-June 1601), and Mary (c.1538-November 1558). It was through Alice’s third husband that her daughter from her first marriage met her future husband, Thomas Arden of Faversham, Kent. On February 15, 1551, Arden was murdered. His widow was tried, found guilty of plotting the crime, and burnt to death in Canterbury. In spite of the notoriety of his stepdaughter, Edward North was created Baron North of Kirtling in 1554. As Lady North, Alice was often at court during the last year of her life. She was buried at Kirtling on August 22, 1560.



JULIAN STACEY (d. November 8, 1630)
Julian Stacey was the daughter of John Stacey of London. On October 26, 1598, she married Alexander Stafford of High Holborn, Middlesex (1562-September 28, 1652) at St. Margaret’s, Westminster. They had no children. Both left wills and both were buried at St. Mary’s Harlow. Julian made her will on June 21, 1627. Among other bequests, she left £5 a year to four poor scholars of St. Catherine’s Hall, Oxford to study divinity and £5 a year to each of two scholars at Pembroke College, Oxford. Portrait: effigy in Harlow.

ANNE STAFFORD (c.1483-1544+)
Lady Anne Stafford was the daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd duke of Buckingham (1455-November 2, 1483) and Katherine Woodville (1457/8-May 18, 1497). She married Sir Walter Herbert (d. September 16, 1507) on February 15, 1500. After his death, although she had jointure properties worth 300 marks/year, she lived in the household of her brother, Edward, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521), at Thornbury Castle, Penshurst Place, Blechingley, and the Manor of the Rose, London. According to Buckingham’s biographer, Barbara J. Harris, he took a paternalistic interest in both his sisters and arranged both of Anne’s marriages. In April 1508, he paid two physicians from Bristol 13s. 4d. for visiting Anne when she was sick and in July paid Anne herself £8 out of her jointure. On December 2, 1509, she married George, 3rd baron Hastings (1486/7-March 24, 1544). Their children were Mary (d. March 1532/33), Henry, Francis (1514-June 20, 1561), Thomas (1515-1558), Catherine (b.1516), William (1518-1556), Dorothy (1519-1547+), and Edward (c.1520-March 5, 1573). Henry VIII gave an offering of 6s.8d. “at my Lord Hastings’s marriage,” apparently his standard gift. It was as Lady Hastings that Anne was at court as one of Queen Catherine of Aragon’s ladies. By May of 1510, she was at the center of a scandal. Her sister Elizabeth, Lady Fitzwalter, informed their brother that Anne’s behavior was bringing shame on the Stafford family. Buckingham subsequently caught Sir William Compton (d. 1528) in Anne’s chamber. After a heated exchange during which Buckingham is reported to have told the pair that “women of the Stafford family are no game for Comptons, no, nor for Tudors, either,” the duke saw to it that Anne’s husband spirited his wife away from court, initially transporting her to a convent some sixty miles distant. Speculation ran high that Compton had been soliciting Anne’s favors on behalf of King Henry VIII, and that Anne was the king’s mistress. Anne and her husband lived primarily at Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire and at Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, but both participated in court revels in the spring of 1515. The grant of an annuity of £10, made on June 30, 1515 to “Anne Bokynham,” was not to Anne, who would have been called Lady Anne Stafford or Lady Hastings. A later payment of this annuity, in November 1520, specifies that Anne Bokyingham, whoever she was, lived in Kent. Lady Hastings was present at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. She may have been at court when her brother was executed for treason in 1521. Anne seems to have had a loving relationship with her husband, as evidenced by a letter he wrote to her in 1525. It begins “Mine own good Anne, with all my whole heart, I recommend me unto you as he that is most glad to hear that you be merry and in good health.” He was in London and had been ill. She had offered to come to him to nurse him, and he now wrote to assure her that he was “well amended over that I was” and to urge her to remain where she was, saying that “rather than I would wish you to take such a journey upon you, considering your feebleness and also the foul way, I ensure you I would be glad to come home afoot.” William Compton developed a strong bond of affection for Lady Hastings. Records of the Court of Arches (an ecclesiastical court) from 1527 indicate that Compton was obliged to take the sacrament to prove he had not committed adultery with Anne during his wife’s lifetime. In his will, made in March 1522, he left Anne a life interest in property in Leicestershire and founded a chantry where prayers would be said daily for her soul. The latter provision was one usually made only for one’s self and close family members. Anne became countess of Huntingdon in 1529 when Hastings was elevated in the peerage. She was named as one of the executors in his will, written on June 13, 1534 (ten years before his death). From the late 1530s, she was part of the household of Henry VIII’s daughter, Mary Tudor. She was buried at Stoke Poges. Portrait: 1535 by Ambrosius Benson.

CATHERINE STAFFORD (c.1499-May 14, 1555)
Catherine Stafford was the daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521) and Eleanor Percy (1470-1530). Her older sister Elizabeth was to have married their father’s ward, Ralph Neville, later 4th earl of Westmorland (February 21, 1497-April 24, 1550). When she married Thomas Howard instead, Catherine was betrothed to Westmorland. The wedding took place between April 1, 1516 and March 31, 1517. Their eighteen children included Henry (1525-February 10, 1564), Margaret (d. October 13, 1559), Dorothy (d.1547), Ralph (d.1565), Thomas, Christopher (d.1575+), George, Edward, Elizabeth (d.c.1553), Cuthbert (d.1569+), Eleanor, Mary (d. March 14, 1596), another Eleanor, Anne (d. July 17, 1583), Ursula, and William of Chebsey. Since Neville did not succeed his grandfather until 1523, Catherine cannot have been the countess of Westmorland who accompanied Queen Catherine to the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. She may have been the Lady Neville who stayed at Richmond with Princess Mary, or this could have been her mother-in-law, Edith Sandys, or another Lady Neville entirely. During the Pilgrimage of Grace, she reportedly “rather playeth the part of a knight than of a lady” in the absence of her husband. Her letter to the earl of Shrewsbury, Lord Lieutenant of the North, is extant. In 1536, Catherine’s children, Henry and Margaret, married two of the children of the earl of Rutland. In 1537, she saved her servant, Ninian Menvill, from being hanged for robbery by securing a royal pardon for him. In 1540, she traveled to Belvoir Castle, Lincolnshire, for the birth of their first child. Catherine was involved, peripherally, in her sister’s ongoing battle with her husband, Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk, since the duchess called upon Westmorland for assistance.Writing on April 25, 1544 from Brandspath (Brancepeth), Catherine recommended Menvill to be one of Shrewsbury’s captains. It is unclear why she favored this man, a thoroughgoing scoundrel. Menvill repaid her by cozening her son into entering a plot to kill his wife, Anne (née Manners) and his father. Lord Henry was arrested in September 1546, after which Menvill was also arrested. Henry was free by the summer of 1547. In 1549, after his father died a natural death, he robbed his mother. What he stole is not recorded. In a 1552 letter to her daughter Margaret, countess of Rutland, Catherine thanked Margaret for furthering the marriage of one of her sisters. During Catherine’s widowhood, she lived with Eleanor Paston, dowager countess of Rutland, at Holywell, the house the Rutlands kept in London. Both countesses were buried in St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch. Portrait: memorial at St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch erected by Catherine’s granddaughter, Lady Adeline Neville in 1591. She shares it with Eleanor Paston and Margaret Neville, both countesses of Rutland, and with her granddaughter, Catherine Neville, Lady Constable, whose bequest made its construction possible; another effigy at Staindrop, Durham, with her husband.


DOROTHY STAFFORD (October 1, 1526-September 22, 1604)
Dorothy Stafford was the youngest daughter of Henry, baron Stafford (September 18,1501-April 30,1563) and Ursula Pole (1504-August 12,1570). As a child, she lived in the household of her aunt, Elizabeth Stafford, duchess of Norfolk (1499-November 30, 1558), as did her sisters Susanna and Jane. In 1545, Dorothy married Mary Boleyn’s widower, Sir William Stafford, later of Chebsey, Staffordshire (d. May 1556). Their children were Elizabeth (c.1546-February 6, 1598/9), Dorothy (b.1548), Edward (c.1552-1604), Ursula (b.c.1553), William (1554-1612), and John (January 1556-1624). Alison Weir suggests that Dorothy was the Mistress Stafford with Elizabeth Tudor in the Tower in 1554 but this seems unlikely. In March 1554, the entire Stafford family went into exile, settling in Geneva. John Calvin was godfather to Dorothy’s youngest son. After Sir William’s death, Calvin tried to gain custody of the boy. Dorothy left Geneva for Basel, where she and her children remained until January of 1559, leasing a house next to the Clarakloster, where John Foxe lived. David Starkey, in Elizabeth The Struggle for the Throne, suggests Dorothy as Foxe’s source for information on Princess Elizabeth that was later published as an account of Elizabeth’s “sufferings” during Mary Tudor’s reign. Under Elizabeth, Dorothy was influential at court. Her first warrant for wages is dated August 13, 1559. She is said to have been Mistress of Robes, but there was no official post by that title until the next reign. In October 1576, she broke her leg in a riding accident. In a letter dated October 9, the earl of Sussex wrote to Mary Shelton Scudamore at Holme Lacy to summon her back to court on that account. In the late 1580s, Dorothy was forced to send one of her women, Barbara Heron, to Bedlam. She paid for Barbara’s maintenance for the eight or nine years she was confined there. When two maids of honor, Elizabeth Brydges and Elizabeth Russell, were banished from the Coffer Chamber for three days, they stayed with Lady Stafford. Dorothy was buried in St. Margaret’s, Westminster. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Stafford [née Stafford], Dorothy.” Portraits: effigy in St. Margaret’s.



Elizabeth Stafford was the daughter of Henry Stafford, 2nd duke of Buckingham (1455-November 2, 1483) and Katherine Woodville (1457/8-May 18, 1497) and the sister of Edward, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521). She was at court as one of Elizabeth of York’s maids of honor by 1494, when she participated in the pageant celebrating Prince Henry’s creation as duke of York. On July 23, 1505, she married Robert Radcliffe, Lord Fitzwalter (1483-November 27, 1542). Their children were Henry, 2nd earl of Sussex (c.1506-February 17, 1557), Humprey (c.1509-August 13, 1566), Thomas (1511-1539), and George. As Lady Fitzwalter, she was at the court of Henry VIII. In May of 1510, after she informed her brother that their younger and newly married sister, Anne, was being courted by the king (a bit of gossip that led to Anne being spirited away to a nunnery), the king ordered Queen Catherine to dismiss Elizabeth from her service. She attended the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. Fitzwalter was createed earl of Sussex in 1529. She was buried at Boreham, Essex on May 11, 1532.

ELIZABETH STAFFORD (1499-November 30, 1558)
Elizabeth Stafford was the daughter of Edward, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521) and Eleanor Percy (1470-1530). Robert Hutchinson’s House of Treason gives alternate life dates of 1493-September 4, 1558. Elizabeth was to have married one of her father’s wards, Ralph Neville, earl of Westmorland, at Christmas 1512, but shortly before that she acquired a new suitor in the person of the recently widowed Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (1473-August 25, 1554). Buckingham offered his other daughters to Surrey, but the earl was determined to have Elizabeth, described by Jessie Childs in Henry VIII’s Last Victim: The Life and Times of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey as “passably pretty, with soft features, light colouring and a distinguished forehead.” Early in 1513, Elizabeth married Surrey, bringing with her a dowry of 2,000 marks. Their children were Henry (1517-x.January 19, 1547), Mary (1519-December 9, 1557), Charles (d.yng), Thomas (1528-1582), and a fifth child who died young and may have been named Muriel. Elizabeth was often at court and became close friends with Catherine of Aragon. She carried Princess Mary to the font at the princess’s christening in 1516 and was a patron of the poet John Skelton, who may have described Elizabeth and her ladies making a chapelet in the poem “A Goodly Garlande or Chapelet of Laurell.” When the earl of Surrey was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1520, he was ordered to take his entire family with him. There they were exposed to war, disease, crowded conditions, and severe shortages of just about everything. To make matters worse, it was during their sojourn in Ireland that Elizabeth’s father was accused of treason and beheaded. In 1524, upon the death of her father-in-law, Elizabeth became duchess of Norfolk. She continued to serve as a lady-in-waiting to the queen, at court for months at a time, but with the king’s growing determination to obtain a divorce, her role changed. By 1530, Elizabeth was spying on her own husband, on the lookout for any information that would help Queen Catherine. By then, there were other problems in Elizabeth’s marriage. In 1526, Norfolk had made Bess Holland, daughter of his chief steward, his mistress. This was a long-term relationship that he did not trouble to keep secret from his wife. While Elizabeth continued to be vocal in her support of Catherine of Aragon. Norfolk favored the king’s plan to marry Anne Boleyn, whose mother was his sister. Elizabeth went so far as to refuse to bear Anne’s train at her investiture as marchioness of Pembroke and was conspicuously absent from both Anne’s coronation and the christening of Princess Elizabeth. In May 1533, Norfolk wrote to Elizabeth’s brother, Henry Stafford, asking him to take her in. Stafford refused, expressing the fear that “her accustomed wild language” would place him and his family in danger if he did so. The matter came to a head on Tuesday of Passion Week 1534. Norfolk arrived at Kenninghall, his principal residence, to find his wife in a rage because Bess Holland was still his mistress. Norfolk’s response was to lock Elizabeth in her chamber, then banish her to Redbourne, a manor in Hertfordshire. Elizabeth referred to this as imprisonment, even though she had twenty servants and an allowance of three hundred marks per annum. Legally Norfolk was within his rights to do as he wished with her. She tried three times for a reconciliation, but to no avail. Norfolk was not about to forgive some of the claims she had made, including one that he had assaulted her in 1519, when she was pregnant with their daughter. Some of the charges may indeed have been “false and abominable lies,” but Norfolk was known to have a temper. In 1541, Elizabeth was still trying to regain her freedom and a bigger allowance. Her children had sided with their father, as did most people. Wives were expected to put up with their husbands’ infidelities, not make a fuss about them. In 1546, Norfolk was arrested and all his goods, including the clothing at Kenninghall that belonged to Elizabeth was inventoried. Among the items were a gown of purple velvet and two of purple satin. Upon Mary Tudor’s accession, Elizabeth returned to court and was reunited with her husband, who had been in the Tower of London since 1547. He died at Kenninghall the following August. Although both Elizabeth and Norfolk appear in effigy on the same monument in Framlingham, completed in 1559, only he was buried there. In December 1558, she was interred in the Howard Chapel in St. Mary’s Church in Lambeth. The epitaph written by her brother lauds her kindness and says she was to him “a mother, sister, a friend most dear.” He was her residual heir. She left all her clothes and jewels to his wife, as well as her best saddle, which was covered with velvet. Biographies: “Marriage Sixteenth-Century Style: Elizabeth Stafford and the Third Duke of Norfolk” by Barbara J. Harris in Journal of Social History, 15/3 (1982); Oxford DNB entry under “Howard [née Stafford], Elizabeth.” NOTE: the DNB gives her date of birth as 1497. Portrait: artist unknown, Arundel Castle.

ELIZABETH STAFFORD (c.1546-February 6, 1598/9)
Elizabeth Stafford was the daughter of Sir William Stafford (d. May 1556) and Dorothy Stafford (October 1, 1526-September 22, 1604). She was in exile during Mary Tudor’s reign with her parents and returned to England in 1559. On November 28, 1568 she became a chamberer to Queen Elizabeth at £20 per annum. Later she was a lady of the privy chamber and bedchamber. On November 8, 1573, at court, she married Sir William Drury of Hawstead, Suffolk (May 30, 1550-January 18, 1590). Their children were Robert (January 30, 1575-1615), Frances (June 13, 1576-1642), Elizabeth (January 4, 1577/8-February 26, 1653/4), Charles (d.1600), Susanna (1584-September 29, 1606), Diana (d.1638), and Dorothea (d.yng). The queen provided her wedding gown. Both Elizabeth and her daughters received gifts of clothing from Queen Elizabeth, The queen visited Hawstead in 1578 and 1587. In January 1587, Elizabeth was commanded to leave court following the discovery of a conspiracy involving her brother, William Stafford, but she was later reinstated. After her husband was killed in France by Sir John Borough in a duel over precedence, Elizabeth was left deeply in debt. Her husband owed £6000. In 1590, Elizabeth married Sir John Scott of Nettlestead, Kent (d.1616). The Drury estate was seized by the Crown in 1591. Portraits: with one of her children; attributed to William Seger c.1591-5 (identified by some as her daughter, Elizabeth Drury; effigy on her tomb in Nettlestead, Kent.




MARGARET STAFFORD (c.1511-x. May 25, 1537)
Margaret Stafford was the illegitimate daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-May 17,1521). He planned to marry her to Thomas FitzGerald, son of Gerald Fitzgerald, 8th earl of Kildare (d.1513), whose wardship and marriage Buckingham had obtained in October 1519. There are several entries in his accounts for 1519-1520 that may refer to Margaret Stafford. Although they have been transcribed as “Mistress Mary,” they are unlikely to refer to the duke’s legitimate daughter Mary, who was already Lady Bergavenny. Payments were made on May 15, 1520 to William Heyton and William Buttre for cloth for Mistress Mary: tawny broadcloth, russet frieze, tawny camlet, black velvet, yellow sarcenet, and crimson and green satin, this last for a kirtle. There is also a payment to Mrs. Kendal, for part of the “board wages of Mistress Mary from 1 Dec. till a fortnight before my Lord went over the sea” (to the Field of Cloth of Gold at the end of May, 1520). Margaret’s mother was probably Margaret Geddynge, a gentlewoman and a member of the duke’s household as early as 1499/1500. She was one of the duchess’s ladies in waiting and in charge of the nursery at Thornbury. By November 1520, she had apparently quarreled with the duchess and been discharged from her service, but she was back by March 1521. At the time of Buckingham’s death, Margaret Geddynge held the farm of demesne lands in Eastington and Gilkerton, Gloucestershire. After the duke’s execution for treason, the matrimonial choices for his illegitimate daughter were severely limited. She married William Cheney or Cheyne (c.1509-c.1534), a London vintner. Sir John Bulmer of Wilton, Yorkshire (c.1490-August 25,1537) then “bought” her from Cheney, apparently with Margaret’s approval. As his mistress, living about five miles from Wilton Castle at Pinchinthorpe Hall. Their children were Martha, sometimes called Mary (b.c.1531), Frances (b.c.1533), and Anne (b.c.1535). After her husband died, she married Bulmer. Dates for their marriage vary from 1534 to early 1536. A letter from Bulmer’s son, Ralph (c.1510-1558) that seems to indicate that his mother was still living as late as November 1, 1536, casts doubt on its validity. In 1536. Bulmer’s first wife’s nephew, Sir Francis Bigod, was one of the leaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace. Margaret, who is described by P.R.D. Davison in his history of the Bulmer family, Saxon Survivors? as “devastatingly attractive” but possessed of “a violent temper,” urged her husband to join with Bigod and was heard loudly supporting a plan to capture and execute the duke of Norfolk, the abusive husband of Margaret’s half sister, Elizabeth. According to Roland Connelly’s Women of the Catholic Resistance in England 1540-1680, Margaret was known in local legend as “Madge Wildfire” and “Black Meg” and rode at her husband’s side at the head of a citizen’s army to support the rebels. On May 7, both Bulmer and Margaret were indicted for treason, but they were pardoned. In January 1536/37, Margaret gave birth to a son, John (d. February 6, 1608), at Lastingham. Two months later, she and Bulmer were ordered to appear in London. Suspecting that to obey would place their lives in jeopardy, Margaret tried to convince Bulmer to flee the country. Instead, he attempted to revive the Pilgrimage of Grace by planning an Easter uprising. By April 8, Margaret was under arrest in London. By April 21, both she and Bulmer were in the Tower. Although Bulmer insisted they were legally married, Margaret was referred to in documents as the “untrue” wife of John Bulmer and was blamed for the plot. On May 16 she, Bulmer, his brother, and several others were tried and convicted of treason. Both Bulmer and Margaret pled guilty. She was burned to death at Smithfield. Bulmer was hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn. Biography: two chapters in Sharon Jansen’s Dangerous Talk and Strange Behavior; Elizabeth Norton’s The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women, Chapter Thirteen.

MARY STAFFORD (d. before 1530)
Mary Stafford was the youngest daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham (February 3, 1478-x. May 17, 1521) and Eleanor Percy (1470-February 13, 1530). She seems to have lived at home she married George Neville, 3rd baron Bergavenny (c.1469-June 13, 1535), as his third wife. Their children were Catherine, Margaret (c.1522-1601+), John (d.yng), Mary (1523-1578+), Dorothy (d. September 22, 1559), Henry, 4th baron (1527-February 10, 1586/7), Ursula (c.1528-1575), and Thomas (d.yng). The wedding took place before June 1519, but her father did not make a payment of £6 14s. 9d. to the Pope for a dispensation until November of that year. In addition to Mary’s dowry of £1,660 13s. 4d., Lord Bergavenny received £123 19s. for velvet and cloth of silver “wedding gear.” Henry VIII visited the Bergavennys at Mereworth during his 1519 summer progress. Mary was at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. She was pregnant with her first child at the time and gave birth that November. In 1521, her husband was implicated in her father’s treason and spent nearly a year in the Tower of London. The date of her death is not known, but Bergavenny married his fourth wife by January 1530.




ANNE STANHOPE (c.1510-April 16, 1587)
Anne Stanhope was the daughter of Sir Edward Stanhope of Rampton, Northamptonshire (d.1511) and Elizabeth Bourchier (1474-1557). Her mother was a sister of the earl of Bath and a descendant of King Edward III. In 1529, Sir Edward Seymour (1502-x. January 22, 1552) fell in love with Anne, who may have been at court as as a maid of honor. He repudiated his wife in order to marry her, which he did before March 9, 1535. Their children were Edward (d. yng.), Anne (1536?-1588), Margaret (b.1537?), Edward (1539-April 6,1621), Henry (b.1540), Jane (1541-1561), Mary (d.1619/20), Katherine, a third Edward (1547-1574), and Elizabeth (1550-June 3,1602). Anne had apartments at court and for a time her sister-in-law, Jane Seymour, met King Henry there. When Jane became queen, her brother was elevated in the peerage so that Anne became, in rapid succession, viscountess Beauchamp and then countess of Hertford. Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, wrote a sonnet about her called “a lady who refused to dance with him,” which portrays her as haughty and cold. In 1538, the king visited Wulfhall, the Seymour country seat. Anne managed to stay on good terms with both Princess Mary and Queen Katherine Parr, but her religious leanings were Protestant. She sent aid to Anne Askew in 1545. Upon King Henry’s death in 1547, Anne’s husband became Lord Protector for his nephew, Edward VI, and was elevated in the peerage to duke of Somerset. Anne quarreled with Katherine Parr. After her death, she claimed the manor of Hanworth for herself. As early as 1547, Anne was urging her husband to arrest his brother, Thomas Seymour, who had been married to Katherine Parr, on charges of treason. Meanwhile, Anne was scheming to marry her son Edward to Lady Jane Grey and her daughter Jane to King Edward. In October 1549, Somerset was removed from power and held in the Tower of London. In an effort at reconciliation, Anne and the earl of Warwick’s wife, Jane Guildford, arranged a marriage between Anne’s daughter, Anne Seymour, and Warwick’s eldest son, John Dudley, who became earl of Warwick when his father was elevated in the peerage to duke of Northumberland. Somerset was arrested again on October 16, 1551 and accused of plotting against Northumberland. This time he was executed. Anne was also arrested and remained a prisoner in the Tower of London until May 30, 1553, even though she was never charged with any crime. A contemporary attack on the duchess in print referred to her as “that imperious and insolent woman . . . whose ambitious wit and mischievous persuasions led him [Somerset] and directed him also in the weighty affairs and government of the realm to the great harm and dishonor of the same.” Under Mary Tudor, three of Anne’s daughters were at court. Her oldest son, Edward, was restored in blood. Anne was granted a number of Northumberland’s confiscated properties and Hanworth, Middlesex, where she chose to live. It was at Hanworth that a romance secretly blossomed between Anne’s son Edward and Lady Catherine Grey, younger sister of Lady Jane Grey. When the couple eloped in 1560 and were subsequently confined in the Tower of London, Anne was careful to distance herself from them. The next year, Anne married Francis Newdigate (October 25, 1519-January 26, 1581/2), who had been Somerset’s steward. When her son was released from the Tower, Anne was given custody of him and also of the older of the two sons he had with Lady Catherine Grey. Anne tried to advance Lady Catherine’s claim to the throne by backing John Hales’s Discourse on the Succession but met with little success. Although she was rarely at Elizabeth’s court, on one visit she took nineteen servants with her, including a chaplain and seven stable lads. The queen visited her at Hanworth in September 1577. She was buried in St. Nicholas’s Chapel in Westminster Abbey. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Seymour [née Stanhope], Anne.” Portraits: effigy on her tomb; portrait sometimes said to be Anne Stanhope and her son Edward is Catherine Grey; portrait currently in National Gallery of Ireland; engraving based on 1540s portrait.




JANE STANHOPE (1536-January 3, 1617/18)
Jane Stanhope was the daughter of Sir Michael Stanhope of Shelford, Nottinghamshire (1502-x. February 26, 1552) and Anne Rawson (1513-February 20, 1587/8). After her father was executed for treason, the family was allowed to remain at Shelford Priory. In about 1564, Jane married Sir Roger Townshend of Raynham, Norfolk and Brampton, Suffolk (1543-1590) as his second wife. Their children were John (1568/9-August 2, 1603) and Robert (1580-before 1617). She is on the list of ladies at court in 1577-8 but did not hold a specific position in the queen’s household. She and her husband gave New Years’ gifts to the queen from 1576-1584. She inherited a life interest in the Townshend estates and later bought most of the land her son John had inherited. On March 9, 1597/8 in St. Giles Cripplegate, London, she married Henry Berkeley, 7th baron Berkeley (November 26, 1534-November 26, 1613). They had no children. When Jane’s son John died in 1603, she obtained the warship of his eldest son, Roger (November 1595-January 1, 1637). Jane’s correspondence, her household accounts for 1591-3, and the inventory taken of the furnishings in her London house in 1614 are in the Bacon-Townshend Collection at the Folger Shakespeare Library. During the years 1602-5, Jane built Ashley House in Walton-on-Thames, Surrey. Shortly before her death, she purchased a baronetcy for her grandson. Her will, dated July 20, 1617, was proved March 10, 1617/18.

MARGARET STANHOPE (1495-January 1, 1539)
Margaret Stanhope was the daughter of Edmund Stanhope of West Markham, Nottinghamshire (d. before November 1510) and his wife Alice (d.1510+). In 1515, she married Thomas Skeffington (1493-June 29, 1543). Their children were William (1518-September 22, 1571), Anthony, Edward, George, Francis, and six daughters. Portrait: memorial brass.



MAUDE STANHOPE (d. August 30, 1497)
Maude Stanhope was the eldest daughter of Sir Richard Stanhope of Rampton, Nottinghamshire (c.1374-1436) and his second wife, Maud Cromwell (d. December 1454), sister of Ralph, 3rd baron Cromwell (1403-1455). In about 1448, she married Robert, 6th baron Willoughby d’Eresby (c.1385-July 25, 1452). Before and during this marriage she was in the household of the duchess of Gloucester. Willoughby’s only child, Joan, Lady Welles, is said to have harried Maude out of her dower lands, but she later got them back. In August 1453, at Tattershall Castle, Maude married Sir Thomas Neville (d. 1460), who died at the Battle of Wakefield. Maude and her sister Jane were coheirs of the estate of their uncle, Lord Cromwell, but it was later forfeited to the Crown. A license for her marriage to Sir Gervase Clifton (x. 1471) was issued August 10, 1461. This union was a shock to her friends. He was a Lancastrian who wanted to restore Henry VI to the throne. In 1465, Maude gave sixteen manors to King Edward’s brother-in-law, Anthony Woodville—some eighty percent of all she owned—to secure a pardon for Clifton. One interpretation is that this was a love match, although another source states that Maude alleged to Parliament that Clifton “wasted and destroyed” more than £1000 worth of the jewels, plate, and household goods she brought to the marriage. He was beheaded following the Battle of Tewkesbury. Although she was almost destitute after Clifton’s death, Maude helped complete the collegiate foundation her uncle had begun at Tattershall, Lincolnshire and left three manors to the College in return for daily masses for herself, her husbands, her parents, and her sisters. This led to her being named as co-founder. She made her will in 1487. She had no children by any of her marriages. Portrait: memorial brass in Holy Trinity church, Tattershall, made in the mid 1470s. Biography: a summary of research on Maude’s life can be found at:


ANNE STANLEY (1532-March 1612)
Anne Stanley was the daughter of James Stanley of Cross Hall, Lancashire (d.1546+) and Anne Hart (d.1566). She became involved with Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh, Lancashire (c.1518-1582+), who already had two wives. In about 1550, when she may have been pregnant by Ralph, her mother forced her into a marriage with Ralph’s cousin, John Rishton of Dunkenhalgh and Rishton Hall. One account says that Lady Stanley carried her daughter by night to Great Harwood church for the ceremony. In 1560, John divorced Anne and remarried. One account says he wed Anne’s sister or half sister. Another gives his bride’s name as Dorothy Southworth, daughter of Sir John Southworth of Samlesbury Hall. Anne finally married Ralph, who by then had managed to divest himself of both previous wives. This was apparently a happy marriage and produced nine children. The priest Edward Rishton (1550-1585) may have been Anne’s son.

ANNE STANLEY (d. September 22, 1602)
Anne Stanley was the daughter of Edward Stanley, 3rd earl of Derby (May 10, 1508-October 24, 1572) and Dorothy Howard (d.1545). On February 10, 1549, she married Charles, 8th baron Stourton (c.1521-x.March 6, 1556/7). Their children were John, 9th baron (c.1552-October 13, 1588), Edward, 10th baron (c.1555-May 7, 1633), Charles, Mary (d.1622+), Anne, and Catherine. Early in her marriage, she was thrust into her husband’s feud with his neighbors, the Hartgills, and with his father’s mistress, Agnes Rhys. Agnes, who was living at Stourton House, also took possession of some of the livestock at Stourton. Anne tried to stop her, but was unsuccessful. After a little more than eight years of marriage, Stourton was executed for murdering two of the Hartgills. Anne may have been the Lady Stourton at court in 1558/9, although this seems unlikely. Not only was she a prominent recusant, but after her husband’s conviction the family had been stripped of both lands and title. The other possibility is her mother-in-law, Elizabeth Dudley. Two months after Charles’s execution, Anne was allowed to purchase back the goods the Crown had confiscated. The wardship of the four-year-old heir was sold to Sir Hugh Paulet for £340. Anne petitioned Queen Mary, asking that she be allowed to supervise her son’s education, keep him with her until he was ten, and choose his wife. She told the queen that she had lost a loving, true, and faithful husband, her greatest comfort in the world. The queen granted her request and gave her an annuity of £40 from the Stourton lands. Shortly after Queen Elizabeth succeeded her sister, Anne married Sir John Arundell of Lanherne (c. 1530-November 17, 1590), although she continued to be known as Lady Stourton. Their children were Dorothy (c.1560-1613), Elizabeth, Cecily, Margaret, Gertrude (b.1574), and John (d.1633). The wardship and marriage of John Stourton were afterward granted to the earl of Derby. Arundell was in prison in 1581 for recusancy. From 1583, Father John Cornelius was the Arundell family priest. In March 1588, Anne was living at Muswell Hill, London. Arundell’s will left her £100 and all the plate and household stuff he received from her on their marriage. Anne lived at Chideock Castle in Dorset after his death but maintained contact with Catholics in London, including Father Cornelius. In 1594, an informant’s report led to Cornelius’s arrest and that of all those who had harbored him. Lady Stourton was detained briefly and then released. Roland Connelly, in Women of the Catholic Resistance in England 1540-1680, confuses Lady Stourton with her daughter, Dorothy, incorrectly gives the date of Sir John Arundell’s death as January 17, 1591, and does not seem to know that Sir John’s wife had previously been married to Lord Stourton, even though his book also includes a chapter on their daughter, Mary. It was likely Dorothy Arundell who spoke up in court for Father Cornelius and the others, not her mother. She made reference in the speech to having a mother still living. Cornelius and the other men arrested with him were executed on July 4, 1594. In 1601, Lady Stourton was indicted at the Dorset assizes. She petitioned the queen, who ordered the case against her dismissed. Two of her daughters, Dorothy and Gertrude Arundell, were co-founders of the English Benedictine convent in Brussels.

ANNE STANLEY (December 1561-March 27, 1635)
Anne Stanley was the daughter of Peter Stanley of Moor Hall, Lancashire (d.1592) and his second wife, Cecily Tarleton (d.1568). She was baptized at Ormskirk, Lancashire on December 31, 1561. On May 14, 1576 at Ormskirk, she married Edward Sutton of Knowsley, Lancashire and Hall House, Staffordshire. One source says he died before 1625. Another gives his life dates as 1550-January 23, 1643. Their children were Alice, Jane, Margaret, and Anne (c.1590-before July 13, 1634). Anne and her daughter Alice Eardley were returned as Popish recusants in 1607. Anne was again returned as a recusant in 1635. At that time she was living at Rushton Spencer, Staffordshire.

ANNE STANLEY (1580-October 11, 1647)
Anne Stanley was the eldest daughter of Ferdinando Stanley, 5th earl of Derby (1559-April 16, 1594) and Alice Spencer (May 4, 1559-January 16, 1637). In 1608, she married Grey Brydges, 5th baron Chandos (1579-August 10, 1621). Their children were Elizabeth (d.1679), George (d.1672), William, and Robert. Her second husband was Mervyn Touchet, 2nd earl of Castlehaven (x.1631). Castlehaven created a scandal by inducing Giles Brodway to rape Anne while he held her hands and one foot. Castlehaven was tried for rape and sodomy and executed. Even though Anne’s participation in a criminal act had been unwilling, she required a pardon. Portrait: effigy with her sisters on her mother’s tomb.



Elizabeth Stanley was the daughter of Edward Stanley, 3rd earl of Derby (May 10, 1508-October 24, 1572) and Dorothy Howard (d.1545). Before 1551, she married Henry Parker, 11th baron Morley (January 1533-October 22, 1577). Their children were Edward (1551-April 1,1618), Alice, Anne (d.1591+), Mary, and (according to the DNB) two younger sons. Elizabeth was a lady of honor in 1558/9. Queen Elizabeth visited her house in Allington Morley, Great Hallighbury, in 1561. The Morleys were recusants. In June 1570, Lord Morley left England in secret and went into exile. He wanted his wife and children to join him in Bruges, but Queen Elizabeth refused permission for them to leave England. In 1572, his estates were seized by the Crown. On Palm Sunday, April 14, 1574, Elizabeth and other members of her family were among those taken into custody when fifty-three people were rounded up at illegal Catholic services in London. Twenty-three of them had been meeting in her house near Aldgate. In September 1575, Lady Morley, a daughter, and a son arrived in Antwerp. She was reunited with her husband in Maestricht in 1576. She remained abroad after his death and died in exile. Her daughter Anne was her executor.

Elizabeth Stanley was the youngest daughter of Ferdinando Stanley, 5th earl of Derby (1559-April 16, 1594) and Alice Spencer (May 4, 1559-January 16, 1637). She had a marriage portion of £7000. She married Henry Hastings (1586-1643), later earl of Huntingdon, on January 15, 1601. Their children were Ferdinando (January 18, 1608-1655), Alice (d.1667), Elizabeth, Henry (1610-1666), and Mary (1612-1660). A patron of the arts, Elizabeth was also a writer herself. A series of devotions she composed is still extant. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Hastings [née Stanley], Elizabeth.” Portraits: miniature by Nicholas Hilliard c. 1601-10; portrait by Paul Van Somer, c. 1614; effigy with her sisters on her mother’s tomb.


FRANCES STANLEY (May 1583-March 11, 1635/6)
Frances Stanley was the second daughter and coheir of Ferdinando Stanley, 5th earl of Derby (1559-April 16, 1594) and Alice Spencer (May 4, 1559-January 16, 1637). She had a marriage portion of £7000 that included the manors of Brackley and Halse in Northamptonshire. In about 1600, she was proposed as a wife for the son of Boris Godunov, czar of Russia, but nothing came of it. In around 1602, she married her stepbrother, John Egerton of Dodleston, Cheshire, Ellesmere, Shropshire, and Little Gaddesden, Hertfordshire (1579-December 3, 1649). There were rumors of a secret marriage as early as October 1600 but it was not officially announced until March 1603. Their eleven daughters and four sons included Frances (1603-1664), Arabella (d.1669), Elizabeth (d.1688), Mary (d.1659), Penelope, Katherine, Magdalen, Alice (d.1689), and John (1523-October 26, 1696). In 1617, Egerton succeeded his father as viscount Brackley and he was later created earl of Bridgewater. Like her mother and sisters, Frances was a patron of the arts. In 1534, Milton’s Comus was performed at Ludlow Castle in her husband’s honor and their children took the leading roles. She was also a book collector. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Egerton [née Stanley], Frances.” Portraits: two portraits and one engraving; effigy with her sisters on her mother’s tomb.


Isabel Stanley was the daughter of John Stanley of Pipe, Staffordshire and Isabel Vernon. Her family resided at Elford, Staffordshire.  She married Sir Hugh Peshall of Knightley, Staffordshire (c.1459-July 27, 1490). Their children were Katherine (d.1540) and Eleanor (d.yng). She was also responsible for raising her husband’s illegitimate daughters, Alienora, Alicia, Isabella, and Jocosa. Shortly before his death, Sir Hugh was granted £100 by the king. After his death, because of financial irregularities during his term as sheriff, his widow had to be granted a pardon to free her of his debts. Isabel quickly arranged a marriage for her remaining daughter, left her with her new in-laws, and moved to London. She married John Russhe (d.1499), a London merchant. They had a daughter, Mary. His death left her with a life interest in his lands, including at Walthamstow, Essex. Isabel’s third husband was Sir Thomas Grey.



MARY STANLEY (d.1611+)
Mary Stanley was the only child and heir of Thomas Stanley of Standon, Hertfordshire, Dalegarth, Cumberland, and London (c.1512-1571), a goldsmith and assay master of the Tower Mint, and Joyce Barrett (1516-1580). In 1570, she married Edward Herbert of Wilton, Wiltshire, second son of the first earl of Pembroke (c.1542-March 23, 1595). They had four sons and eight daughters, the eldest of whom, William (c.1573-1656) was created baron Powis in 1629. He acquired Powis Castle as their family seat and was knighted in 1574. Mary and her husband were on a list of suspected Catholics in the mid 1570s and on another dated 1582. In June 1594, Mary and five of her children (all under age) were presented for recusancy, having failed to attend services at the parish church at Welshpool for the previous twelve months. Since her husband left no will, Mary was granted letters of administration for his estate in April 1595. In 1611, she was again presented for recusancy.


URSULA STANLEY (c.1568-1636)
Ursula Stanley was the illegitimate but acknowledged daughter of Henry Stanley, 4th earl of Derby (September 1531-September 25, 1593) by his longtime mistress, Jane Halsall (c.1536?c.1550?-c.1591?) of Knowsley, Lancashire. In 1586, Ursula married Sir John Salisbury or Salusbury of Sterney, Derbyshire and Lleweni, Denbighshire (1566/7-July 24,1612). They had seven sons and three daughters, including Henry (d.1632), John, and Arabella. Her happy marriage was the subject of a book of poems, “The Phoenix and the Turtle,” commissioned by her husband in 1601. Contributors included Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare. One story, without much foundation, has the earl of Derby hiring Shakespeare as a tutor for his two illegitimate daughters, Ursula and her sister Dorothy. Although Salisbury was at one time a wealthy man, he died deeply in debt.

BLANCHE STANNEY (d. August 8, 1563)
Blanche Stanney was the eldest daughter of Richard Stanney (d.1540), a draper of Oswestry, Shropshire, and his wife Jane. In his will, written November 14, 1539 and proved April 15, 1540, her father left Blanche his “best drinking pot for ale of silver double gilt with a cover.” Blanche married Richard Reynolds (Raynolde/Reynolde) of London (d. May 6, 1542), a mercer. They lived in the parish of St. Christopher in the Stocks. He made his will September 30, 1541 and it was proved May 26, 1542. In the inquisition post mortem taken October 8, 1547, he is listed as “seised of 1 messuage, 1 garden and 3 tenements thereto adjoining lying next the Stockes in the parish of St. Christopher.” By charter dated January 13, 1542, “for the love which he bore towards Blanche, his wife” he granted the premises to two friends to hold for her use. By another charter, dated May 18, 1543, Blanche regranted the property to the use of “the said Blanche and of Robert Palmer, mercer, whom the said Blanche then intended to marry, and of their heirs” with the default to the use of Joan and William Watson, Joan being her sister. Anne F. Sutton, in The Mercery of London, suggests that Blanche may have been a silkwoman, as her mother-in-law was. Blanche married Robert Palmer (1474-May 12, 1544). They had no children of their own but she acquired several stepchildren. They lived in St. George nigh Pudding Lane and St. Giles without Cripplegate. He made his will on May 5, 1544 and it was proved on July 24, 1544. On August 30, 1544, she married Sir William Forman of Gainsborough, Lincolnshire and London (d. January 13, 1547), a haberdasher who had been Lord Mayor of London in 1538/9. They had one son, John, who appears to have died young. Sir William wrote his will on January 10, 1547 and it was proved on March 12, 1547. He was buried in St. George, Botolph Lane, where Blanche erected a monument to him. The inquisition post mortem dated February 28, 1547 lists, among other properties, five messuages and tenements in St. Lawrence Poultney, one in St. Leonard’s Eastcheap, one in Canwyck (Candlewick) Street, St. Martin le Orgar, two in St. Bartholomew the Less, and one in St. George next Eastcheap. The heir was Blanche’s stepdaughter Elizabeth, age nine. To “Dame Blanche his wife” he left “1 messuage in St. Leonard’s Eastcheap and others” and the premises making up her jointure are said to be worth £52/year. Blanche made her will on March 29, 1563. This lengthy document, proved February 9, 1564, can be found in its entirety at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Dame Blanche Forman asked to be buried in St. Christopher by the Stocks and left detailed instructions for her burial and the funeral. Among her bequests to family, friends, and servants are such items as “a great cypress chest,” “a painted cupboard,” the “bird cage that stood in the hall,” and “my best Turkey carpet, being new and for the long table in the hall.” To Anne Lloyd, her servant, she left £20 and various household items. Some bequests were contingent upon a “suit in Flanders.” Apparently, she was owed a considerable sum of money from some business dealings there. If that debt was paid, she left instructions to double her bequest of £20 to Christ’s Hospital.


JANE STAPLETON (c.1444-1519)
Jane Stapleton was the daughter of Sir Miles Stapleton of Ingham, Norfolk (1402-October 1, 1466) and Catherine de la Pole (c.1406-October 13, 1488/9. In about 1467, she married Sir Christopher Harcourt of Great Ashby (c.1444-1476+). Their children were Miles, Richard, Simon (c.1472-January 16, 1546/7) and Edmund (c.1479-c.1537). Her second husband was Sir John Huddleston of Millom Castle, Cumberland (d. January 1, 1512). Their children were John (c.1488-1547), Elizabeth (d.c.1529), and Anne. Her will, written on April 18, 1518 and proved June 10, 1519, contains one extremely revealing section: “Whereas my son, John Huddleston, had a feoffment within my lordship of Coterston of the yearly value of £40, to him and his first wife and to their heirs of the gift of my husband his father, that feoffment was made without my consent, and I never did agree thereunto. And this is my will, to have it reformed and reserved to my heirs of the Harcourts.” Barbara J. Harris in English Aristocratic Women 1450-1550 gives an explanation for this. According to Sir Simon Harcourt, Sir John Huddleston persuaded his mother to levy a fine on her inheritance so that it would pass to her son by her second marriage, John Huddleston, rather than to Simon. Sir John’s will charged his son to release the property back to the Harcourts, but his remorse and his wishes were ignored. When Jane made her will, she accused John of fraud, recounting how, c.1516, he tricked her into signing away her inheritance by showing her a document written in Latin and telling her that it was something other than what it was. If it had been written in English, she could have read it for herself. She claimed that he had “therein utterly and untruly . . . distrained me.” She made her last wishes known in the presence of the prior of Hailes, stating that everything but one manor should go to the Harcourts.



MARGARET STARKEY (d. October 20, 1542)
Margaret Starkey was the daughter of Lawrence Starkey of New Hall, Lancaster (d. July 24, 1532) and his first wife. She married George Singleton (d.c.1518). On September 7, 1515, the abbess of Syon, Elizabeth Gibbs (d.1518), granted the lease of the manor of Aldcliffe, Lancashire to Singleton. In later lawsuits, it was claimed that the abbess wanted him to marry Margaret and had promised that he would hold the manor by the custom of tenant-right to encourage the match. Margaret’s father then gave Singleton money enough to replay his debts to the abbess. In about 1520, Margaret married William Banester of Lancaster (d. by 1539). They had one son, Wilfred (c.1534-1569+). Banester claimed that he now held Aldcliffe in her right as the widow of George Singleton. This was challenged in 1523, after Agnes Jordan, who had succeeded both Elizabeth Gibbs and Constance Brown (d.1520) as abbess of Syon, granted the lease of the manor to someone else. The outcome is unclear. Following the death of her father, Margaret became embroiled in more controversy. Early in 1537, her half sister Etheldreda and Ethelreda’s husband, Humphrey Newton of Newton and Pownall, Cheshire, petitioned the chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster to force Banester to pay Etheldreda her inheritance. This dispute dragged on for years, even after Banester’s death. On March 31, 1539, when Margaret granted an annuity to a servant, she was described as a widow. In July 1541, she was granted the wardship of her son and an annuity of £5. When she made her will on October 6, 1542, she owned land in Cheshire, Lancashire, Staffordshire, and Yorkshire and a tenement in Henley-on-Thames which had come to her from her mother.


ELIZABETH STATHAM (d.1577) (maiden name unknown)
Elizabeth was the wife of Nicholas Statham (d.1538), a mercer. They had at least one daughter, who married Vincent Randall and still living in 1572. Statham made his will on October 2, 1538 and it was proved on October 23, 1538. Elizabeth was her husband’s heir and sole executor. As such, she was charged with administering his bequest to make loans to young members of the Mercer’s Company. They first considered the matter in September 1539, but it was 1544 before the 500 marks he had left was authorized. It was 1550 before the bequest finally went into effect. Elizabeth Statham was a committed evangelical who entertained the religious radicals Barnes, Garnet, Jerome, and Latimer in the house in Milk Street she rented from the Mercers’ Company. In 1540, when she was indicted under the Act of the Six Articles, her worth was assessed at over £500. By a license dated February 3, 1544/5, she married Maurice Denys of London and Siston, Gloucestershire (d. August 25, 1563), an official of the court of Augmentations. She received the manor of Sutton-at-Hone, Kent, which had formerly belonged to her first husband, as a wedding gift. Denys was knighted February 22, 1547. In his will, written on October 29, 1562, Denys left his widow his house in Clerkenwell. His property in Kent was to be sold to pay debts and legacies and other land sales were to fund redeeming Siston, in which Elizabeth was to have a life interest. She left administration of his estate to the registrar of the prerogative court of Canterbury. She did not want to take charge of it herself because she did not know how much her husband was in debt to the queen. Elizabeth’s will, made in 1572, left bequests to poor scholars at the universities.

JANE or JOAN STATHAM (d.1537+)
Jane or Joan Statham was the eldest daughter and heiress of Sir Henry Statham of Morley, Derbyshire (d.1481) and his first wife, Anne Booth (or del Bothe). Her first husband, John Sacheverell, second son of Ralph Sacheverell of Hopwell Derbyshire, was slain at the Battle of Bosworth on August 22, 1485, fighting for King Richard III. They had four children, including John (d.1515+), who was a priest, Ralph, and Henry (1475-July 21, 1558). According to a bill of complaint from 1486, in the collection at the University of Nottingham, Jane was abducted and forced into marriage soon after she was widowed. She had left the manor of Hopwell on November 11, 1485, intending to travel to the manor of Morley, which she had brought to her marriage, when a band of over 100 men attacked her party in Burrow Wood in Spondon. According to the official translation, these men “took her and bound her fast to a man on horseback, and with great violence and force led her by night time into Nottinghamshire, to a place belonging to Sir Robert Markham, knight, and from thence to Leicestershire, and from thence to a place belonging to the said Henry Willoughby called Middleton in Warwickshire. They put her in such fear and menace that she was in a situation to have perished and been destroyed.” She was robbed, and then “Richard Willoughby violently and grievously menaced and yet caused the said Jane to be carried into an unknown country, to her utter undoing and destruction, and there to do his pleasure with her at his own will, without her consenting and being agreeable to his insatiable and riotous intent.” This crime was considered “trespass” in 1485. Willoughby forced her into marriage, but since she’d had a pre-contract with William Zouche of Castle Eton and Hampton Meysey, Gloucestershire, she was able to divorce Willoughby in May 1486 and marry Zouche. On May 18, 1487, they were jointly granted lands in Smalley. That year she also successfully petitioned Parliament to make the crime of abduction and forced marriage a felony. In her second widowhood, Jane entered Markyate Priory in Bedfordshire as a nun. She served as prioress there from 1508 until the priory was dissolved. In around 1525, she was responsible for placing a memorial brass in honor of her first husband. It states that he died in the service of King Richard at Bosworth. To memorialize such a thing in Tudor England took considerable courage. After the dissolution, Joan was granted a pension of twenty marks and received the first payment on February 10, 1537.

JUDITH STAUNTON (d. March 1614)
Judith Staunton of Longbridge, Warwickshire was an heiress in her own right. In about 1579, when she married Hamnet Sadler (c.1562-1624), a baker of Stratford. Among their fourteen children, seven of whom died young, were John (1580-1580), Jane (b.1581), Margaret (b.1583), Thomas (1585-1585) and Judith (b. April 1596). Although the family was prosperous to begin with, after their house was destroyed by fire on September 21, 1594, their fortunes declined. For more details see Germaine Greer’s Shakespeare’s Wife. The Sadlers were friends with William and Anne Shakespeare and stood as godparents to their twins.


Frances Staverton was the daughter of Richard Staverton and Joan or Johanna More (March 11, 1475-1542). She was probably educated with her cousins, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Cecily More, sharing their tutor, Richard Hyrde (d.1528). Hyrde addressed the preface to Margaret More’s translation of Erasmus’s A Devout Treatise upon the Paternoster (1526) to Frances Staverton. This was a twelve page treatise in itself. It is the earliest known printed discourse on female education originating in the English language.




JOAN STEWARD (d.1511+)
In 1511, Joan was granted an annuity of £20 for her service to Elizabeth of York.

MARGARET STEWART (1584-August 4, 1639)
Margaret Stewart or Stuart was the daughter of James Stewart, 2nd earl of Moray (1565/6-February 7,1591/2) and Elizabeth Stewart (1565-November 18, 1591), daughter of the first earl. After Margaret’s father was murdered, possibly on orders from the king, she and her brother, the 3rd earl, were raised at the Scots court. At nineteen, she was with the new queen, Anne of Denmark, at Basing, when Charles Howard, earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624), who had lost his first wife only a few months earlier, saw her dancing. Instantly smitten, he married her in early September 1603. Although she was said to be pretty, there are also reports of a disfiguring nasal growth removed by surgery in 1604. According to the biography of Nottingham by Robert W. Kenny (Elizabeths Admiral), Margaret was “frivolous, indiscreet and hot-headed.” In 1605, she was granted a pension of £200 a year from the Exchequer. Her first child, James, was born soon after. She was one of a half dozen ladies of the withdrawing room to the queen and enjoyed the amusements of the court, but when the queen’s brother, King Christian of Denmark, “made horns in derision at her husband” in 1606, she was mightily offended and even went so far as to complain of his behavior to the Danish ambassador, insisting that she was an honorable woman despite rumors already circulating that she had cuckolded the earl. Queen Anne banished her from court for not showing proper respect to a reigning monarch. Margaret then persuaded her husband to take her to the queen by a “privy way” to plead her case, but this effort backfired when Anne accused him of abusing his privileges at court. At this point, King James intervened, forbidding Nottingham to bring his wife to court again without permission. Margaret bore several children over the next few years but most, including the first, died in early childhood. Only two, Charles (December 25, 1610-April 26, 1682) and Anne (c.1612-1627+), survived into adulthood. When Queen Anne died in 1619, Margaret quarreled with the countess of Arundel over who had precedence as mourner. On October 25, 1625, Margaret married William Monson (d.1673). He had once been her page and was fourteen or fifteen years younger than she. He was created viscount Monson of Castlemaine in 1628.



ELIZABETH STILE (x. February 26, 1579) (maiden name unknown)
Elizabeth Stile, alias Rockingham (or possibly Bockingham), was one of the women accused of murdering Richard Galis the elder and others by making wax images of them. She and Mother Dutten or Dutton, Mother Devell, and Mother Margaret are collectively known as the witches of Abingdon or as the witches of Windsor. Two pamphlets were published about the case, the second by Richard Galis the younger, the victim’s son. In it he gives an account of his own actions against the accused women. He tied a cart rope around Elizabeth’s waist and dragged her before the magistrate. Another time he attempted to blow up Mother Dutton’s house. All the women were found guilty of murder by witchcraft and hanged at Abingdon, Berkshire.






ELIZABETH STOKE (d. March 18, 1567/8)
Elizabeth Stoke married Sir Richard Lister or Lyster of Southampton (1479-March 14, 1553/4), attorney general and chief baron of the exchequer. His entry in the Oxford DNB incorrectly names Elizabeth as the mother of his children Michael and Elizabeth. Elizabeth is not mentioned in Sir Richard’s will, written in 1547, suggesting they married after that date. She erected his monument in St. Michael’s Church, Southampton, where she is also buried. Portrait: the sketch by Hans Holbeing the younger is probably Elizabeth’s predecessor, Isabel Shirley, but there is a slim possibility that Elizabeth was his subject.





ANNE STONARD (d.1601) (maiden name unknown)
The identity of this woman is something of a mystery. She is referred to only as Mistress Anne in the records left by Sir William Petre of Ingatestone Hall, but she was married there with considerable pomp in July 1548 to John Stonard of Loughton Hall and the manor of Luxborough in Chigwell (1522-October 16, 1579). This led F. G. Emmison to conclude that she was Petre’s stepdaughter. His wife, Anne Browne (d.1582), had previously been married to John Tyrrell of Heron in East Horndon, Essex (d.1540) but Tyrrell’s will (written June 6, 1540 and proved November 18, 1540) mentions only one daughter, Catherine. If Anne had been pregnant at the time of her first husband’s death, this daughter would have been only eight years old in 1548, which makes her unlikely to have been the bride. According to Petre, Mistress Anne married a Mr. Stonard of Luxborough in Chigwell, Essex. He further records that the wedding was attended by Mistresses Clarencius (Susan White, Princess Mary’s confidante), Mildmay, Tyrrell of Shenfield, and Carrow (Carew?), and Mistress Carrow’s sister, among others. Queen Elizabeth visited the Stonards at Loughton Hall in 1561 and at Luxborough in 1576 and again on September 20, 1578. Anne had one surviving child, Susan (c.1542-c.1606), who married Sir Robert Wroth the Elder of Enfield by 1576. In 1578, Wroth leased Loughton Hall from his father-in-law but Anne continued to live there until her death. Under the will left by Stonard (dated October 1, 1579 and proved December 12, 1579), Anne inherited a life interest in Luxborough Hall and half the contents plus twenty-four cows, a bull, six draught oxen, four cart horses, and five riding horses.


MAUD STONE (1545-1616)
Maud Stone was the daughter of Reynold or Reginald Stone of Henley-on-Thames, Berkshire. She is said to have been a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth, but her name is ont on any lists. Her first husband was Edward Little of Abingdon. In June 1567, she married Thomas Tesdale of Abingdon (October 1547-June 13, 1610), a maltster. They had three sons who died young. In his will, dated May 31, 1610, Tesdale left £5000 to send scholars from Abingdon to Balliol College, Oxford. Later this bequest was converted into a fund used to transform Broadgates Hall into Pembroke College. Portrait: tomb effigy at St. Mary’s Church, Glympton, Oxfordshire.

DIONIS STONEHOUSE (d. July 30, 1633)
Dionis/Dionysia Stonehouse was the daughter of George Stonehouse of Radley, Berkshire. She was the second wife of Edward Hext of Low Ham, Somerset (c.1550-February 22, 1624), who was knighted in 1604. They had one child, Elizabeth (d.1657). Dionis bult Somerton’s almshouses in memory of her husband. Portrait: effigy at Low Ham in “the church in the field.”


ELIZABETH STONOR (d. August 25, 1560)
Elizabeth Stonor was the daughter of Sir Walter Stonor of Stonor, Oxfordshire (1477-October 8, 1550), Lord Lieutenant of the Tower, and Anne (or Margaret) Foliot. Some accounts give her first husband as Sir William Compton of Compton Wynyates (d.1528), but the History of Parliament entry for Sir Philip Hoby, Elizabeth’s third husband, calls him Sir William Compton of Hawton, Nottinghamshire and Fenny Compton, Warwickshire. This has led to some confusion, especially since biographies of Sir William Compton of Compton Wynyates do not always mention a second wife. There are records, however, of Elizabeth’s efforts to collect her dower from his executors, one of whom was Sir Humphrey Browne. In 1529, Elizabeth Compton, widow of Sir William, applied for a license to marry Walter Walshe or Welshe of Abberley and Elmley Castle, Worcestershire (d.1538), a page of the privy chamber. They had at least three children, Walter, Margaret, and Frances.Her attempts to collect her jointure from her first marriage continued into her second widowhood. By 1540, she married Sir Philip Hoby of Leominster, Herfordshire and Bisham Abbey, Berkshire (1505-May 29, 1558). She was part of Queen Katherine Parr’s inner circle. She was buried in Wreysbury, Buckinghamshire. Portrait: Holbein’s drawing of “Lady Hobeii” was done about 1540 and is in the Royal Library at Windsor; another portrait, in a museum in York and called Lady Walshe is not Elizabeth Stonor, since it is dated 1589.






Anne Stoughton was the daughter of Lawrence Stoughton (1495-1572) and Anne Combes. Her father’s will was dated May 10, 1571 and proved April 28, 1572. Anne married William Barker of Sonning, Berkshire (c.1540-1575). They had six sons and five daughters, including Katherine (1553-1630), Richard, Anthony (c.1558-1630), Anne, and Frances. Anne is probably the Anne Barker who held Holme Place in Sonning during the last part of the sixteenth century. Portrait: effigy in St. Michael’s, Sonning.



DOROTHY STOURTON (c.1520-1552+)
Dorothy Stourton was the daughter of William, 7th baron Stourton (1484-September 16, 1548) and Elizabeth Dudley (1488-1560). She married Richard Brent of Cossington, Somersetshire (d.1570) on January 6, 1545/6. They had one daughter, Anne, who married Lord Thomas Paulet. In 1551, Brent’s only sister, Grace, and her husband, John Denham, were living with the Brents when Richard “conceived a great malice and displeasure” against them. The following year, he was found to be an “idiot” by a commission headed by his brother-in-law, Charles, 8th baron Stourton. There were later several chancery suits between the Denhams and the Paulets over inheritance rights to Cossington. The Paulets won.




MARY STOURTON (c.1550-1622+)
Mary Stourton was the eldest daughter of Charles, 8th baron Stourton (c.1521-March 1556/7) and Anne Stanley (d. September 22, 1601). When her mother married Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, Cornwall, he promised that when Mary reached eighteen she would have 400 marks as a marriage portion. In negotiations with John Tregian for the marriage between his son Francis and Mary, Tregian promised a jointure of 100 marks/year plus £40/year for the keep of Mary and Francis and eight servants at Lanherne. Francis Tregian, of Golden Manor, Cornwall (d. September 25, 1608), was a  recusant and a poet. Among their children were Mary (d.c.1608) and Francis (1574-1617). In 1574, Mary’s husband sued Arundell in Chancery over her jointure. After a raid on their home in June 1577, Francis was arrested for harboring the priest Cuthbert Mayne and imprisoned, first in Launceston Castle and later in London at the Marshalsea, Queen’s Bench, and Fleet. All his goods were seized by the Crown. The Tregian estates were granted to Sir George Carey, who promptly expelled Mary and her two small sons. Other accounts say she already had seven children by 1577. She went to London and demanded the right to share her husband’s imprisonment. Over the next sixteen years, they are said to have had eleven more children, most of whom lived. Mary is also reported to have found miraculous imprints on her bed-clothes. Tregian was given parole to live in Chelsea in 1601. He was released and banished in 1603, after the death of Queen Elizabeth. Mary remained in England, where she is said to have lived out the rest of her life in poverty. More details can be found in the chapter on “The Cornish Catholics” in Tudor Cornwall by A. L. Rowse.

URSULA STOURTON (1518-September 4, 1551)
Ursula Stourton was the daughter of William 7th baron Stourton (1484-September 16, 1548) and Elizabeth Dudley (1488-1560). She was a maid of honor to Anne of Cleves. Before June 15, 1541, she married Edward Fiennes de Clinton, Lord Clinton (1512-January 16, 1585). Their children were Henry, 2nd earl of Lincoln (c.1540-September 26, 1616), Edward (c.1545-before September 20, 1575), Anne (c.1546-1585), Thomas (c.1548-c.1613), and Frances (1551-September 12, 1623). Shortly before her death, she had an affair with Sir Thomas Cotton’s brother. When her husband threatened to expose her, she appealed to her cousin, the duke of Northumberland, for aid. Although Cotton made no attempt to deny the affair, it was hushed up.

MARGARET STOWERS (d. April 1593)
Margaret Stowers was the wife of John Brayne (c.1541-July 1586), the grocer behind the construction of the first purpose-built professional playhouse in England since Roman times, the Red Lion, located to the east of London’s Aldgate. They were married in 1565. By 1576, their four children, Robert, Roger, Rebecca, and John, had died. In that year, Brayne entered into a verbal agreement with his sister’s husband, James Burbage, to build the Theatre on a property in the Northern Liberty of Shoreditch. They paid a £20 deposit and £14 per annum on a lease that would run until March 25, 1597, with a provision for up to ten more years if they spent £200 on the old buildings on the property during the first ten years. Burbage promised to add Brayne’s name to the lease, in return for which Brayne agreed that the Burbage children would be his heirs. When expenses skyrocketed, Burbage had to borrow money and mortgage the lease. The entire Burbage family, Brayne, and his wife heled construct the building. Brayne sold his house and business in Bucklersbury and moved to Shoreditch to help defray expenses. In January 1580, with Burbage’s help, Brayne acquired a twenty-four year lease on The George, an inn in Whitechapel. He did not run it as an inn, but rather moved into the building with his wife. Margaret worked as a gatherer (collecting money from spectators) at the Theatre in the mid 1580s. At around the same time, again without a written contract, Brayne took an old friend, Robert Miles or Myles, a goldsmith, as a partner, and Miles also moved into The George. Brayne appears to have been a quarrelsome sort. He fell out with Burbage and also with Robert Miles. After a particularly violent quarrel with Miles, Brayne died, and Margaret accused Miles of murdering him. Since Brayne died bankrupt, Margaret also sued Miles for a share of The George, She gave birth to a posthumous child, Katherine (1586-July 1593). Not long after, Miles evicted them from The George. Margaret later moved back in. In 1588, she and Miles joined forces to sue James Burbage for half the Theatre or the £600 Burbage had owed Brayne. The Burbages countersued, claiming Miles was an adulterer and a “murdering knave” and Margaret a “murdering ho.” On June 7, 1589, the Theatre was reclaimed from creditors by means of assigning the lease to James’s oldest son, Cuthbert. Margaret Brayne was supposed to have a share in the settlement, but this promise was not honored. On November 16, 1590, still in the midst of lawsuits over ownership of the Theatre, Margaret attempted to install her own gatherer on the premises. James and Cuthbert were charged with contempt of court for trying to block her efforts. According to later testimony from Margaret’s supporters, Ellen Brayne Burbage and her second son, Richard, physically attacked Margaret and her “agent,” Robert Miles. With Richard Burbage, already well known as an actor, wielding a broomstick, the Burbages drove Margaret and her men away. Margaret Brayne died of the plague in 1593, but she made Miles her heir. He continued her lawsuit until 1595.

ANNE STRADLING (c.1469-1539)
Anne Stradling was the daughter of John Stradling of Dauntsey, Wiltshire (d.1471) and Alice Langford. She became a considerable heiress following the murder of her brother, Edward, during a robbery at Dauntsey. Everyone in the house was killed except a plough boy who had hidden himself. Anne, fortunately, was living in Paternoster Row in London at the time. A messenger was sent to inform her of what had happened. Sir John Danvers of Culworth, Northamptonshire (1455-1514/15), “by good fortune,” encountered this messenger before he reached Anne and, seizing his opportunity, “clapped up the match before she heard the news.” They were married on December 13, 1487. Their children were Dorothy (d.1559), Thomas (d.1532), Richard (d. July 17, 1517), Elizabeth (d.1539+), William (1496-July 20, 1544), John, Margaret (1500-1541+), Anne (d. July 11, 1523), Susan (1504-March 1527), and Constance. Anne was also joint heir to the Scilly Isles, which led to a court battle in about 1530 over the right of presentation at Lanyvett Church. She lived at Prestcote and may have become a vowess during her widowhood. More on her life and her descendants, together with her will, can be found in Francis Nottidge Macnamara, Memorials of the Danvers Family (of Dauntsey and Culworth). Portrait: brass in Dauntsey Church (stolen in 2004).

Damascin Stradling was the daughter of Sir Thomas Stradling (1498-1571) and Catherine Gamage. Gareth Russell, in Young and Damned and Fair: The Life of Catherine Howard, Fifth Wife of King Henry VIII (2016), identifies Damascin as a maid of honor to Catherine Howard, although other sources say this was Margaret Stradling. Damascin accompanied Jane Dormer, countess of Feria, to Spain. She died at Cafra.

JANE STRADLING (before 1512-1532+)
Jane Stradling was the daughter of Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat’s Castle, Glamorganshire (c.1474-1535) and Elizabeth Arundell (c.1584-1513). She married Alexander Popham of Huntworth, Somersetshire (d.1556). Their four sons and three daughters included Edward (d.1586) and John (c.1532-June 10, 1607). Portrait: effigy on John Popham’s monument in Wellington, Somerset.


KATHERINE STRADLING (February 12, 1512/13-April 24, 1585)
Katherine Stradling was the daughter of Sir Edward Stradling of St. Donat’s, Glamorganshire (c.1474-1535) and Elizabeth Arundell (c.1484-1513). She was in the service of Mary Arundell, countess of Sussex, at the same time as Anne Bassett and was the subject of a heated correspondence with Anne’s mother, Lady Lisle, because Anne had passed on to Katherine some pearls she mother had sent to her daughter. Katherine was named one of the English maids of honor assigned to Anne of Cleves at the beginning of 1540. Soon after that, she married Sir Thomas Palmer of Parham, Sussex (1498-April 15,1582). Their daughter Margaret was christened on August 23, 1540. Their other children were Catherine (b.1542), Robert (b.1543), William (July 14, 1544-December 24,1586), and Thomas (b.c.1548). Thomas’s will, dated February 1580, left half the residue of his goods to Katherine.

Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Catherine Strange as the wife of Sir Roland Clarke and an Extraordinary Lady of the Privy Chamber in January 1559.


Cecily Strangeways was the daughter of James Strangeways of Smelton and Anne Conyers. She married Thomas Boynton of Barmston and Aclam, Yorkshire (1501-1523). Their children were Matthew, Anne, Jane, and one other child. They lived in Roxby. After her husband’s death, she was left to raise her children with the help of her mother-in-law, Margaret Say. In 1532, she was contracted to marry a widower, Josceline Percy (1480-September 8, 1532), fourth son of the 4th earl of Northumberland, but Percy died before they could wed. His will, made on September 7, named Cecily as his executor. It is possible Percy was murdered. Certainly his brother, Sir William Percy, thought so. In a letter to Lord Cromwell, he accused a maidservant and three menservants of poisoning Josceline.





ANNE STRELLEY (1495-October 12, 1554)
Anne Strelley was the daughter and coheir of John Strelley of Strelley, Nottinghamshire (1448-January 22, 1501/2) and Sanchia Willougby (1457-1533). Some genealogies and the History of Parliament entry for Sir John Markham say her first husband was Richard Stanhope of Rampton, Nottinghamshire (1494-January 21, 1528/9), but other Stanhope sources say Richard married her sister Elizabeth. Anne was the third wife of Sir John Markham of Cotham, Nottinghamshire (1482-October 1559). Their children were Frances, William (d.1570/1), Thomas (d.1602), Isabella (1529-May 20, 1579), and another daughter. She received a generous legacy from a cousin, Jane Strelley, in 1546/7, but she had more difficulty with another, earlier inheritance. Barbara J. Harris recounts the story in her English Aristocratic Women, 1450-1550. It seems that when John Strelley died, he made his widow responsible for the dowry that was to go to Anne. Sanchia Strelley subsequently married Sir John Digby, who appropriated both the dowry and the livestock Strelley had left to Anne. In a court case in Chancery, Anne and her second husband sued, contending that Lady Digby had brought “a great substance” of the Strelley estate to her second marriage, which Digby had appropriated. Lady Digby supposedly died (in 1533) feeling “great remorse” and “with sore lamentation” but Digby still refused to yield either dowry or livestock to Anne. He died soon after his wife, obliging the Markhams to sue his executors. One of them, Simon Digby, claimed that his stepsister (Anne) had received both livestock and dowry years earlier and that, moreover, their mother, on her deathbed, had given her further gifts, a chain and jewels worth far more than the goods and money the Markhams were demanding. In the end, it took an Act of Parliament to settle the matter. The Strelley lands were divided among Anne and her sisters.


Isabel Strelley was the daughter of Nicholas Strelley of Strelley, Nottinghamshire (c.1480-August 25, 1560) and, probably, Isabel (or Elizabeth) Spencer (1496-August 25, 1560?). Unfortunately, Sir Nicholas is listed in various online genealogies with three different wives and few dates. The other two are Sara (or Grace) Digby and Ellen Gresley. Isabel was a waiting gentlewoman in the household of Eleanor Paston, countess of Rutland in the 1530s and early 1540s, along with Anne Bassett and Catherine Stradling. In 1546/7 she was left a bequest in the will of her father’s cousin, Jane Strelley.

JANE STRELLEY (d.1546/7)
Jane Strelley of Strelley, Nottinghamshire, “late of Southewell, gentlewoman,” left behind a detailed will dated October 19, 1546 and proved May 16, 1547. Although she names many relatives, it is difficult to place her in the family tree. She appears to be a granddaughter of Robert Strelley (c.1423-March 12, 1490 or January 5, 1488) and Isabel Kemp (d. February 7, 1459), but the names of her parents remain a mystery. Her most generous bequests are to Anne Markham, third wife of Sir John Markham of Cotham, Nottinghamshire. Anne Markham (1495-October 12, 1554) was the daughter of John Strelley (1448-January 22, 1501/2), son of Robert and Isabel. Anne was to have the “featherbed in the highe chamber, with all things belonginge to the same, and my rounde hoope of golde, for a remembrance to prae for me.” She also received the residue of the estate after the other bequests had been made. To Lady Strelley, wife of Sir Nicholas (d. August 25, 1560), Jane left a silver salt with a cover and a gold ring with a diamond in it. To their daughter, Alice Strelley (d.1599), Jane’s goddaughter, she willed a gold ring with a “turkes” (turquoise?) in it and to another of their daughters, Jane, also her goddaughter, she left a silver gilt spoon. She also left money to be divided among all of Sir Nicholas’s children: Isabel, Alice, Jane, Nicholas, John, and Henry. Other bequests went to her niece, Anne Emerson, her sister, Elizabeth Cade, her nephew, William Cade, and various servants and godchildren. Another cousin, Elizabeth Leeke, was singled out to receive an annuity from Jane’s farm of Gedlinge, a “chamlett gowne and kirtill, my skarlett petticoite, my best fedderbed save one, a bolster, ij pillouse, ij of my best coverlettes, too paire of blankettes, and a paire of shetes, and one ringe of golde, and the coffer at my beddes fete,” and “my tenement or housse in Southwell that I dwell in, and the yerde belonginge to the same to the stuppe of the southe side of my broode yaites to the one half of the landes and garden belonging to the same . . . frome the dae of the departure of me furthe of this world to the ende and terme of xviij yeres then next and ymediately followenge.”


JOAN STRETE (d.1497)
Joan Strete married John Moyle, gentleman, cousin of John Moyle of Eastwell, Kent (d. December 21, 1500). After her husband’s death, she married John Carre, another gentleman, and it was Carre against whom an action was brought by Thomas Ussher over an obligation given to John Moyle. Joan made her will on July 20, 1497, “with the assent and licence of John Carre her husband.” She asked to be buried in the church of St. Laurence Pulteney near her first husband. She left her second husband all her lands, tenements and rents in the town of Staines in Middlesex and in the parish of St. Sepulchre without Newgate, for life, with the remainder in trust for sale to fund four charities—founding a chantry in the church of St. Laurence; marriage portions for poor maidens; relief of poor householders and parishioners; and the repair of “noyous and jeoperdes wayes.” Other bequests went her brother, William a Strete, her sister Agnes, and Thomas and John, William’s sons. She also left money to repair a bridge and two parish churches. She disposed of a remarkable amount of property for a married woman. In addition those those already mentioned, there were lands and tenements in the parish of St. Margaret in Lothbury, tenements in Greenwich Lane, London, lands and tenements in Yalding, Kent, and a messuage in the parish of All Hallows in Bread Street, London.



see also STEWART

ARBELLA or ARABELLA STUART (by November 10, 1575-September 25, 1615)
Arbella Stuart was the daughter of Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox (1556-April 1576) and Elizabeth Cavendish (March 3, 1555-January 21, 1582). She was raised by her grandmother, Bess of Hardwick. Bess and Arbella’s other grandmother, Margaret Douglas, taught Arbella to think of herself as the future queen of England. She had an excellent claim to the throne, but not as good as that of her cousin, James VI of Scotland. She was at the center of several plots during the reign of Elizabeth Tudor. On June 22, 1610, she secretly married William Seymour (1587-1660), grandson of Lady Catherine Grey, who had his own claim to the throne. When the marriage was revealed, Seymour was sent to the Tower of London while Arbella was placed in the custody of Sir Thomas Parry at Lambeth. In March 1611, Arbella was sent to the Bishop of Durham. With the assistance of her aunt, Mary Cavendish, countess of Shrewsbury, she attempted an escape disguised as a man, planning to meet her husband and go with him to France. They left England on separate ships but Arbella’s vessel was captured by a naval pinnace sent to bring her back. This time she was imprisoned in the Tower. Although she was never tried, she had little hope of release. In 1615, she starved herself to death. Biographies: There are several but the most recent are David N. Durant’s Arbella Stuart: A Rival to the Queen and Sarah Gristwood’s Arbella: England’s Lost Queen; Oxford DNB entry under “Stuart [married name Seymour], Lady Arabella.” Portraits: 1577; in 1589 at 13, called “Countess of Lennox” and attributed to Rowland Lockey; in 1592 by Nicholas Hilliard; c.1604-5, possibly by Marcus Gheeraerts (three copies exist); 1605, probably by Robert Peake; c.1619 engraving, probably based on a lost portrait c.1608-9. NOTE: a number of other portraits said to be Arbella are not verified.





ALICE STUBBE (1585-November 1656)
Alice Stubbe was the daughter and co-heir of Richard Stubbe or Stubbs of Sedgeford, Norfolk (c.1546-1619) and his second wife, Anne Goding, widow of John L’Estrange (d.1582). On June 8, 1602, Alice married Hamon L’Estrange of Hunstanton, Norfolk (1583-May 31, 1654), great-nephew of John. The match was arranged by his guardian, Sir John Peyton. Their children were Dorothy (d.yng,), Jane (d.yng.), John (d.yng.), Mary (d.yng.), Nicholas (March 27, 1604-July 24, 1655), Hamon (1605-August 7, 1660), Elizabeth (b.1613), Roger (December 17, 1616-December 11, 1704). Alice had been taught farm management and accounting by her father and from 1609 kept detailed account books which are still extant in the Norfolk Record Office. In 1618, she took over managing her father’s estate. Alice’s husband, who described her as “a pearl beyond price,” and her sons were active Royalists at the time of the Civil War and the family suffered severe financial reverses as a result. Her son Nicholas compiled a jest book and attributed forty-three of the jokes and anecdotes to Alice, including some rather bawdy examples of the genre. Alice was buried in Hunstanton church on November 9, 1656. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “L’Estrange [née Stubbe], Alice.” Portrait: by John Hoskins, 1617.


ANNE STUBBS (1575-1630)
Anne Stubbs was the daughter of William Stubbs or Stubbes of Watchfield, Berkshire (d.1630) and Hester Harington (d.1631). She was baptized at St Clement Danes, London on January 9, 1575. In 1595, she married Robert Codrington (1573-February 1618) in the parish of Shrivenham in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire). Their seventeen children included John (1600-1670), Christopher, and Robert.  Portrait: effigy on the Codrington monument in Bristol Cathedral.


Elizabeth Stucley was the daughter of Nicholas Stucley (Stuckey/Stukey) of Affeton Devon (1451-May 27, 1488) and his second wife, Anne Pomeroy. She was born no earlier than 1478 and no later than 1489. By 1512, Elizabeth married Christopher Fleming, 8th baron Slane in the Irish peerage (1473-August 1517), as his second wife. Lord and Lady Slane founded a friary at Slane. In 1518, following Slane’s death in London, Elizabeth married Thomas Dudley, a member of Cardinal Wolsey’s household. She had inherited the manors of Highbray and Credihoo in Devon for life but had to take her case to the Star Chamber to win control of them. Dudley and Lady Slane held the wardship of Thomas Fitzgerald, one of the late earl of Kildare’s younger sons. In 1519, they were paid to give it up in favor of the duke of Buckingham. Some online records state that it was Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Pomeroy, who married Thomas Dudley, but Buckingham’s accounts are quite clear that Dudley’s wife was Lady Slane, not her mother. She died before April 7, 1526.


JOAN STUKELEY (1564-1621)
Joan Stukeley was the daughter of Hugh Stukeley of Marshwood, Somersetshire (c.1541-c.1587), a lawyer who held the wardship of George Luttrell of Dunster Castle, Somersetshire (1560-1629). When Luttrell was fifteen, Stukeley offered him a choice between two of his daughters. Luttrell chose Joan. The other daughter, Susan (d.1640) married Sir Henry Drury of Hedgerley. The betrothal of George and Joan was opposed by the Luttrells, especially George’s grandmother, Margaret (née Wyndham), who called Joan a slut and threatened to prevent her grandson from inheriting Dunster priory if the marriage went forward. They married on September 25, 1580, shortly after Margaret died. Their five sons and seven daughters included Thomas, Elizabeth (1598-before July 1633), and Margaret.

Elizabeth Stumpe was the only child of Sir James Stumpe of Malmesbury and Bromham, Wiltshire (d. April 29, 1563) and Bridget Baynton (d.1545). She is listed as one of the ladies at court in 1558-9. A fortnight after her father’s death, on May 13, 1563 at Lacock, she married Sir Henry Knyvett of Charlton, Wiltshire (1539-1598), who had been wounded in the Scottish wars. They had three daughters, Katherine (1564-September 8, 1638), Elizabeth (c.1574-c.1630), and Frances (d.1608). all of whom married earls or the heir to an earl. Portrait: recumbent effigy at Charlton.


KATHERINE STYLES (d.c.1530) (maiden name unknown)
Ordinarily, I would not find Katherine Styles of enough interest to include here, but she is the subject of one of the chapters in Elizabeth Salter’s Six Renaissance Men and Women. This seems to be based solely on the fact that she left a detailed will, something many other women also did. Salter speculates about social and religious matters but provides very little biographical information other than what is in the will itself. The testator, Katherine Styles of East Greenwich, Kent, made her will on August 8, 1530 and it was proved on October 16, 1531. She had three husbands. The first was William Cooke (d.1505). They had two sons, William and Thomas. From him she inherited property in Greenwich, Deptford, and elsewhere. Her second husband was Edward Skern or Skerme. They had a son, Edmond. She married Sir John Styles (d.1529) as his third wife. She asked to be buried in the parish church of St. Alphage of Greenwich, next to her first husband.





ELIZABETH SULYARD (c.1456-April 2, 1539)
Elizabeth Sulyard was the daughter of John Sulyard of Wetherden, Suffolk (c.1420-March 18, 1488) and Agnes Saunders (sometimes called Hungate, her mother’s maiden name) (d. before 1463). Elizabeth married John Garneys of Kenton, Suffolk (c.1455-June 11, 1524). Their children were Robert (c.1478-August 2, 1558), Mirabell (d. February 25, 1558), William, Anne, John (d.1526), Agnes, Alice, Margaret, Thomas (c.1510-c.1566), and Elizabeth (d.c.1528). This Elizabeth Sulyard should not be confused with her half sister, also named Elizabeth Sulyard (d.1569), whose mother was Alice Andrews (d.1520). The other Elizabeth married Sir Edward Baynton (c.1480-November 27, 1544). Elizabeth Garneys’s will, proved May 3, 1539, left £10 for repair of the highway between Needham Market and Stow and instructed that she be buried in Badby Church, Badby, Suffolk. Portrait: memorial brass with her husband in the vestry of Kenton Church.

Margaret Sulyard is identified in the History of Parliament entry for her husband as the sister of John Sulyard, which seems to make her the daughter of John Sulyard of Wetherden, Suffolk (1476-March 1539) and Margaret Baker (d. August 31,1521). She married John Tysar of Sandwich, Kent (d.1575), a grocer trading with the Continent. His will, made April 15, 1575, left legacies of £20 and £30 to his two sons and two daughters. Margaret was named sole executrix. She inherited her husband’s shop and half his effects. On March 6, 1579, the Privy Council noted that she was “charged with many children” and ordered William Cromer and others to investigate her allegations that she was being cheated over the payment of an annuity of £18.

Margaret (or Mary) Sulyard was the daughter of John Sulyard of Wetherden, Suffolk (d. March 4, 1574/5), a Catholic lawyer, and his second wife, Elizabeth Jerningham. In 1565 (either January 1 or July 7), at Quidenham, Norfolk, she married Thomas Tyrrell of Ramsden Tirrell (c.1540-September 25, 1592). Their children were Anne, John (b.c.1572), Thomas, and Avis. There are numerous Thomas Tyrrells (also spelled Tirrell) and considerable confusion over which is which. Her husband apparently owned Heron Hall/Herongate in the parish of East Thornden, Essex. Margaret’s second husband was William Browne. Portrait: 1581 at 38 by John Bettes the Younger in the collection of Newham Heritage Services.

ALICE SUTTILL (d. 1592+) (maiden name unknown)

Alice was the wife of William Suttill. In 1590, in Canterbury Consistory Court, he accused her of adultery with Thomas Winterborne, the bishop of Dover’s steward, and with witchcraft for procuring a charm from Dr. Thomas Fansham and his wife. Alice claimed it was a love charm to win her husband’s affection. but those who testified against her, including Fansham, Alice’s maid (Margaret Christmas), and a neighbor (Margaret Swift), testified to her ill treatment of William and bolstered William’s assertion that the charm was intended to kill him. William was granted a legal separation from his wife. Biography: entry in Carole Levin, et al, editors, A Biographical Encyclopedia of Early Modern Englishwomen. There are also entries for Margaret Christmas and Margaret Swift, written by a different contributor. All three entries reference works by Lena Cowen Orlin.

ALICE SUTTON (c.1483-1554)
Alice Sutton was probably the daughter of Sir Edmund Sutton of Dudley Castle, Staffordshire (d. between July 6, 1483 and 1487) and Matilda Clifford (c.1442-1491+). She married Sir John Radcliffe of Derwentwater (c.1480-February 2, 1527). Her will is dated March 31, 1554 and was proved in July of that year. Portrait: brass in Crosthwaite, Cumberland.

ANNE SUTTON (c.1554-November 29, 1605)
Anne Sutton (sometimes called Agnes) was only child of Edward Sutton, 4th baron Dudley (d. July 9, 1586) by his first wife, Catherine Brydges (c.1524-April 1566). Her marriage contract is dated June 3, 1571 but the actual date of her marriage to Francis Throckmorton of Feckenham, Worcestershire and Throckmorton House at Paul’s Wharf, London (1554-x.July 10, 1584) is unknown. They had one son, John (d.1604+). Francis Throckmorton was involved with treasonous plots and was arrested at his London house on November 5, 1583. Anne is credited by some sources with taking a casket covered in green velvet from under his bed and spiriting it out of the house before it could be confiscated. Later testimony indicated that her maid, Elizabeth Cooke, gave it to another servant, John Throckmorton, with instructions to take it to a safe place. He took it to a tailor named Russems, who lodged in Cheapside. The following day it was passed on to another tailor,  Haddocke, in St. Paul’s Churchyard, and from there went to one of the Spanish ambassador’s servants. John Bossy’s account credits a housemaid and a priest named John Meredith with the rescue of the casket. The casket contained letters recently received from Paris for Mary, queen of Scots. During Throckmorton’s imprisonment in the Tower of London, he managed to smuggle out at least one letter to his wife. She received it on Friday, December 13, 1583. It opened with the words “my good sweetheart.” On December 18, Anne and her sister were questioned about this letter, which they claimed was no more than a request for linen and bedding. Anne was allowed to visit her husband in the Tower in Jun3 1584. Bossy says she and his mother persuaded him to confess. Her second husband was Thomas Wilmer (d.1628), a barrister. Their children were Thomas, John, Mary, and Ursula.

ANNE SUTTON (d. January 8, 1611/2)
Anne Sutton was the daughter of Sir Henry Sutton of Aversham, Nottinghamshire and his third wife, Alice Harrington. By a license dated December 17, 1567, Anne married Walter Haddon of London and St. Mary Cray, Kent (1514/15-January 24, 1571) as his second wife, On January 27, 1573, she married Henry Brooke (February 5, 1537/8-January 13, 1591/2), a younger son of the 9th baron Cobham. Their children were Calisthenes (1573-1611), John (1575-1660), Maximilian (1576-98), Anne (c.1577-1612+), and Philippa (c.1579-1613). He went by the surname Cobham rather than Brooke. He was knighted in 1575. He was resident ambassador in Paris from 1579-83 and it was customary for wives to go with their husbands on such long-term diplomatic assignments. The family home was at Sutton-at-Hone, Kent, where Cobham died, and he also had property at East and West Malling and Crayford. He left no will. In 1596, his three sons sold the house at Sutton-at-Hone, forcing anne to take lodgings in London. She is the Lady Cobham who features in Jacobean records, since Lord Cobham’s wife, Frances Howard, continued to use the higher title of Lady Kildare. Letters from Anne Sutton to Sir Robert Cecil concerning the marriage of her daughter Philippa to Walter Calverley in 1600 can be found in A. C. Cawley and Barry Gaines’s A Yorkshire Tragedy (1986). Anne’s will is reprinted at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. She wrote it January 8, 1612 and it was proved January 18, 1612.



CECILY SUTTON (c.1505-1563)
Cecily Sutton was the daughter of John Sutton of Sutton, Cheshire and Thomasin Cholmley or Cholmondeley (d. before 1531). She married George Ashley of Ashley, Cheshire. They had one daughter, Thomasin (d. before 1558), who married Richard Brereton of Lea Hall, Middlewick, Cheshire (d.1558) in 1530. Cecily made her will on May 19, 1563. It can be found in Lancashire and Cheshire Wills and itemizes all her household goods and all her chattel and distributes them among her three grandchildren—George, Anne, and Jane Brereton—and others. George got the black nag and the young filly, while Anne was left the gray mare and her foal, as well as two damask gowns and a red damask kirtle. To Jane went the damask gown that had belonged to her mother and a blue satin tippet that belonged to Cecily, together with a pair of white birral [pearl? beryl?] beads. Everything from oxen and swine to sheets, spoons, kerchiefs, sleeves, and candlesticks was divided up.

ELEANOR SUTTON (c.1489-by 1549)
Eleanor Sutton was the daughter of Edward Sutton, 2nd Lord Dudley (c.1457-January 31, 1531/32) and Cecily Willoughby (c.1463-August 1539). According to the Oxford DNB (contradicting older sources), she was married to Charles Somerset, soon to be created earl of Worcester (1460-April 15, 1526) by November 1511. This assigns the children elsewhere said to belong to Elizabeth West—Charles, George, and Mary—to Eleanor. Around 1527, Eleanor married Lord Leonard Grey, Viscount Grane (c.1490-July 28, 1541), who was executed for treason. According to Leland’s Itinerary, Eleanor was buried at Ulverscroft Priory in Leicestershire.

Elizabeth Sutton (sometimes called Dorothy) was one of the seven daughters of Edward Sutton, 2nd baron Dudley (c.1457-January 31, 1531/2) and Cecily Willoughby (c.1463-August 1539). In 1516, she married John Huddleston (c.1497-October 16, 1530). Their children were John (July 1517-November 4, 1557), Charles, and Eleanor (d.before 1560). Her second husband was Sir Thomas Butler of Bewsey and Warrington, Lancashire (c.1494-September 15,1550). In around 1523, her stepson, Thomas Butler (c.1513-1579) had been contracted to marry Alice Trafford, but in about 1543 he married his stepsister, Eleanor Huddleston, instead. Both Thomas Butlers were spendthrifts. The younger Thomas brought suit in the duchy of Lancaster against his father, claiming that the elder Thomas defrauded him and his wife of rents due them under their marriage settlement. One online genealogy says Elizabeth Sutton, Lady Butler died in Zurich.

JOYCE SUTTON (1492-c.1586)
Joyce Sutton was the daughter of Edward Sutton, 2nd baron Dudley (c.1457-January 31, 1531/2) and Cecily Willoughby (c.1463-August 1539). Genealogy sources are contradictory concerning the date of her marriage to John Leighton of Watlesburgh/Wattlesborough, Shropshire (1480-February 28, 1532), some giving 1508 and others 1522. They had at least three children, Elizabeth (c.1522-May 16, 1606), Edward (d. September 10, 1593), and Thomas (c.1530-1609). By 1538, Joyce had married Richard Lee of Oxenbold, Shropshire (d.1557+), a member of the royal household. She is probably the “Mrs. Leye” who was one of Catherine Howard’s gentlewomen of the privy chamber. Away from court, they lived on Leighton property at the manors of Stapleton and Wattlesborough. In June 1540, Lee acquired the wardship of Joyce’s son Edward. In about 1550, Lee and his wife were defendants in a chancery case.

MARGARET SUTTON (1485-December 5, 1525?)
Margaret Sutton was one of the seven daughters of Edward Sutton, 2nd baron Dudley (c.1457-January 31, 1531/2) and Cecily Willoughby (c.1463-August 1539). Her father, characterized as “unscrupulous” by T. B. Pugh in his essay “Henry VII and the English Nobility” (in The Tudor Nobility, edited by G. W. Bernard), obtained the wardship and marriage of John Grey, baron Powis (1482/3-April 15, 1504) on November 29, 1494 and married Powis to Margaret by 1502. They had at least one child, Edward (1503-July 12, 1551). TudorPlace.com.ar gives them a second son, Anthony. Margaret’s father obtained the wardship of young Edward and kept the profits for himself, failing to pay her the 1/3 dower share she was entitled to. In 1505, she married Robert Sutton of Burton by Lincoln and Washingborough, Lincolnshire (d. November 25, 1545). Their children were Henry (1509-January 6, 1537/8), Anne, John, Margaret, Robert, and Thomas. Some accounts say she died before May 11, 1525, but the will of her mother-in-law, Dame Margaret Sutton, vowess of Burton by Lincoln, dated October 1, 1525, names her son Robert as her executor and left my lady Powis, the title Margaret would have kept after her remarriage, a standing maser with a cover.




BRIDGET SWAYNE (d.1613+) (maiden name unknown)
Bridget married Edward Hardeson or Herdeson of London, a skinner. The marriage intentions of South Myms for May 30, 1584 listed “Bridget Herdeson, widow, relict of Edward Hardeson” and “William Newce, gent. of Hadham Magna, Herts.” This is not the same William Newce of Much Hadham who died February 22, 1610. His two wives were named Mary and Cecily. In about May of 1612, Bridget marrieds William Swayne of Hackney (d. November 1, 1613), a barber-surgeon. Swayne wrote his will on October 13, 1613, mentioning stepchildren and leaving Bridget the use of two houses, a coach and geldings, and £200. Three days later, he revoked this bequest.

Margaret Sweet was the daughter of John Sweet of Calais and his wife Florence. According to Mark Eccles’ Marlowe in London, John Sweet was a soldier who kept the day watch in Calais. His father, Robert Sweet, originally from Prittlewell, Essex, had kept the day watch in Calais before him. Florence Sweet sold butter and cheese and the Sweets lodged some of the retainers of Francis I when he came to Calais in 1532 to meet with Henry VIII. In 1539, John Sweet was charged with forging the will of John Senows, a priest. England lost Calais in 1558 and the family probably left that time. Margaret Sweet married John Freemont, damasker of armor and weapons of Calais and armorer to the earl of Arundel. By 1571, she married Richard Shepie. On September 18, 1590, Richard and Margaret Shepie brought suit in Chancery against John Sweet over lands in Prittlewell. Numerous witnesses were called who still remembered the Sweets of Calais. One was Margaret, widow of a cobbler named Peter Johnson of St. Katherine’s, London. She was eighty-five, born and brought up in Calais, and she remembered Margaret’s father from around 1557 as a tall handsome man with abron (auburn?) hair and beard.



Elizabeth Swynnerton was the daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey Swynnerton of Swynnerton and Hilton, Staffordshire (1516-July 25, 1562) and Cassandra Giffard (d.1570). She married William Fitzherbert of Lichfield, Staffordshire (d. 1559), a lawyer and M.P. Their children were Thomas (September 4, 1552-August 7, 1640), Anthony, and Anne. His will was proved August 4, 1559. Elizabeth was named one of his executors. She married Francis Gatacre of Claverley, Shropshire (d.1590). Their children were William (b.1565), Thomas, John, Margaret, Elizabeth, and Dorothy. Portrait: tombstone now mounted on the wall in All Saints, Claverley.

Margaret Synnerton was the eldest daughter and coheiress of Humphrey Swynnerton of Swynnerton and Hilton Hall, Staffordshire (1516-July 25, 1562) and Cassandra Giffard (d.1570). On May 3, 1547 (one source says by 1540), she married Henry Vernon of Sudbury Hall, Derbyshire (d. September 29, 1569). Their children were John (d. July 8, 1600), Henry (d. June 21, 1592), Margaret, Mary, and Dorothy. In 1555, Vernon was in trouble for wearing apparel beyond his station, taking too large an escort of liveried retainers to the assizes, and failing to attend Parliament. Margaret inherited the manor of Hilton from her father, along with Essington, Apsley, Sugenhall, and lands in Penkridge. Vernon made his will on March 1, 1568 and it was proved December 11, 1569. Margaret was one of three executors. A servant later accused her of substituting the name of her second son, Henry, for that of her eldest son, John, in the clause that provided that she hold the lease of Hazlebadge in the Peak until Henry was eighteen, and of defrauding her eldest daughter of a bequest of 500 marks. The will charged the executors with erecting a monument to Henry Vernon in Sudbury church and left twenty marks for that purpose. There is no evidence that this was ever done. On August 30, 1578, Margaret married George Wynter, who in 1583/4 was accused of starving her. One source from 1879 gives the date of her death as 1587 rather than 1591.


ELIZABETH SYDENHAM (c.1562-June 9, 1598)
Elizabeth Sydenham was the daughter of Sir George Sydenham of Combe Sydenham, Somerset (c.1524-1596) and Elizabeth Hales. On about February 9, 1585, she married Sir Francis Drake of Buckland Abbey and Yelverhampton, Devon (c.1540-January 28, 1595/6). In September of that year, she entertained Don Antonio at their Devon estate. Sir Philip Sidney was also there, according to a letter from Ambassador Mendoza to King Philip. Drake was already a hero from his voyage around the world (1577-80). He spent most of their marriage at sea, died aboard his ship in the harbor at Porto Bello, and was buried at sea. Elizabeth married Sir William Courtenay of Powderham, Devon (c.1553-June 24, 1630), as his second wife. She had no children from either marriage and barely rates a footnote in biographies of her famous first husband. Portrait: by George Gower, c.1585.




Anne Symonds, according to The History of Parliament entry for Ralph Warcoppe, is the maiden name of Anne Warcop (Warcup/Warcoppe), a Marian exile who is mentioned several times by John Foxe in his Book of Martyrs. Anne F. Sutton, in The Mercery of London, disputes this, saying Anne Warcop’s will implies that her surname was Smith. One online genealogy gives Anne’s parents as Ralf Symonds of London (d.c.1541), fishmonger and alderman, and Thomasin Coppinger (d.1555). On October 9, 1542, she married Richard Wilkinson (d.1542), a mercer. he made his will on November 26, 1542. On January 21, 1543 at St. Antholin, Budge Row, London, Anne married Cuthbert Warcop (d. October 8, 1559), a mercer and stapler who owned land in Oxfordshire. Their ten children included Joan, Ralph (1545-1605), Leonard, Nicholas, Christian, Anne, Emma, and Cuthbert (a scholar at Oxford from 1566-1570), Cuthbert’s cousin, Joan Wilkinson (née North), was the widow of Anne’s first husband’s uncle. With Joan, Anne visited the imprisoned bishops Cranmer, Hooper, Latimer, and Ridley during the reign of Mary Tudor. She received letters from other Protestant martyrs, including John Bradford. Bradford advised her to “be merry in the Lord.” She befriended John Jewel when he fled Oxford in 1554. Anne and her husband, along with their children, went into exile in Frankfurt. Joan Wilkinson died in their house there in 1556, leaving her only surviving daughter, Jane, in their keeping. Cuthbert died soon after their return to England. In his will, written June 23, 1555 and proved October 15, 1559, he left everything to his wife and children with the provision that the children “be brought up in the fear of God, learning, and virtuous manners.” In 1565, Anne sheltered Laurence Humphrey, a Puritan. Although she leased a house in Knightrider Street from the Mercers, she spent the last part of her life at English, the family’s manor in Oxfordshire.

Elizabeth Symonds was the daughter of Giles Symonds of Cley, Norfolk (d.1596) and Catherine Lee (d. before 1595) and the niece of Sir Henry Lee of Ditchley. She was christened on December 22, 1560. She married Sir Lawrence Tanfield of Burford, Oxfordshire (c.1551-1625), who was chief baron of the Exchequer from 1607. Their only child was a daughter, Elizabeth (1585-1639), who went on to become viscountess Falkland and a playwright. In 1624, Lady Tanfield was accused of taking bribes to influence her husband. Portrait: tomb effigy in St. John the Baptist, Burford.