ALATHEA TALBOT (1584-May 24, 1654)
Alathea or Aletheia Talbot was the daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th earl of Shrewsbury (November 20, 1553-May 8, 1616) and Mary Cavendish (January 1556/7-April 1632) and eventually inherited a vast estate in Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, and Yorkshire. She married Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel (July 7, 1586-October 4, 1646) on September 30, 1606. Their children were James (1607-1624), Henry (August 15, 1608-April 17, 1652), William (November 30, 1612-1680), Charles, Gilbert, Thomas, and Theophilus. She was interested in science and had some of her own works published. Her husband was an art collector. They lived all over Europe and after a stint in Venice, Alathea brought a gondola back with her to use on the Thames. At the same time (July 1623), she also brought home three Italian massaras (female servants), including a blackamore. During the Civil War both Alathea and her husband remained on the Continent, but they were not together and were also separated from their children. Arundel died in Padua. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Howard, Aletheia.” NOTE: the DNB gives her father’s year of birth as 1552 and her husband’s as 1585. Portraits: miniature as a child; by Daniel Mytens c.1618; group painted by Peter Paul Rubens in 1620; engraving 1646; others.

ANNE TALBOT (March 18, 1523/4-July 18, 1588)
Anne Talbot was the daughter of George Talbot, 4th earl of Shrewsbury (1468-July 26, 1538) and Elizabeth Walden (1491-July 1567). On May 29, 1537, she married Peter Compton (1522-1542). Their son was Henry, 1st baron Compton (February 16, 1538-December 1589). In May 1552, she married William Herbert, earl of Pembroke (c.1506-March 17, 1569/70), who married her for her money and connections. Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) lists frequent occasions when the queen dined with Lady Pembroke at Baynard’s Castle in London. According to rumor, the queen married Lord Robert Dudley there on April 28, 1562. When Pembroke died, Anne received a letter of condolence from the queen.She was allowed to keep her own clothes and jewels, which would otherwise have gone to her eldest stepson, and stay in Baynard’s Castle. Anne died in London and was buried at Erith, Kent on August 8, 1588.

ANNE TALBOT (c.1524-February 3, 1585)
Anne Talbot was the daughter of Francis Talbot, 5th earl of Shrewsbury (1500-September 25,1560) and Mary Dacre (1502-March 29, 1538). In 1542, she married her father’s ward, John Bray, 2nd baron Bray (c.1527-November 18, 1557). Although some sources say he was executed for his part in the Dudley Conspiracy, this is not the case. Bray seems rather to have been in the wrong places with the wrong people at the wrong times. He was first arrested on July 15,1553, during Wyatt’s rebellion, on suspicion of being involved in that plot, but he was released later the same day. On January 5, 1556, in the parish of St. Andrew in the ward of Baynard’s Castle, he made the mistake of saying that if his neighbor of Hatfield might once reign, he would have his lands and debts given to him again, which he both wished for and trusted he would see. In other words, he hoped Queen Mary would die so that Elizabeth Tudor could ascend to the throne. This was sufficient cause to arrest him when rumors of the Dudley Conspiracy came to light. He was in custody by May 5, 1556. As soon as Lady Bray heard of her husband’s arrest, she went at once to London, as did her mother-in-law, Jane Hallighwell. Neither woman managed to arrange a meeting with the queen, but they sent tokens to influential courtiers, including Susan Clarenceaux, the queen’s chief gentlewoman. Hearing of Lady Bray’s campaign to free her husband, Queen Mary is reported to have said that “God sent often times to good women evil husbands.” She may have been thinking of her own husband, for word had come to her on June 16 that King Philip would not be returning to England as planned. Upon receiving that news, the queen shut herself away, refusing to see any petitioners. Meanwhile, Lord Bray was confined in the Fleet, and later in the Tower of London and deprived of basic necessities. His wife was offered “no gentleness.” Throughout his imprisonment, Bray maintained that he was innocent of treason. The eventual charge against him was “infraction of true obedience” for “false and contemptuous words.” He remained in custody until the first week of April 1557. He was pardoned on May 13, 1557. When King Philip raised an army to fight the French, Bray joined up, as did many who had formerly been rebels, and fought at Saint Quentin on August 10, where he was wounded. It was as a result of these wounds that he died on November 18, 1557 in his house in Blackfriars. His wife was not with him. His mother was, and she named executrix of his will, which was proved on November 20, 1557. His mother also arranged for his burial at Chelsea, where his father and grandfather rested. It is difficult to tell if there was a rift between husband and wife at this time. Spouses did not customarily attend funerals. In this case, however, neither did any of Anne’s relatives. The chief mourner was George, Lord Cobham, Bray’s brother-in-law. Anne had no children by John Bray and the title went into abeyance after his death. On November 18, 1561, she married Thomas, 1st baron Wharton (1495 or 1501-August 23, 1568). They had no children. Anne made her will in 1582. Portraits: effigies on monuments with Lord Wharton at Kirkby Stephen, Westmorland and Healaugh, Yorkshire.


CATHERINE TALBOT (1553-April 1576)
Catherine Talbot was the eldest daughter of George Talbot, 6th earl of Shrewsbury (1528-November 19, 1590) and Gertrude Manners (d. January 1566). On February 17, 1562/3, she married Henry, Lord Herbert (1540-January 19, 1601), heir to the earl of Pembroke. They had no children. He succeeded to that title on March 17, 1570. As countess of Pembroke, Catherine was at court, where she was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth. During her lingering, almost two-year-long terminal illness, the queen visited her twice and loaned the Pembrokes one of her own ships so that they could travel to the Continent in search of a cure. The queen sent a physician to Catherine at Spa in July 1575. She returned to England September 14 and had died by April 24, 1576, when a tournament was postponed due to general grief. She was buried May 14, 1576 in Salisbury Cathedral.

Constance Talbot was the daughter of Sir John Talbot of Albrighton, Shropshire and Grafton, Lincolnshire (1491-September 10, 1548) and Margaret Troutback (1493-1534). One source says that on March 30, 1533, she married Sir George Blount of Kinlet, Shropshire and Knightley, Staffordshire (1512/13-July 20, 1581), but in the recent biography of George’s sister, Bess Blount, Elizabeth Norton dates their marriage settlement in “March 1536, the year of their marriage.” Their children were John, who reportedly died from choking on an apple, and Dorothy. Constance’s parents paid sums of money to George’s widowed mother. Norton also says the marriage was “long lasting and evidently happy,” but this is contradicted elsewhere. Although they were both Catholics, Sir George conformed during the reign of Elizabeth, but his wife, according to the History of Parliament, was “an encumbrance.” They separated by October 1575, when a settlement was drawn up by the bishop and dean of Worcester. Blount quarreled with their daughter over her 1576 marriage to John Purslow of Sidbury, Shropshire and disinherited her in 1577, making his nephew, Roland Lacon, his heir. That same year, he was returned as a recusant. Dorothy challenged his will (made December 30, 1580) but lost her case. Portrait: effigy on tomb in Kinlet, Shropshire, which also shows her daughter kneeling behind her.

Elizabeth Talbot was the daughter of John Talbot, 1st earl of Shrewsbury (c.1387-1453) and Margaret Beauchamp (1404-1467). On November 27, 1448, she married John Mowbray, duke of Norfolk (October 18, 1444-January 1475/6), a staunch supporter of King Edward IV. He was twice imprisoned before Edward secured the throne. By 1467, Elizabeth’s jointure had been expanded to include most of the Mowbray inheritance, insuring that she would control it if the duke died. In July 1468, she accompanied Margaret Plantagenet to Burgundy for her marriage to Duke Charles. Elizabeth was pregnant when her husband died but the child did not survive. His sole heir was a young daughter, Anne (1471-November 19, 1481), and on January 15, 1478, at age five, she was married to Richard, second son of Edward IV, who was created duke of Norfolk. He was four. Neither lived to adulthood. The widowed duchess continued to be influential in East Anglia and shows up in the Paston letters as one of their adversaries. During her widowhood, the dukedom was revived for the Howard family and subsequently taken away again, leading to confusion in some records between Elizabeth Talbot and Elizabeth Tylney, first wife of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk, even though he was not restored to the title (the second restoration) until after Elizabeth Tylney’s death. Elizabeth Talbot bought the marriage and wardship of Gilbert Pynchbeke, son and heir of Thomas Pynchbeke from the earl of Oxford. In 1505, she was named executrix of the estate of her sister-in-law, Jane Champernowne, widow of Sir Humphrey Talbot. Both women asked, in their wills, to be buried in the nun’s quire of the Minories without Aldgate, London, near the place where Anne Darcy, wife of John Montgomery, apparently a lifelong friend, had been buried. Elizabeth Talbot wrote her will on November 6, 1506 and it was proved June 28, 1507. Magna Carta Ancestry says May 10, 1507. It is mistakenly identified as a third will written by Elizabeth Tylney by the editor of Testamenta Vetusta. Portrait: stained glass window in Long Melford, Suffolk, which she shares with Elizabeth Tylney. Biography: included in the Oxford DNB entry for her husband.

Elizabeth Talbot was the daughter of George Talbot, 4th earl of Shrewsbury (1468-July 26, 1538) and Anne Hastings (c.1471-1510). In 1519, she married William Dacre, 3rd baron Dacre of the North (April 29, 1500-November 18, 1563). Their children were Thomas, 4th baron (c.1527/30-1566), Leonard (d.1573), Magdalen (1539-1608), Anne (c.1538-1581), Francis (d.1633), Edward (d.1584), Mary (c.1536-April 12, 1611+), Eleanor, and possibly others who died young. The Talbot papers include three letters from Elizabeth, two to her brother Francis, the 5th earl, and one to his third wife, Grace. The latter, written from Skipton on December 22 (no year given), mentions her married daughter, Anne, and plans to visit Carlisle. One to Shrewsbury is dated December 29 from Morpeth and seems to be from the same year. The third letter is dated November 3, 1555 and requests that her brother assist two of the Dacre servants who have grievances. Mary Anne Everett Green references another letter, written by the widowed Lady Dacre in 1566, but this was from Elizabeth Leyburne, the widow of Elizabeth Talbot’s eldest son.

ELIZABETH TALBOT (before February 10, 1582-December 7, 1651)
Elizabeth Talbot was the daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th earl of Shrewbury (November 20, 1553-May 8, 1616) and Mary Cavendish (January 1556/7-April 1632). In 1601, Elizabeth went to court as a maid of honor. On November 16, 1601, she married Henry Grey, Lord Ruthin (c.1583-1639), heir to the earldom of Kent. They had no children. In 1602, Elizabeth’s cousin, Arbella Stuart, was committed to her care at Sheriff Hutton. Arbella was still with the Greys when Queen Elizabeth died. Together they moved to Wrest Park, where Arbella remained until June 1604. Grey succeeded to the earldom in 1623, making Elizabeth a countess. She was often at court under James I, performing in masques and participating in state ceremonies. The Greys also spent a great deal of their time at Wrest Park in Bedfordshire, which became a mecca for poets. Elizabeth was highly educated. She compiled A choice Manuall, or Rare and Select Secrets in Physick and Chyrurgery and A True Gentlewoman’s Delight, Wherein is contained all manner of Cookery. These works went through numerous editions in the seventeenth century, each with a portrait of its author. Elizabeth received a number of dedications, including John Selden’s Table Talk. Selden remained in Elizabeth’s household after her husband’s death and was the beneficiary in her will, prompting John Aubrey’s claim in Brief Lives (written between 1669 and 1696) that they were secretly married. There is no confirmation of this, nor of Elizabeth’s supposed liaison with Sir Edward Herbert (1591-1657), a judge. She died in her home, Friary House, Whitefriars, London and was buried at Flitton, Bedfordshire. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Grey, Elizabeth.” Portraits: c.1618, by Paul van Somer; c.1637 etching by W. Hollar.



GRACE TALBOT (c.1560-1625+)
Grace Talbot was the youngest daughter of George Talbot, 6th earl of Shrewsbury (1528-November 19, 1590) and Gertrude Manners (d. January 1566). On February 9, 1568, at the age of eight, she was married to Henry Cavendish of Tutbury, Staffordshire (December 17, 1550-October 12, 1616), the son of her father’s second wife. The marriage was a dismal failure, although they continued to live together at Tutbury Castle and share the financial difficulties brought on by Henry’s extravagance. Grace had no children, but Henry fathered no fewer than eight illegitimate sons and daughters. He is said to have once called Grace a harlot in front of their servants, but it seems unlikely that she had done anything to deserve the name. She remained on good terms with her mother-in-law, Bess of Hardwick, throughout Bess’s life. Portrait: by George Gower, 1591.



MARY TALBOT (c.1504-April 16, 1572)
Mary Talbot was the daughter of George Talbot, 4th earl of Shrewsbury (1468-July 26,1538) and Anne Hastings (c.1471-1510). Although the duke of Buckingham wanted her for his son, Mary was betrothed to Henry Percy, later 6th earl of Northumberland (1502-January 30,1537) in 1516 and married him in January 1524. Their longstanding betrothal was used to prevent Percy from marrying Anne Boleyn, with whom he had unwisely fallen in love. The marriage was not a happy one. In 1528, he complained about Mary’s “malicious arts” and “imaginations of untruth.” Mary’s father, meanwhile, was concerned that Northumberland might be abusing his wife, even poisoning her. Northumberland refused to let any of Talbot’s servants see or talk to Mary. Eventually, she left him and went home to her family. She gave birth to a stillborn child in April 1529. Whether she ever returned to her husband is unclear. In 1532, she accused him of having had a pre-contract with Anne Boleyn that would render their marriage null and void. This effort to obtain an annulment failed. By 1534, Mary was living with her father. In 1536, Shrewsbury claimed that Northumberland had not paid Mary the 200 marks a year he had promised her when they separated. Northumberland countered with the charge that Shrewsbury had never handed over Mary’s dowry. When Northumberland died, having no sons to inherit, he willed his lands and title to the Crown. Mary’s father made his will on August 21, 1537. He charged his son Francis “that if my daughter, the Countess of Northumberland, have not . . . lands out of the late inheritance of her late husband, Henry, late Earl of Northumberland, deceased, as will extend to find her an honorable living, that then my said son Francis and his heirs shall give and find the Countess of Northumberland meat, drink, apparel and other funding during her life natural or unto such time as she shall have some lands which shall be to her an honorable living.” On May 15, 1542, Mary was at Greenwich to petition the king for support. He reminded her that her father had never paid Northumberland her dowry but promised to refer the matter to the Privy Council. Nothing was done until in May 1549, when Mary was granted properties, rent free for life, worth £200/year. Under Mary Tudor, she traveled to St. James on November 21, 1555, to present a petition to the queen and wrote to her brother from Coldharbour that she received “very good and comfortable words.” She visited Mary’s court occasionally, but lived primarily at Warmhill, on the banks of the Wye, a Shrewsbury property. On September 22, 1560, Mary attended the funeral of her brother, the earl of Shrewsbury, along with his two daughters, his daughter-in-law, and five of his granddaughters. In June 1561, she was a witness to the will of her niece, Dorothy Dacre, Lady Windsor, who left her four oxen and forty sheep. Mary made her will on April 16, 1572 and it was proved at Durham on June 6, 1572. She left mourning and small sums of money to her servants, naming each of her women: Margery Gravener, Anne Bulkeley, Marie Everede, Anne Day, and Katherine Parkyn. Her half sister, Anne Talbot, countess of Pembroke, was named as her executor. She was buried in St. Peter’s Church, Sheffield. Biography: Mary is one of five women profiled in the unpublished doctoral dissertation Image and Reality: the Lives of Aristocratic Women in Early Tudor England (1998) by Jennifer Ann Rowley-Williams.

MARY TALBOT (1580-1650)
Mary Talbot was the eldest daughter of Gilbert Talbot, 7th earl of Shrewsbury (November 20, 1553-May 6, 1616) and Mary Cavendish (January 1556-April 1632). Her godmother was Mary, queen of Scots. She was at the court of Queen Elizabeth from 1600-1603 as a maid of the Privy Chamber. She was a patron of the arts, especially after she married William Herbert, 3rd earl of Pembroke (April 18, 1580-April 10, 1630) on November 4, 1604. The wedding was celebrated with a tournament at Wilton, but the marriage was both unhappy and childless. Pembroke’s elegy includes this line: “He paid much too dear for his wife’s fortune by taking her person into the bargain.”

MARY TALBOT (1594-March 6, 1675/76)
Mary Talbot was the daughter of Henry Talbot (1563-1596) and Elizabeth Reyner (d.1612) and the granddaughter of George Talbot, 6th earl of Shrewsbury (1528-1590). She was born at Overton, Huntingdonshire and was apparently given an excellent education. She was a Latinist, able to read French, and praised for her skill in divinity and history. She married her stepbrother, Thomas Holcroft of Vale Royale (January 20, 1595/6-c.1626). They had no children. On August 28, 1628, she married Sir William Armine or Armyne of Osgodby, Lincolnshire (December 11, 1593-April 10, 1651). They had one son who died young. With the wealth acquired by inheriting properties in Huntingdon, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire, she was able to be a generous benefactor to individuals and causes. She also founded several almshouses and gave money to missionaries attempting to convert American Indians to Christianity. She was a supporter of the parliamentarian cause. She was buried at the church of Orton Longueville, Huntingdonshire with her mother and son. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Armine [née Talbot; other married name Holcroft], Mary.” Portraits: one by Cornelius Jansen was extant at Welbeck Abbey in 1885; line engraving by F. H. Van Hove.



ROSE TALBOT (d.c.1496)
Rose Talbot married three London merchants, including Thomas Stirlande and John Swan. As a widow, she ran businesses and engaged in trade. In her 1496 will, she named her clerk, Richard Bond, as her executor. She left money and plate and funds to hold a dinner at her house to the Tailors Guild; ten marks to the Goldsmiths Guild; 12d each to the fourteen beadsmen of St. Antony’s, London; and 40s each to the almsmen of the Fraternity of Clerks and the almsmen of the Goldsmiths Guild and the Tailors Guild. Her beadswoman, Alice Barbor, received 40s. Among other bequests were funds to be distributed among the lazar houses; five marks to Richard Story, a student at Oxford; £20 for the repair of highways; 20s toward the maintenance of Rochester Bridge; and £10 and linen, furniture, and plate to Rose Bukley, her goddaughter, on the condition that she abide in Rose’s service until she married.

ELEANOR TALBOYS (1433-April 2, 1502)
Eleanor Talboys was the daughter of Walter Talboys of Kyme (1391-April 13, 1444) and Alice Stafford (1405-April 1448). Eleanor was an heiress in her own right and held the manor of Sutton Malet in Somersetshire and other lands. Some accounts, even the Oxford DNB entry on Agnes Tilney, have Eleanor married to Hugh Tilney or Tylney of Boston, and the mother of Agnes, later duchess of Norfolk (1477-May 1545) and her older brother, Philip (d.1532/3), but Eleanor was married to Thomas Strangeways of Stinsford, Dorset and Melton, Somerset (d.1484), as early as 1451. Their children were Henry (d. May 1504), Thomas (d.c.1512), Joan (married by 1483), John, and James (c.1470-1516). In 1485, she joined in a petition to Henry VII for the return of several manors in Staffordshire and Worcestershire that had been seized by the Crown in 1469, after the attainder of Humphrey Stafford, earl of Devon. The earl had been the nephew of Eleanor’s mother, Alice Stafford. The others bringing suit were Eleanor’s half sister, Elizabeth Cheney, Lady Coleshill, and their nephew, Robert Willoughby, son of Anne Cheney, Lady Willoughby. They were apparently successful. Eleanor was also granted the manor of Long Wittenham in Berkshire from the Stafford estate. Eleanor made her will on February 11, 1500. She left her sons Thomas, John, and James 30 marks each. She was buried with her husband at Abbotsbury, Dorset.

ELIZABETH TALBOYS (c.1520-c.1563)
Elizabeth Talboys was the daughter of Gilbert Talboys (d.1530), who was created baron Talboys in 1530, and Elizabeth Blount (1500-1540). Before her marriage to Talboys, Elizabeth’s mother the mistress of Henry VIII and the mother of his illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy. Some argue that Elizabeth was also the king’s child. In 1541, after the deaths of her two younger brothers, George and Robert, Elizabeth became baroness Talboys in her own right. In about 1540, she married Thomas Wymbish or Wimbush of Nocton, Lincolnshire (d.1552/3). They had no children. King Henry spent the night of October 13, 1541 at Nocton, but it is unclear if the family was in residence. Elizabeth Norton, Bess Blount’s biographer, calls the marriage “turbulent” and cites a “domestic quarrel” between them that came to the attention of the Privy Council on June 13, 1550. The couple acted together, however, on at least two court cases against Elizabeth Gascoigne, Lady Talboys, in 1547 and 1552. Elizabeth was the “lady Elizabeth Talboys” to whom, in 1551, Sir Charles Brandon (illegitimate son of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk) bequeathed a ring valued at five marks. In his 1552 will, Wymbish left his widow a life interest in some of his lands, his bay gelding, and other items. She was not named as executor. By September 10, 1553, she married Ambrose Dudley (1531-February 21, 1589/90). They had no chldren. In late 1554, she commissioned Roger Ascham to write a Latin petition to Philip of Spain on her behalf to beg for Ambrose’s release from the Tower. Four months later, she sent a thank you to Philip for freeing Ambrose and asked for the restoration of her lands. According to her entry in Carole Levin, et al, editors, A Biographical Encyclopedia of Early Modern Englishwomen, Elizabeth suffered a phantom pregnancy in the spring of 1555 and died in 1560.With her death, the Talboys title became extinct.


MARGARET TALBOYS (d. before 1563)
Margaret Talboys was the daughter of Sir George Talboys or Tailboys of Kyme (1467-1538) and Elizabeth Gascoigne (c.1479-1559). She married Sir George Vernon of Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (1508-1567). Their children were Margaret and Dorothy (d.1584). Portrait: effigy on the Vernon tomb in All Saints Parish Church, Bakewell, Derbyshire, together with her husband and his second wife, Maud Longford.


MARGARET TALKERNE (1518-September 1592)
Margaret Talkerne was the daughter of John Talkerne of Cambrose, Cornwall, Withersfield, Suffolk, and London (1495-1558) and Jane Bray. By 1540, she married Thomas Argall of London (1500-August 15, 1563) as his second wife. Their children were Richard (d.1588), Anne (d.1599+), Edmund (1552-c.1572), Gabriel, John (d. October 6, 1606), Lawrence (d. February 1584), and Rowland (d.1602+). Argall bought the family’s principal country seat, East Sutton, Kent in 1546. On June 21, 1564, Margaret married Sir Giles Alington of Horseheath, Cambridgeshire (June 1499-August 22, 1586) as his third wife. He settled Wymondley and other Hertfordshire lands on her at that time. As Lady Alington, she entertained Queen Elizabeth at Horseheath on the royal progress of 1578. She was left cash, plate, and other possessions by Alington and was one of his executors. Margaret was buried with her first husband in the Church of St. Faith in the Virgin, Bermondsey.

ALICE TAME (c.1494-1549)
Alice Tame was the daughter of Sir Edmund Tame of Fairford, Gloucestershire (d. October 1, 1534) and his first wife, Agnes Greville (d. July 26, 1506). She married Sir Thomas Verney of Compton Verney, Warwickshire. Their children were Richard (d. July 26, 1566/7), Peter, Timothy, Edmund, Thomas, and Elizabeth. In 1544, she was coheiress of her brother, Sir Edmund Tame. Portrait: stained glass at Compton Verney.






ELIZABETH TANFIELD (1585-October 1639)
Elizabeth Tanfield was the only child of Sir Lawrence Tanfield (c.1551-1625) and Elizabeth Symonds (d.1629). She was born at Burford Priory in Oxfordshire and tutored by John Davies of Hereford, a noted poet. She spoke Latin, French, Spanish, Italian, Hebrew, and Transylvanian, and translated the epistles of Seneca and Abraham Ortelius’s Le Miroir du Monde. In October 1602, she married Sir Henry Cary or Carey, later Viscount Falkland (c.1576-September 25, 1633). Their children were Catherine (b.1609), Lucius, 2nd viscount Falkland (1610-1643), Lawrence or Lorenzo (1613-1643), Anne (b.1614), Edward (b.1616), Elizabeth (b.1617), Lucy (b.1619), Victoria (b.1620), Mary (b.1622), Patrick (1624-1657), and another son named Henry in some genealogies and Placid in others. Since Cary was a soldier in the Netherlands, Elizabeth was left to her own devices. By 1604 had written two plays, one set in Sicily, which is now lost, and The Tragedie of Miriam, the faire Queene of Jewry (1613/14), which became the first original play by an Englishwoman ever to be published. It was written in verse. In 1627, she wrote a third play, The History of the Life, Reign, and Death of Edward II, first published in 1680. In September 1625, when Elizabeth’s husband learned of her plan to convert to Catholicism, he disowned her, cut off all financial support, and took her children away from her. They were partially reconciled by the time he died of gangrene from a wound in his leg. She was at his side during his final days. After his death, however, she actively worked to convert her children to Catholicism, even going so far as to hide some of them from her eldest son, who was their guardian. Three of her daughters eventually entered convents and two of her sons took holy orders. She wrote a series of verses on the lives of saints. She also received a number of dedications from other writers, including Michael Drayton, John Davies of Hereford, and John Marston. Biographies: The Tragedy of Mariam, the Fair Queen of Jewry with The Lady Falkland: Her Life by One of Her Daughters edited by Barry Weller and Margaret W. Ferguson; Oxford DNB entry under “Cary [née Tanfield], Elizabeth.” Portraits: oil on canvas by William Larkin, c.1614-18 (inscribed Lady Dorothy Cary but probably Elizabeth Tanfield); painting by Paul Van Somer c.1620; engraving based on Van Somer’s work; effigy in St. John the Baptist Church, Burford, Oxfordshire on the Tanfield tomb.


ALICE TANKERFELDE (x. March 31, 1534)
Alice Tankerfelde’s origins are not known, but she gained notoriety for two things, her involvement in two murders and her escape from the Tower of London. Alice married John Wolff or Wolfe, a merchant of the Steelyard. On July 16, 1533, “by the Devil’s instigation,” she was part of a conspiracy to murder and rob Jerome de George and Charles Benche, two foreign merchants. Her co-conspirators were her husband, a London gentleman named John Westall, and two yeomen, Robert Garrard and John Litchfield. Alice pretended to be a whore and lured the two “strangers” into a house in Durham Rents in the Savoy section of London, where they “kept company” until after ten o’clock that night. Alice and Westall then pretended they would escort the two men to their lodging in St. Benet Gracechurch, at the house of Florentine merchant John Gerrald. They boarded a boat at Strand Stairs, but Litchfield and Garrard were the watermen and Wolff was hiding in the stern beneath some leather ordinarily used to cover the cushions on the boat. He waited until the boat was in the middle of the Thames, then rose up “and most maliciously struck the said Charles behind him in the back with his dagger to the heart.” Charles Benche died immediately of “several deadly wounds.” Then all four men attacked Jerome de George. He died of a broken neck. With their victims dead, the murderers stripped them of their clothes and valuables, tied the bodies back to back, weighted them with stones, and threw them overboard. Still not satisfied, Alice, Wolff, Westfall, and another gentleman named Stanley, broke into John Gerrald’s house to rob the dead men’s chamber. When the crime was discovered, Wolff is said by some sources to have escaped to Ireland, but Alice was arrested. Because of the location of the murder, she was tried by the Admiralty Court and sentenced to be hanged on the pirates’ gallows at Wapping Stairs. This was not a traditional hanging. She’d be left in chains as the tide came in to drown her. To make certain the tide was high enough, she’d remain there until three tides had flowed over her. Awaiting the day of her execution, Alice was held in the Tower of London, in Coldharbor Tower, near the center of the complex. It boasted a gatehouse to the Inmost Ward and had a porter’s lodge within it or nearby. The cylindrical towers were where prisoners were kept. Alice was here at the same time as Elizabeth Barton, the Nun of Kent, who was imprisoned for heresy. It has been suggested by Barton’s biographer, Alan Neame, that the two women might have been confined together. Documents relating to both cases were apparently kept in the same file by Lord Cromwell. Neame also gives a slightly different slant to the story of Wolff and Alice in his The Holy Maid of Kent. He identifies Wolff as “an international swindler who had previously been imprisoned in the Tower at the request of the Hanse merchants. On his release, he’d removed to Ireland, returning to London in 1533.” Neame calls Alice Wolff’s common law wife and a whore and says she was involved with other men, including the Scots ambassador in London, the two merchants she helped kill, and one John Bawde, a henchman of Sir Edmund Walsingham, Lord Lieutenant of the Tower. She’d met Bawde in 1532, during Wolff’s first incarceration. Neame goes on to say that Wolff was used as a spy while imprisoned the second time, since he shared a cell with Father Hugh Rich, one of those implicated with the Nun of Kent. In prison, Alice was supposed to have been kept shackled, but the Lord Lieutenant’s daughters, probably the two youngest, Alice (b.1517) and Eleanor (b.1521), took pity on her and asked that the shackles be removed. By late March, Alice had apparently charmed many of those charged with keeping her. William Denys, Walsingham’s servant, was a frequent visitor and “showed her a secret way how she might be conveyed out of the Tower.” After Denys was dismissed for fraternizing with a prisoner, John Bawde took his place. When she “heard there was no remedy with her but death,” she begged Bawde to help her escape. Bawde agreed. He bought two hair ropes for 13d., made a ladder of cords, and carried this into the Tower concealed beneath his cloak. He gave Alice a key he had filed down so that it would open the door that gave access to St. Thomas’s Tower, overlooking what is now known as Traitor’s Gate. The moat, at this point, was narrow, and at low tide it was often dry. There are reports of a later escape attempt (1547) through the garderobe in St. Thomas’s Tower, where it was possible to climb down to the moat and simply walk away. Details of Alice’s escape survive in Alice’s confession and in a letter written by John Grenville to Lord Lisle on Saturday, March 28, 1534. The confession states that the door to the inner ward was “shut and hasped with a bone put through the staple, which door she saith she did shake and so the bone fell out.” She then made her way to the outer ward and used the key Bawde had given her. They met on the leads of St. Thomas’s Tower at about ten at night. Grenville’s hearsay account is a little different. He says “On Friday about ij [two] of the clock in the morning one Bawde, sometimes the Lieutenant his servant, with counterfeit keys opened the prison door where Wolfe his wife was, and conveyed her out of the Tower with ij ropes tied to the embattlements: and after he had conveyed her down, went down himself to her and so together until they came to Tower Hill or thereabout, whereas stood certain watchmen of London.” The confession reads:  Bawde “cast the said ropes double upon a hook of iron being fastened upon the same Tower wall, and so slid down.” On the wharf below, they hid on a lighter for an hour. Then Bawde found a boat and rowed them to the water-stairs at the end of the Tower causeway. They were walking up Tower Hill toward a Mrs. Jenyn’s house, where Bawde had left two horses, when they encountered the Watch. By Grenville’s account, Alice was “apparelled like a man” and for this reason the Watch was suspicious and took both Alice and Bawde into custody. He also writes that, on Tuesday, “Wolfe and his wife shall hang upon Thames at low water mark in chains. And Bawde is in Little Ease, and after he hath been in the Rack shall be hanged.” Bawde was actually held in the Counter, one of London’s prisons, until he could be identified. According to Neame, on the Tuesday of Holy Week (March 31), John and Alice Wolff were escorted from the Tower and hanged at the “Turning Tree.” Alice was not cut down until “beastly and filthy wretches had most shamefully abused her being dead.”

KATHERINE TARLTON (1508-c.1588/9) (maiden name unknown)
Katherine Tarlton was the mother of the comic actor Richard Tarlton (1530-September 3, 1588). Tarlton is said to have been born in Condover, Shropshire and then moved to Ilford, Essex, but facts about his family are sketchy. Katherine’s name survives because the will Tarlton made on his deathbed gave her joint custody of his “natural and well beloved son Philip,” godson of Sir Philip Sidney, along with Robert Adams, and William Johnson. No sooner had he signed this will than he had second thoughts about Adams and wrote a letter to Sir Francis Walsingham in which he called Adams “a sly fellow” and expressed the fear that Adams would try to get the estate away from Katherine and Philip. In this letter, Tarlton identified his mother as “a sillie old widow of forscore years of age” and Philip as “a pore infant of the age of six yeares.” In a letter from Adams to Walsingham dated three days later, on September 6, 1588, Adams claimed Tarlton send for him during his last illness. The summary of this letter in the Calendar of State Papers mistakenly identifies Katherine as the widow of Richard Tarlton instead of as his mother. Tarlton married Thomasyn Dunn in Chelmsford on February 11, 1577 but she died in 1585. On October 23, 1588, Katherine brought suit in Chancery against Adams. On February 21, 1589, the grant of administration of the will to Adams was revoked and regranted to Helen Barnard, sister of the deceased. It seems likely that Katherine died in the interim and her daughter was residuary heir.











MARGARET TAYLOR (d.1491) (maiden name unknown)
Margaret married Richard Wood (d.1476), a lord mayor of Coventry, a mercer, and a merchant of the Staple. They had five sons and one daughter, Margery (d.1511). Her second husband was William Taylor, grocer and London alderman. She used her contacts with the Mercers Guild in Coventry to arrange her daughter’s marriage to Robert Tate, a London mercer. In her will in 1491, she left 3s4d to the anchorite of London Wall; 100s in the form of bread, meat, and victuals to the prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, the King’s Bench, the Marshalsea, and the Fleet; a parcel of plate to Margaret Carowe, her cousin and sometime servant; and to her daughter, itemized by troy weight and equivalent monetary value, a number of precious metal objects. She also left her daughter the hundred marks she had invested as stock in her son-in-law’s mercery, which gave Margery an independent financial stake in that business. Margaret left a piece of plate to each of her grandchildren and the girls were each to have an item from her jewel chest. She was buried with her second husband. The above information comes from Susan E. James, Women’s Voices in Tudor Wills, 1485-1603. Online genealogies contain a good deal of misinformation, some confusing Margaret with her daughter and others giving her parents as William and Isabel Ambler of Halifax, Yorkshire, where Margaret is said to have died on either December 6, 1449 or in 1549 and Richard Wood is given a death date of 1500.

REBECCA TAYLOR (1563+-1611+)
Rebecca Taylor was the only daughter of Robert Taylor (d. December 31, 1596), alderman of London, and Elizabeth Hatton (d. June 2, 1603). On February 5, 1582, at St. Magnus the Martyr, London, she married Sir William Romney (c.1555-April 25, 1611), a haberdasher and member of the Merchant Adventurers who was later Governor of the East India Company. Their children were Isaac, Susan (d.1659), Joseph (d.1645), Jeremy, Elizabeth, Daniel, Ezekiel, William, and others who died young. Romney’s wealth at his death was estimated at around £15,000. Rebecca willed four exhibitions of £12 each to the Haberdashers’ Company, two to Emmanuel College and two to Sidney-Sussex College. She also left £6 a year to two freemen of the company and £3 a year to four poor widows.


ANNE TEMMES (d. 1602)
Anne Temmes was the daughter of Thomas Temmes (Temys/Temmse) of West Ashling, Sussex (d. February 12, 1575) and Elizabeth Bowes (d.1544+). She married William Jordyn of Chitterne, Wiltshire (d. January 11, 1602). Their five sons and two daughters included William (c.1566-1623), Temys (son), and Mary. Her husband’s will, dated February 9, 1598 and proved January 23, 1602, left her the wool in his house, his coach and horses, money, household stuff, and livestock. It also contained the provision that should she remarry (“as God forbid, considering her years past childbearing”) she would receive an annuity of £80. Anne died six months after her husband. She had already given her eldest son the right to succeed to his father’s entire estate, except for bequests to his four younger brothers, but she left bequests to others, including several books. Anne’s aunt had been the last abbess of Lacock, but the titles indicate that Anne adopted the New Religion—John Calvin’s Institutes and Exposition of Job; Peter Martyr’s Commonplaces; a Bible; and “Doctor Fulkes Answers to the Roman Testaments.”

JOAN TEMMES (d.1553+)
Joan Temmes was the daughter of William Temmes (Temys/Temmse) of Rood Ashton, Wiltshire and Joan Baynard (d. before March 9, 1533/4). She was abbess of Lacock by 1516. Between 1536 and 1539, Joan leased out the abbey’s demesne land to members of her own family—her brothers Robert, Christopher, and Thomas, her brother-in-law, Robert Bath, and her cousin, Sir Edward Baynton, whose sister, Elizabeth Baynton, was one of the fifteen nuns and three novices at Lacock. Christopher was steward of her household and Thomas an official of the abbey. She surrendered the abbey on January 21, 1539 and was granted a generous pension of £40, which she was still collecting in 1553.

ALICE TEMPEST (c.1534-October 20, 1588)
Alice Tempest was the daughter of Nicholas Tempest of Stanley, Holmside, and Stella, Durham (c.1486-November 20, 1539) and Agnes Marley. She married Sir Christopher Place of Halnaby, Yorkshire (d.1558). Their children were Anne, Eleanor, Elizabeth, Isabel (d.1577), and Dorothy (d.1632). William Wickliffe bought their wardships after Place died. By a contract dated January 20, 1560/1, Alice married Walter Strickland of Sizergh Castle, Westmorland and Thornton Bridge, Yorkshire (April 5, 1516-April 8, 1569). Their children were Thomas (1563-June 19, 1612) and Alice. Strickland bought the wardship of Alice’s youngest daughter, Dorothy, from Wickliffe in 1566 and that of Isabel in 1568. In 1535, long before he married Alice, Strickland was betrothed to Margaret Hamerton, daughter of Sir Stephen Hamerton (x. May 25, 1537) and Elizabeth Bigod (will dated May 3, 1538). Margaret apparently killed herself before the marriage could take place. The biography of Walter Strickland at tudorplace.com.ar presents the case for Walter having then married Margaret’s sister Anne (or Agnes) by June 1537 and suggests that Agnes Hamerton was the mother of Walter’s daughter, Ellen or Eleanor (c.1557-1622+). Agnes was supposedly still living in 1585, locked away in a tower at Sizergh Castle known as “Madam Hamerton’s Room.” Strickland’s will, however, refers to Ellen as his natural daughter. Strickland left legacies to his two daughters but all his property went to his widow for life. In June 1573, she married Sir Thomas Boynton of Barmston and Acklam, Yorkshire (1537-1583), as his fourth wife. Aliace and her new husband lived at Sizergh Castle, raising her Strickland children and Strickland’s daughter Ellen. Thomas’s wardship and marriage had been granted to William Cooke in 1569, but Alice bought them back. Sizergh Castle had been enlarged during the time Alice lived there with her second husband and she continued to renovate until, after the death of her third husband, she moved to Halnaby, Yorkshire. In 1586, she released all interest in lands in Westmorland and Yorkshire to her son. Alice’s will, written on January 18, 1586 and proved March 24, 1595, left £10 to Ellen, the “base daughter to my husband, Mr. Strickland.”

ANNE TEMPEST (d. 1536+?)
Anne Tempest was the daughter of Sir John Tempest of Great Houghton, Yorkshire (1472-January 4, 1509) and Joan Roos (1487-March 8, 1537). She married Sir Edward Boleyn (c.1496-1530) in 1515 or 1516. Their children, all born before 1522, were Mary, Ursula, Elizabeth, and Anne (or Amy). Alison Weir’s Mary Boleyn identifies Anne Tempest was one of Queen Catherine’s ladies in 1510 and gives her a birthdate of 1497, but in 1510, Anne was not yet married. Traditionally the Lady Boleyn at court early in the reign of Henry VIII was thought to be Elizabeth Howard, Anne Boleyn’s mother. A Lady Boleyn was proxy for the queen in 1517 at the christening of Frances Brandon. This could have been Anne. As Lady Boleyn, she was at the Field of Cloth of Gold in 1520. Retha Warnicke’s The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn also identifies Anne as one of Catherine of Aragon’s former attendants and there was a Lady Boleyn in Queen Catherine’s household in 1533. Warnicke further identifies Anne as the Lady Boleyn who spied on her niece in the Tower of London in 1536, charged with reporting every word the queen said to the authorities. Weir’s The Lady in the Tower identifies the Lady Boleyn who spied on her neice as Elizabeth Wood, wife of Sir James Boleyn, another of Thomas Boleyn’s brothers.

DOUSABELLA TEMPEST (c.1472-c.1499)
Dousabella Tempest was the daughter of Sir Richard Tempest of Stainforth, Giggleswick in Ribbesdale, West Riding, Yorkshire (c.1408-February 1488/9) and Mabel Strickland. She married Thomas, 1st baron Darcy of Templehurst (c.1467-x. June 30, 1537). Their children were George (d.1558), Richard, Arthur (d.1561), and Mabel. She died before December 7, 1499, when her husband remarried. I include her in this listing because she has a somewhat unique name for the era. She was apparently named for a grandmother, whose given name is recorded as Douce. The information given with the letter from “D. Darcy” in Mary Anne Everett Green’s Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies and dated 1537, is incorrect. This letter, written to the author’s husband “from Gaitforth, the 13th day of January” does not give a year. Ms. Green, writing in the nineteenth century, identified her as Dousabella and as Darcy’s second wife. Unfortunately, this does not fit with the facts as we now know them. Either the letter was written by Dousabella at a much earlier date, or the D. Darcy in question is Dorothy Melton, the wife of Dousabella’s son, George.





Martha Tharpe was the daughter of William Tharpe or Thorpe of Rye, a draper. On June 5, 1607, she married Thomas Hamon or Hammond (d. July 27, 1607), mayor of Rye, as his second wife. He was a brewer and one of the richest men in town. A little over a month after the marriage, on July 13, 1607, Hamon became violently ill. He took two weeks to die. Within three weeks, Martha married his successor as mayor, Thomas Higgons (d.1608). Soon after, she was charging that her first husband had been bewitched to death by Anne Taylor (née Bennett), a local healer suspected of having aided and abetted another woman in consulting spirits (a felony since 1604). Martha theorized that Anne had come to her door disguised as a beggar and thus obtained possession of one of Hamon’s old shirt sleeves. Anne Taylor was acquitted in 1609 (see the entry under Anne Bennett for more details), by which time Martha was again a widow. She married yet another prominent Rye merchant, Mark Thomas, who dealt in canvas, draperies, and wine and owned property in Playden and East Guldeford as well as in Rye.



JOAN THORNBURY (c.1530-1598)
Joan Thornbury was the daughter of William Thornbury/Thornburg (c.1510-November 18, 1552) and Thomasine Bellingham (c.1512-August 11, 1582). Her portrait was painted in 1566 as one of a set with her soon-to-be husband, Richard Wakeman of Bickford, Gloucestershire (1523-1597) and the two paintings contain lines of text which amount to a dialogue between the two sitters. Joan’s reads, in modern English: My childhood past that beautified my flesh/and gone my youth that gave me color fresh/I am now come to those ripe years at last/ that tells me how my wanton days be past/ and therefore find so turns the time/I once was young and now am as you see. They were married in 1567, when Joan was about thirty-seven, so it is uncertain if Wakeman’s three known children, John, another son, and Anne or Agnes (d.1592) were hers. Anne Wakeman married in 1581. If she was Joan’s daughter, then she was no more than thirteen when she wed. Portrait: 1566, attributed to Hans Eworth.



AGNES THORNTON (d.1530+) (maiden name unknown)
Agnes was the wife of William Thornton, a merchant. She traded as a femme sole in London. In about 1530, she bought several packs of canvas worth £30 14d from Peter Malyarde, merchant of Rouen.



Anne Throckmorton was probably of the family of Buckland, Berkshire, although some sources call her the daughter of Robert Throckmorton of Coughton, Warwickshire (1451-1518) and Catherine Marrow. She married William Barker (c.1500-September 18, 1549), steward of the bishop of Salisbury. Their only child was a daughter, Anne (d. September 21, 1585). They lived at Holme Place in Sonning, Berkshire. In the will Barker wrote on August 18, 1549 (proved June 4, 1551), he left his widow “my part of my lease of Sonynge Park and Vernhill during her widowhood and to continue in house with my brother Anthonye Barker.” She also received, with her daughter, all of his plate. In the will of her brother-in-law, John Barker, written August 25, 1551 and proved May 11, 1552, left a legacy to “sister Ann Barker, late wife of brother William and to my cosyn Bridge [Brydges] her daughter.” Anne is likely to be the “my sister Barker of Sonnynge” mentioned in the August 4, 1551 will (proved June 20, 1553) of Anthony Barker, “clarke and vicar of Sonnynge.” 1551 was the year when an epidemic of “the sweat” swept through England, killing thousands, and it is possible that Anne herself died in that year. Portrait: monumental brass in St. Michael’s, Sonning.

ANNE THROCKMORTON (1540-December 16, 1603)
Anne Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Weston Underwood, Buckinghamshire (1510-February 12, 1581) and Muriel Berkeley (d.1542) She was raised by her stepmother, Elizabeth Hussey, who bore Anne’s father several children, including another daughter named Anne (d.1605+). The Anne Throckmorton of this entry married Ralph Sheldon of Beoley, Worcestershire (1537-1613), her third cousin. Their children were William, Elizabeth (c.1553-October 23, 1622), Philippa, Anne, Edward (1561-1643), Mary, Muriel, Jane, Margaret, Catherine, and Frances. The family remained Catholic in Elizabeth Tudor’s England and built the Sheldon chapel in St. Leonard’s church at Beoley for private worship. Portrait: tomb effigy at Beoley.



ELIZABETH THROCKMORTON (d. January 13, 1547)
Elizabeth Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton, Warwickshire (1412-July 13, 1472) and Margaret Olney (1426-1460). She became a nun in the Order of Minoresses and by 1512 was abbess of the house of Poor Clares at Denny, near Cambridge, where she supervised twenty-five nuns. Erasmus may have visited there in 1513. He definitely exchanged letters with the community in 1525. In 1528, Elizabeth asked wealthy London merchant, Humphrey Monmouth, for a copy of William Tyndale’s translation of Erasmus’s Enchiridion, which called for reform in the church. In 1536, Elizabeth petitioned for the continuation of the abbey but it was dissolved by1539. At that time, she returned to Coughton, now the property of her nephew, George Throckmorton (d. August 6, 1552), bringing with her two or three of her nuns. They lived in an upper room, wearing their habits and following the rules of their order. Elizabeth and two of the nuns, possibly her nieces, Margaret and Joyce Throckmorton, daughters of Sir Robert, are buried together at Coughton. Another nun, Joanna Peyto, granddaughter of Elizabeth’s sister Goditha, may also have lived with Elizabeth at Coughton Court. Elizabeth made her will in 1543, from which we learn that she had a servant, Katheryn Tanner.

ELIZABETH THROCKMORTON (April 16, 1565-1647)
Elizabeth Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (1515-1571) and Anne Carew (d.1587). She lived with her mother until she went to court as a maid of honor. She was sworn in at Hampton Court on November 8, 1584. In June 1591, she secretly wed Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-October 28, 1618). A son, Damerei (March 29,592-October 1592), was born at Mile End, her brother Arthur’s house. He was baptized on April 10, with Robert Devereux, earl of Essex, Arthur Throckmorton, and Arthur’s wife, Anna (née Lucas), as godparents, and then sent to Enfield to a Throckmorton relative. Elizabeth returned to court on April 12. When the marriage was revealed, the queen imprisoned both husband and wife for daring to marry without permission. She considered it particularly egregious that Elizabeth had returned to her post as a maid of honor after giving birth to a child. In the Tower that autumn, Elizabeth was ill. She wrote to Sir Moyle Finch and his wife, Elizabeth (née Heneage), hoping they would prevail upon Lady Finch’s father, Sir Thomas, the queen’s vice chamberlain, to plead her case. Encouraged by their response, she wrote to Heneage himself and to Sir Robert Cecil. She was released on December 22,1592. She wanted to return to court but she was never allowed to. She lived at Mile End or at Sherborne and had another son, Walter (1593-1617/18). At Elizabeth’s urging, her husband backed a conspiracy to put Lady Arbella Stuart on the throne. Raleigh was convicted of treason and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Elizabeth moved into the Tower with him and their son, Carew (February 1605-1666), was born there. Thanks largely to Elizabeth’s efforts, King James paid her £8000 in cash and an annuity of £400 for Sherborne in 1608. She was less successful in obtaining repayment of a loan of £500 (her marriage portion) that her mother made to the earl of Huntingdon when Elizabeth was still a child. In 1616, Raleigh was released to lead an expedition to Guiana. When this was a spectacular failure, he was returned to the Tower. He was executed as punishment for his original treason. Elizabeth is said to have had his head embalmed and to have kept it with her in a red leather bag until her death. Biographies: Bess by Anna Beer; Karen Robertson, “Negotiating Favour: the Letters of Lady Ralegh” in Women and Politics in Early Modern England, 1450-1500, edited by James Daybell; “Tracing Women’s Connections from a Letter by Elizabeth Ralegh” in Maids and Mistresses, Cousins and Queens, edited by Susan Frye and Karen Robertson. Portraits: as a young woman, c. 1591; in middle age, c. 1603; in widowhood with her son Carew, c. 1619; others not authenticated.

Elizabeth Throckmorton was the daughter of Robert Throckmorton of Warboys and Ellington, Huntingdonshire (1551-1630/1) and Elizabeth Pickering (1555-c.1598). She was one of five sisters involved in the case of the Warboys Witches. Joan, christened May 23, 1574, was the oldest girl and the last to be affected. She was fifteen at the time. Mary was christened May 18, 1578 and Elizabeth on July 19, 1579 in Titmarsh, Northamptonshire. Jane was christened August 21, 1580. Grace was christened March 10, 1581. They also had two brothers, Gabriel (April 9, 1577-1626) and Robert (June 30, 1583-March 1655). Jane was the first to have seizures, in November 1589. Elizabeth was afflicted next, then Mary, then Grace (in mid-January 1590). On Friday, February 13, 1590, Gilbert Pickering, the children’s uncle, arrived at Warboys. He was the one who convinced the family that the girls were victims of witchcraft. According to The Witches of Warboys by Philip C. Almond, Pickering took Elizabeth back with him to Titchmarsh Grove. She remained there with him and his wife from February 15 until September 8, 1590. He kept detailed notes on her behavior. Elizabeth was the first to accuse Alice Samuel’s husband, John Samuel, of witchcraft. According to Anne Reiber DeWindt’s article, “Witchcraft and Conflicting Visions of the Ideal Village Community” in the Journal of British Studies (1995, Vol. 34 #4, pp. 427-473), by 1598/9 the family had left Warboys. A legal document at that time set aside a close at Warboys for the use of “such woman as will be Robert’s wife at the time of his death,” suggesting that Elizabeth’s mother had died. In 1600, Elizabeth’s father married Alice Sandys. According to the article, the daughters married into gentry families in Huntingdonshire and Bedfordshire. Joan (or Johanna) married Robert Bromshall of Steutington in 1600. Mary married Henry Rouse of Stuckley. Jane married Thomas Morley of Ellington in about 1605. Grace married Edward Holcott of Ellington. Elizabeth does not seem to have married. Portrait: a portrait said to be “the daughter of Lady Sidney” and inscribed as showing the sitter in 1596 at age 21, shows the coat of arms of the Throckmorton family. The current owner suggests that it may be Elizabeth Throckmorton, but it seems more likely to have been Joan Throckmorton, Elizabeth’s older sister. From December 1592 until February 9, 1593, Joan was at Titchmarsh. In late March 1593, it was Joan who first accused Alice Samuel of bewitching Lady Cromwell to death, the charge that led to Alice’s execution. Joan and Jane were the sisters who attended the Assizes in Huntingdon, seven miles from Warboys, on April 4-5, 1593. Another possibility for the sitter in the portrait, based on age, is Margaret Throckmorton (c.1575-April 18, 1626).


Goditha or Godith (sometimes called Judith) Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton, Warwickshire (1412-July 13, 1472) and Margaret Olney (1426-1460). She married Edward Peyto of Chesterton, Warwickshire (c.1457-September 14, 1487). They had four sons and one daughter, including John (c.1478-1542) and William (c.1485-1558). At the time her husband died, only a month after the death of his father, they were living at Fladbury with her brother, Robert Throckmorton (c.1451-1518). Her eldest son became the ward of his uncle. As dower, Goditha claimed forty-two virgates of the manor of Chesterton, worth twenty marks, one third of the manor of Wolfhamcok, and the advowson of the manor of Barton on Heath, even though the manor itslef had passed out of the family in the 1470s. Goditha owned a number of books, including a religious collection known as the Worcestershire Miscellany. She gave a copy of Caxton’s Royal Book to her niece, Elizabeth Throckmorton Englefield (d.1543), daughter of her brother Robert. In her will, dated December 28, 1530 and proved January 30, 1531, she left a copy of the Legenda Aurea to her chaplain. Her cousin, Mary Burdett, was left “a little featherbed, a pair of blankets, a heling of image work, my psalter book, my gown furred with marten, and a bolster.” Another bequest was “to the farmer’s wife”—”my best gown furred with black, and one of my best smocks.” Margaret Cleyton, her maid, received “20 pieces of pewter vessel, my best kirtle, my new little mattress, the blankets, the sheets, & the coverlet of her bed, my best tablecloth, a pewter basin called the posset basin . . . 20s of money; . . . her wages that is behind, and for her heirs 30s, also a frying-pan, a posnet, a trivet, a shilet, the old green say, a candlestick with 2 noses.” For the entire will, see http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Portrait: monumental brass at Fladbury. NOTE: this was vandalized centuries ago and what is there now is a modern replacement.

Jane Throckmorton was the daughter of Robert Throckmorton of Warboys and Ellington, Huntingdonshire (1551-1630/1) and Elizabeth Pickering (1555-c.1598). She was baptized in Warboys on August 21, 1580. Her seizures, possibly epileptic, beginning in November 1589 and those counterfeited by her sisters, were responsible for the persecution of Mrs. Alice Samuel and her execution as a witch in 1593. In 1605, Jane married Thomas Morley. Biography: The Witches of Warboys by Philip C. Almond.



Margaret Throckmorton was the daughter of Richard Throckmorton or Throgmorton of Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire (d. 1547) and Jane Beaufo. She married Robert Pemberton of Rushden, Northamptonshire and Lancashire (d.1594). Their children were Robert and Anne (d.1614). In many accounts, Margaret Pemberton is identified as the subject of a water color on a playing card painted by Hans Holbein the Younger in c.1540. This portrait, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, is actually Jane, daughter of Christopher Pemberton, the wife of Nicholas Small.

Margaret Throckmorton was the third daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton (1533-1615) and Margaret Whorwood (d. April 1607). Margaret married Rice Griffin of Bickmarsh and Brome Court in c.1592. Their children were Edward, Nicholas, Thomas, and Lucy. She received Moor Hall, Warwickshire as part of her dowry, although it was still occupied by Agnes Throckmorton (née Wilford) at that time. She mediated between her husband and her father in a dispute over this property.

MARGARET THROCKMORTON (c.1575-April 8, 1626)
Margaret Throckmorton appears to have been the daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton of Coss Court, Tortworth, Gloucestershire (1538-January 31,1607) and Elizabeth (or Ellen) Berkeley (c.1544-1581). There is considerable confusion over whether Elizabeth Berkeley was his first wife or his second. His History of Parliament entry lists her first but gives the date of his marriage intentions with Elizabeth Rogers (born 1541; daughter of Sir Edward Rogers of Cannington, Somersetshire) as November 6, 1559. One online genealogy site says Elizabeth Rogers married Thomas Throckmorton in 1567 and died before 1572. The entry gives Throckmorton two sons and one daughter (presumably Mary, Lady Scudamore) by Elizabeth Berkeley and no children by Elizabeth Rogers. Assorted online genealogies, however, claim him as the father for of least four more girls. One has Thomas and Elizabeth Berkely marrying in 1568 and gives them Elizabeth (b.1569), Hannah (b.c.1570), Margaret (b.1575), and Alice (b.1580) but no Mary. Mary Throckmorton, Lady Scudamore, was definitely his daughter. Complicating the issue are the claims Throckmorton made that his (unnamed) wife and daughter were “obstinately addicted to Popery.” In 1593, Margaret was committed to the custody of the Dean of Gloucester as a “verie obstinate Recusant.” Her mother was blamed for “perverting” her children. Her father had a “stormy private life,” possibly made worse by his “overbearing and bellicose nature,” and at one point turned his wife out of his house and refused to support her because of her religious beliefs. The Privy Council had to order him to pay her 100 marks yearly so she could remain in some convenient place, either in London or within six miles of the city. In his will, Throckmorton left his daughter a small annuity. By then, Margaret was married to Barnabas or Barnaby Sambourne of Timsbury House, Somerset (June 9, 1560-1610) as his second wife. Their children were Thomas (1601-1636), William, Richard, Bridget (1607-1607), and John (c.1608-December 17, 1641). In 1608, when Margaret’s sister, Mary Scudamore, was turned out of Holme Lacy, Herefordshire by her father-in-law and husband, she came to Timsbury House to give birth to a son, named Barnabas after Margaret’s husband. Margaret left a will. Portrait: because of her age, Margaret Throckmorton is a possibility as the sitter in a portrait formerly thought to be a daughter of Lady Sidney and inscribed 1596 at age 21.

Margaret Throckmorton was the eldest daughter of John Throckmorton (d.1604) and Agnes Wilford (1570-c.1647). She went to live with Sir William Roper and his wife Margaret (neé Browne) as a companion to their daughter Anne. Lady Roper took her to visit her aunt, Barbara Wilford, a nun at the Augustinian convent of St. Monica in Louvain. In 1611, Margaret went against the wishes of her family and joined the order. In 1633, she was named prioress. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Throckmorton, Margaret” (with portrait).


Mary Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton, Warwickshire (1510-February 12, 1581) and Muriel Berkeley (d.1542) She was raised by her stepmother, Elizabeth Hussey. She married Edward Arden of Park Hall, Warwickshire (1533-x. December 20, 1583). Their children were Margaret (d.1583+), Catherine (d. November 20, 1627) and Robert (d. February 27, 1635). The family clung to the Catholic faith during the reign of Elizabeth Tudor. Mary’s daughter Margaret married John Somerville, another recusant. According to his entry in the Oxford DNB, Somerville was ill in bed at his father-in-law’s house on October 24, 1583. The next day, perhaps feverish, he got up and started for London, swearing that he would shoot the queen with a pistol. He was quickly arrested and so were Mary and Edward Arden and their priest. They were charged with treason and taken to the Tower of London. On December 16, 1583, the Ardens, Somerville, and the priest were condemned to death. Arden bribed a servant in the Tower to allow him to have a last meal with Mary that evening. By December 19, he and Somerville had been moved to Newgate. On December 20, Arden was executed at Smithfield. Afterward, Mary was released. In September 1592, she was presented as a recusant from the parish of Coughton, together with her servant, John Browne. In 1593, Coughton was searched and Mary imprisoned and examined. She may have remarried.

Mary Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton (1533-1615) and Margaret Whorwood (d. April 1607). According to the essay “Reputation, Credit and Patronage: Throckmorton Men and Women, c. 1560-1620” by Susan Cogan (in Catholic Gentry in English Society: The Throckmortons of Coughton from Reformation to Emancipation, edited by Peter Marshall and Geoffrey Scott), Mary functioned as de facto estate manager for her father at Weston Underwood, Buckinghamshire. After her mother died, she assisted her father in running his estates and took over when he was in prison for recusancy. She never married.

MARY THROCKMORTON (d. October 1632)
Mary Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Thomas Throckmorton of Coss Court, Tortwroth, Gloucestershire (1538/9-January 31, 1607) and Elizabeth or Ellen Berkeley (c.1544-1581). Her father accused her mother of being “addicted to Popery.” Mary married Sir Thomas Baskerville of Bayworth in the parish of Sunningwell, Berkshire (d. June 4, 1597). It seems to have been a love match. Letters he wrote to her survive, some addressed to his “sweet Moll.” Unfortunately, none of her replies are extant. Mary accompanied her husband to Picardy, where she gave birth to their only child, a son named Hannibal (April 5, 1597-1668) in St. Valery. The earl of Essex was the boy’s godfather. Less than two months later, Baskerville died of a fever. On April 11, 1599 at St. James Clerkenwell, Mary wed Sir James Scudamore of Holme Lacy, Herefordshire (1568-April 13, 1619), as his second wife. Their nine children included Mary (c.1600-1629),  John (March 22, 1601-May 19, 1671), James (1606-1631) and Barnabas (c.1608-1651/2). The marriage was in difficulty by 1604. On February 13, 1607, Sir James wrote to his father that Mary’s tongue “brought her into greater miseries than any enemy could have imposed upon her.” They separated in the summer of 1607. They were briefly reconciled, but he repudiated her in 1608. She later complained to Lord Salisbury that she had been turned out of Holme Lacy by her father-in-law, maltreated by her husband, and refused justice by the Bishop of London. She was given shelter by her sister, Margaret Sambourne, at Timsbury House, Somerset, for the birth of her son Barnabas, named for Margaret’s husband. There was no divorce and legal wrangling continued for the the rest of her life. At one point Scudamore tried to claim wardship of Hannibal Baskerville and Mary’s dower. By 1621, the case had finally been settled in Hannibal’s favor. Mary received a pension from her son, viscount Scudamore, to maintain a household at Sunningwell, Berkshire. Her will survives. She was buried at Sunningwell October 17,1632. Portrait: one by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, 1615, on the occasion of the marriage of John Scudamore to Elizabeth Porter (March 12, 1614/5), has long been identified as Mary Throckmorton but has lately been identified instead as Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Danvers (d.1632), daughter of John Danvers of Dauntsey, Wiltshire (1540-December 19, 1593) and Elizabeth Neville (c.1545-1630) and wife of Anthony Porter of Llantony, Gloucestershire.


Merial or Murial Throckmorton was the daughter of Sir Robert Throckmorton of Coughton, Warwickshire (1510-February 12, 1581) and Murial Berkeley (d.1542). In 1566 she married her father’s ward, Thomas Tresham of Rushton Hall (1543/4-September 11, 1605), who had succeeded his grandfather to a very large fortune in 1559. Their eleven children, three of whom died young, included Francis (1567-December 23, 1605), Thomas (d.1574), Lewis (1578-1639), William (d.1639), Frances, Elizabeth (1573-1648), Catherine (1576-1623), Mary (d.1664), Anne (d.1629), and Bridget. The Treshams were recusants and Thomas was more than once imprisoned for his faith. In April 1582, he was released from the Fleet after twenty months of close confinement and put under house arrest in a house in the parish of Hoxton, just outside London. It was located right next to a more comfortable house that Tresham himself owned. He entered into a bond of £2000 not to go out of the house that was his prison, but his wife could visit him there. During at least part of this time, Lady Thresham lived in Tuthill Street in Westminster. On August 27, 1584, the authorities raided Sir Thomas’s house in Hoxton. Present at the time were Tresham, his wife, his daughters Frances, Catherine, and Elizabeth, his son Lewis, his niece Merill (Muriel/Merial) Vaux, and a number of servants. Many more details are given in Godfrey Anstruther’s Vaux of Harrowden, but in essence the persecution continued. Tresham was still confined to Hoxton when, on March 21, 1590, Merial wrote to Lord Burghley asking that he might be moved to Banbury, nearer to Rushton, for his health.






Eleanor Thursbye (Thorsby/Thursby) was at the center of a scandal in London in 1592. George Southcote of Shillingford, Devon (1572-1638) fell in love with her sometime in 1591, when he was not yet twenty years old. According to his entry in the History of Parliament, a scapegoat was found in the person of Stephen Trefulack and George was disentangled from an unacceptable alliance. The official record states only that Trefulack was executed for witchcraft in Middlesex in December 1592 because he “betwitched George Southcote to provoke him to unlawful love for Elianore Thursbye.” The fate of Eleanor herself is not recorded.

MARGARET THURSTON (x.1557) (maiden name unknown)
In March 1557, Margaret and John Thurston of Much (Great) Bentley, Essex were arrested and imprisoned in Colchester Castle, where Thurston died. Several months after her arrest, Margaret was burned at the stake along with co-religionists John Johnstone, Agnes Bongeor, William Bongeor, William Purcas, Thomas Benold, Agnes Silverside, Helen Ewing, Elizabeth Foulkes, William Mount, and Rose Allen. This earned her a place among the Protestant martyrs.


FRANCES THWAITES (1519-October 1580)
Frances Thwaites was the daughter of Sir Henry Thwaites of Lund or Lound, East Riding, Yorkshire (1494-July 5, 1521) and Anne Saville. In 1538, she married John Gresham of London (1516-1560). Their children were Francis (1539-d.yng.) and Elizabeth (1542-November 6, 1573). The family lived in the parish of St. Lawrence Jewry, London in 1539. According to Perry E. Gresham’s biography of Sir Thomas Gresham, John was an adventurer who had squandered his fortune. Thomas granted Frances an annuity of £133. Elizabeth Gresham married Sir Henry Neville of Billingbear, Berkshire (d. January 13, 1593) as his second wife. It seems likely that Frances lived with her daughter and son-in-law, since the monument he erected in the church at Waltham St. Lawrence, Berkshire features her effigy as well as his own and those of her daughter and her granddaughter, Elizabeth Neville. The four kneeling figures are difficult to see as they are hidden behind the organ in the north chapel.

Winifred Thwaites was the daughter and heir of Sir William Thwaites of “Mallowtree” (Manningtree?), Oulton, Essex and Alice Garneys. On November 20, 1544, she became the second wife of Sir George Pierrepont of Whaley, Derbyshire and Holme Pierrepont, Nottinghamshire (June 14, 1510-March 21, 1564). Their children were Isabella, Henry (September 18, 1546-1616), Anne (d.c.1587/8), Gervaise, and William. Upon her husband’s death, the heir’s wardship was granted to Roger Manners, uncle of the 5th earl of Rutland, but in May 1565, after Winifred married Sir Gervaise Clifton of Clifton, Hodsock, and Wilford, Nottinghamshire (1516-January 20, 1588), a friend and neighbor who was also executor of Pierrepont’s will, Clifton became his guardian. They had one son, George, who died young. Clifton’s will, written October 15, 1587, left the manors of Carlton and Hodsock to Winifred, along with all other lands in that area and all jewelry and apparel in her possession at the time of his death. It also mentions all four of her children by her first marriage. Winifred was a recusant. She was buried at Clifton, Nottinghamshire on December 10, 1591.

ANNE THWING (d.1594+)
Anne Thwing was the daughter of Thomas Thwing of Heworth Hall, Yorkshire and Elizabeth Hellet. Her brother William inherited Heworth Hall but Anne was the one who lived there and she was the one who invited priests to celebrate Mass. One was arrested during a raid on February 1, 1593. Anne was not taken into custody but her brother was accused of harboring and for that crime might have lost Heworth Hall. According to Roland Connelly’s Women of the Catholic Resistance in England 1540-1680, this was because Henry Hastings, 3rd earl of Huntingdon had seen the house during the raid and wanted it for himself. Whatever the motivation, Anne went to court and saved her brother and Heworth Hall by testifying that she was the one who’d harbored the priest and that William had known nothing about it. She was arrested and imprisoned and was still alive the following year but her ultimate fate is unknown.




Marion Colthorpe (http://folgerpedia.folger.edu/The_Elizabethan_Court_Day_by_Day) identifies Gresham Thynne as the daughter of Sir John Thynne of Longleat, Wiltshire (1512/13-May 21, 1580) and Dorothy Wroughton (c.1548-1616) but gives her date of birth as c.1585, which is impossible given the date of Sir John’s death. She was sworn in as a maid of honor on May 26, 1601 and served in that position until 1603.


Katherine Thynne was the fourth daughter of Sir John Thynne of Longleat, Wiltshire (1512/13-May 21,1580). Her mother was probably his second wife, Dorothy Wroughton (c.1548-1616). Katherine served as a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth until 1594, when she married Sir Walter Long of Wraxhall, Wiltshire (1560-September 28, 1610) as his second wife. They had at least four sons, Walter (June 9, 1594-c.1637), Henry (d.1672), Thomas (d.1673), and Robert (1598-July 13, 1673), and six daughters. Various online lists of children include the names Barbara, Mary, Charles, Anne, Frances, Jane, Dorothy, Olivia, and Elizabeth. Long was a colorful character. He served a term as sheriff of Wiltshire and also spent time in prison. A long-running feud with the Danvers family ended with the murder of his brother Henry on October 4, 1594. Long’s will, dated December 20 and 25, 1609, was exceedingly complex. Long’s eldest son, John, claimed that Katherine and her brother, Egremont Thynne, persuaded Long to disinherit John in favor of her eldest son, Walter. In a later compromise, John inherited Draycot Cerne and Walter, whose wardship was awarded to Katherine, got Wraxhall. Although Katherine was administrator of Long’s will, she did not perform those duties, nor did she pay his debts. Katherine married Sir Edward Foxe of Gwernoga, Montgomeryshire (1578-1629) in about1611. Some accounts give his name as Hugh Fox. Prior to the marriage she insisted upon an agreement leaving her son’s wardship in her keeping. According to John Aubrey, Katherine had promised her first husband that she would not remarry and when she entered her home with Foxe after the nuptials, a portrait of Long fell off the wall in protest. Katherine’s will included the request that the wardship of her son be transferred to her second husband. She was buried December 14, 1613.


JANE TICHBORNE (c.1548-1581+)
Jane Tichborne was the daughter of Nicholas Tichborne of Tichborne, Hampshire (c.1518-1555) and Elizabeth Rythe (by 1520-1571+). She married Francis Yate of Lyford Grange, Berkshire (1548-1588) as his second wife. They had a son, Thomas (c.1570-c.1656). In 1580, Yate was arrested for recusancy and was still being held in Reading when Edmund Campion visited Lyford Grange in 1581. Jane insisted that Campion preach to those in the house, even though soldiers had just searched the premises for hidden priests. This led to his arrest at dawn on July 17, 1581. Accounts differ as to how many men were taken off to prison, but her brother-in-law, Edward Yate, was among those arrested. The women in the household, including eight former nuns who had been living at Lyford Grange for many years, were not charged. A full account can be found at http://www.berkshirehistory.com/articles/campion_lyford.html. Jane spent time in prison in London, but the dates of her incarceration are uncertain.

MARY TICHBORNE (1541/2-1565+)
Mary Tichborne was the daughter of Richard Tichborne of Eatonbridge, Kent and Thomasine Seyliard.  She married Thomas Potter of Westerham, Kent (c.1535-January 21, 1611) in Westerham Parish Church on November 14, 1559. Their children were Nizell, Lucrece, Ursula, and Dorothy. Only Dorothy survived past the age of twenty-one. Portraits: 1565 at age 23 by the Master of the Countess of Warwick; effigy in Westerham Church.

see also TYLNEY



URSULA TILSWORTH (d. September 1590)
Ursula Tilsworth was one of four daughters of William Tilsworth or Tillesworth (d.1557), a London goldsmith, and Joan Potkyn. She married George Beresford/Basford (d.1564), a leatherseller, in 1549 in St. Peter, Cheapside, London. Their children were George (b.1555), Rowland (d.1580+), Mary (d.1580+), and (possibly) Ursula. On January 3, 1565/6, she married John Langley (d. January 4, 1577/8), a goldsmith, in St. Lawrence Jewry, London, as his second wife. They had one child, a daughter named Elizabeth. Langley had no sons by either of his marriages, but he had raised his nephews, Francis and Thomas Langley since the death of their father in 1556. Langley was an alderman, warden of the Goldsmith’s Company, and Lord Mayor of London in 1576/7. On the night of December 26, 1577, Ursula called Francis and Thomas Langley to their uncle’s counting house to solicit their help in persuading her dying husband to make a will. The will was made December 27 with a codicil January 1. Later Francis Langley claimed that during his uncle’s last hours, Lady Langley, her cousin Townsend (a lawyer), and Sir Rowland Heyward, overseer of the will, confered in secret and might have altered the will in Lady Langley’s favor. The will was proved January 25. Ursula was named executor, but soon discovered that the year her husband had spent as Lord Mayor had left him heavily in debt. One debt, of £440, was to Ursula’s son, Rowland Beresford. Ursula inherited various tenements for life, including the Saracen’s Head in Cheapside, at that time leased to a goldsmith. The codicil provided her with two other houses in Cheapside to sell to raise the £300 necessary to “bury him to his calling” on January 14, 1578 in the church of St. Lawrence Jewry. The burial itself caused a pillar to collapse in the church, which caused considerable damage. The terms of the codicil led to disputes that went on for years, as those two tenements were originally to have gone to Thomas Langley. Ursula swore out a bill of complaint against Thomas because he continued to make difficulties over the sale of the properties. The case was dropped after the two tenements were sold.





Frances Tiptoft was the daughter of John Tiptoft of London and his wife Margaret (d.1581/2). On July 18, 1565, she married, as his second wife, Henry Lyte of Lytescary, Somerset (c.1529-1607). Their children were John (1566-1577), Thomas (1568-1638), Henry (December 17,1573-1637), Hester (b.1569), and Magdalen (1571-72). In October 1582, Frances was appointed executor of her mother’s will, dated February 3, 1581/2. Margaret Tiptoft was by then Margaret Marwood, widow, of Halberton, Devon. She left her daughter gowns and jewelry and a walnut bedstead in the great chamber at Lytescary with all the furniture about it. Frances was buried at Charlton Mackrell on June 22, 1589.

Catherine Tishem (or Thysmans), was an Englishwoman. She married Wouter de Gruytere (Walter Gruter) burgomaster of Antwerp. Their four children included Janus (alternately called Jean, James, and John) (December 3, 1560-1627). Catherine was renowned as a scholar and fluent in French, Italian, Latin, and Greek. The Gruter family sought asylum from religious persecution in England for a time but Catherine eventually left again, removing to Holland in 1577. Information on her is scarce, but there is a biography of her son which contains additional details. See Leonard Forster, Janus Gruter’s English Years (1967).



Tomasina was also known as Mrs. Tomyson, or Tomasin de Paris, although at least one of her contemporaries referred to her as Italian. She was a dwarf (probably really a midget) who was at the court of Elizabeth Tudor from 1577 until 1603. She was always clothed in the latest fashions at the queen’s expense and given many personal gifts besides. In 1579, her sister, Prudence de Paris, possibly at court on a visit, was given a gown of violet cloth. Tomasina could read and write. One of the queen’s gifts to her was a “penner” and ink horn. In 1580, together with John and Mary Scudamore, she paid a visit to John Dee, the queen’s astrologer, at Richmond. In that same year she received a pair of knitting needles as a gift from the queen. Portrait: a female dwarf is shown in the portrait at Penshurst of Queen Elizabeth dancing. Since no other female dwarfs were known to have been at Elizabeth’s court, it is likely this was meant to represent Tomasina.

Elizabeth Tomlinson was the daughter of William Tomlinson or Tumlenson of St. Thomas in Dudley, Westmorland (d.1609), a collier, and Agnes Orres or Dues (d. December 1610). She was apparently a servant in the household of Edward Sutton, 5th baron Dudley (September 1567-June 23, 1643) before she became his long-term mistress. They lived at Himley Hall near Dudley. Their children were Robert (1587-June 16, 1653), John (1597-1604), Edward (1608-1614), Dudley (1600-1684), Elizabeth (1588-March 26, 1647), Jane or Joan, Catherine (1589-1675), Alice, Dorothy (1606-1661+), Susan (1594-1601), Martha, and possibly Eleanor (1606-1659). The children used, variously, the surnames Sutton, Dudley, and Tomlinson. Their father provided generously for them while Elizabeth was alive, but by the time she died, Dudley was facing bankruptcy. In the 1590s, a Star Chamber case accused him of abandoning his wife in London and taking into his house “a lewd and infamous woman, a base collier’s daughter.” He was imprisoned in the Fleet in August 1597 for his continued refusal to support his legitimate family, but he was released on the promise he would pay the £66 he owed plus £100 a year and an addition £10 a year for each of his children. He sent only £32 to his wife. In 1627, Elizabeth quarreled with her son Dudley (known as Dud Dudley) with the result that in her will, dated July 3, 1629, she asked that Dud not see her writings because he “might do somebody wrong.” She left clothing to five living daughters and appears to have two sons also living at the time of her death. Her estimated personal wealth was at least £600. She had purchased Tipton Park and Parkfield and owned ironworks, stoneworks, and coal pits.

Elizabeth Tomson married Aaron Holland (d.1623+) at St. Andrew’s, Holborn on August 20, 1581. In the October 1589 subsidy roll, their residence is given as Gray’s Inn Lane (also called Purpole Lane) in Holborn. He appears to have been an innkeeper. On April 6, 1592, George Orrell or Orwell and Allan Starlinge broke into the Gray’s Inn Lane house and assaulted the couple so badly that their lives were despaired. Orwell escaped punishment but was later implicated in the Essex Rebellion of 1601. He was condemned to death but he was still living in 1607. As for Aaron Holland, age 37 in 1593, in June 1598 he is listed as an innholder in the Savoy and on February 3, 1623, he was living in St. James, Clerkenwell. Identified as an “illiterate yeoman,” he was the builder and part owner of the Red Bull playhouse in Clerkenwell in 1604/5. He leased an old inn yard that had fallen into disuse from Anne Beddingfield, widow of Christopher, and renovated it to create a permanent playhouse. He then offered eighteen shares at £25 each. The shares paid him £17 10s. annually plus a one-seventh share of the profits, but in 1609 he brought suit in the Court of Requests to demand back rent and new terms for the lease. He was himself sued over profits from the playhouse in 1619. It appears that Elizabeth also survived the attack in 1592. She should not be confused with the Mrs. Elizabeth Holland, widow, who was tried in the Middlesex Quarter Sessions in 1597. That Elizabeth Holland was condemned to be carted from Newgate to Bridewell “to be punished” and then returned to Newgate until she had paid a fine for keeping a common house of bawdry.





ELEANOR TOUCHET (c.1590-July 5, 1652)
Eleanor Touchet was the fifth daughter of George Touchet, baron Audley and earl of Castlehaven (c.1550-February 20, 1617) and Lucy Mervyn (d.c.1611). She was well educated, with an understanding of Latin, religion, and law. In March 1609, she married Sir John Davies (1569-December 7, 1626). Their children were Lucy (1613-1679), Richard (d.yng), and Jack (d.c.1617). Her father settled £6000 on her at that time. After his death, she administered his estate in Ulster. Her daughter was educated at home and taught Latin, French, Spanish, Greek, and Hebrew. According to Thomas Spencer in “The History of an Unfortunate Lady” in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol. XX, at dawn on July 28, 1625, a voice woke Eleanor at Englefield, Hertfordshire, the home she shared with Davies. She took this to be a sign that she had been chosen as a prophetess of the word of God. That ELEANOR AUDELEY was an anagram for REVEALE O DANIEL convinced her that this assumption was correct and she began to issue prophesies. She took her first manuscript of prophesies to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who was less than impressed. Her husband later threw it into the fire, after which Eleanor predicted that he would die within three years and immediately began to wear mourning. He was found dead in his bed less than a year later. The cause was ruled an apoplexy. Three months later, she married Sir Archibald Douglas (d.1644). He also burned one of her manuscripts. She published almost seventy tracts in her lifetime, using several names, including Eleanor Audley (one of her father’s titles). A few of her predictions did come true, but not that the world would end in 1644. In October 1633, she was imprisoned and fined £3000 for illegally publishing some of her books abroad and smuggling copies into the country. She was released from the Gatehouse Prison in June 1635 but within the year had created new trouble for herself in Lichfield, where she sprinkled her own version of holy water (made with tar) on the hangings in the Cathedral. This time, she was committed to Bedlam and kept there until she was transferred to the Tower of London in April 1639 for an unspecified offense, probably a new prophecy. She was released in September 1640 and transferred to the custody of her daughter and son-in-law (Ferdinando, Lord Hastings and earl of Huntingdon) but was arrested at least three more times before her death, on charges ranging from debt to infringement of the publishing laws. During the Civil War she lodged in Westminster and was a great admirer of Oliver Cromwell. Eleanor was buried next to her first husband in St. Martin-in-the Fields, London. Biographies: Oxford DNB entry under “Davies [née Touchet; other married name Douglas], Lady Eleanor;” Thomas Spencer in “The History of an Unfortunate Lady” in Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, Vol. XX, edited by Douglas Bush (1938). Portrait: miniature by Isaac Oliver c.1610.


MARIA TOUCHET (c.1578-1611)
Maria Touchet was the daughter of George Touchet, earl of Castlehaven (c.1550-February 20, 1617) and Lucy Mervyn (d.c.1611). In May 1594, after a brief stint at the court of Queen Elizabeth, Maria married Thomas Thynne (1578-1639) in a clandestine wedding in an inn at Beaconsfield. They were sixteen. Since their families were bitter enemies, they kept the marriage secret. Their story is said to have inspired Shakespeare to write Romeo and Juliet. The Thynnes attempted to have the marriage annulled but were unsuccessful. In November 1605, Thomas inherited Longleat, Wiltshire and Maria lived there, managing the estate, until his death. Their children were John (1604-d. yng), another son, and Thomas (b.1611). Maria died in childbirth. Biographies: Alison D. Wall, Two Elizabethan Women; Oxford DNB entry under “Thynne [née Touchet], Maria.” Portrait: by Mytens, 1611 (when pregnant).

KATHERINE TOURNEY (1537-before November 28, 1607)
Katherine Tourney was the daughter and heir of George Tourney or Turney of Paines Place in Motcombe and Gillingham, Dorset. She married William Webbe of Salisbury, Wiltshire (d. April 15, 1585). Their two sons and three daughters included John, who was admitted to the Middle Temple in 1580. In 1559, Katherine’s husband was in London for Parliament when he was taken ill and was “long sick.” In 1562, Katherine was presented before the Salisbury justices for wearing apparel unsuitable to her social position. In other words, she’d worn rich fabrics or furs reserved for the nobility. The family moved to Motcombe at about this time. In July 1587 a de bonis non grant was made on the estate of William Webbe, meaning that it had not yet been settled.

ELIZABETH TOWE (d. November 27, 1527)
Elizabeth Towe was the daughter of Thomas Towe. The surname is given as Tonge in Louis Thorn Golding’s An Elizabethan Puritan (1937) but spelled Towe in the will of Elizabeth’s husband, Reginald Hammond of Ramsden, Bellhouse, Essex. Thomas and Alice Towe are mentioned in a document dated January 27, 1505 concerning lands in Ryarsh and West Malling and Alice, “wife of Thomas Towe, my father in the law” is left 40 s. in Hammond’s will, dated September 26, 1513 and proved April 24, 1514. Elizabeth and Reginald Hammond had one child, called Emme in her father’s will but probably the Agnes Hammond who married Henry Wentworth. Elizabeth’s second husband was John Golding of Halstead and Paul’s Hall, Belchamp St. Paul, Essex (c.1498-November 28, 1547). Their children were Thomas (d.1571), William (d.1588), Margery (1525-December 2, 1568), and Elizabeth.


Joanna Towler of Downham Essex was taken to task before the ecclesiastic court for going to church services on the Sabbath dressed in men’s clothing. The stiffest punishment for this offense was the performance of public penance.

GRACE TOWNELEY (d. June 29, 1510)
Grace Towneley was the daughter of Sir Richard Towneley of Towneley, Lancashire (1445-September 8, 1482) and Jane (or Joanna) Southworth. On August 5, 1492, she married Thomas Hesketh of Rufford, Lancashire (c.1465-August 14, 1523) as his second wife. He had divorced his first wife, Elizabeth Fleming, for adultery in 1487. It was Elizabeth, not Grace (as some genealogies state), who later married Thurston Hall. Grace had one child, William, who died young. Portrait: Hesketh family tree, 1597.

GRACE TOWNELEY (d. May 28, 1543)
Grace Towneley was the daughter of Sir John Towneley of Towneley, Lancashire (July 31, 1473-March 5, 1541). The Victoria History of the County of Lancaster, Vol. 6 says she was the daughter of his first wife, Isabel Pilkington (1473-1522), although some genealogies say Isabel had no children and name Anne Catterall (d.1541+), wife number two, as mother of all the Towneley children. Another source gives Isabel Sherburne as Grace’s mother and the life dates for John Towneley as c.1420-before 1473, but this is an earlier generation. That Grace married Roger Nowell in 1463. Birthdates for the Grace of this entry range from 1500 to 1515. She was the niece of Grace Towneley (d.1510). In July 1521, she married Sir Robert Hesketh of Rufford, Lancashire (d. February 8, 1539; some sources say1541), the illegitimate son and heir of her uncle by marriage, Thomas Hesketh. Their seven children included Thomas (1526-June 20, 1587), Robert, Ellen, and Jane. Sir Robert built the present Rufford Old Hall in c.1530. One account says they divorced, but this is doubtful. Grace’s second husband was Lawrence Habergham of Habergham. Portraits: memorial brass at Rufford; Hesketh family tree, 1597.

HELEN TOWNELEY (1516-1554)
Helen (or Ellen) Towneley was the daughter of Richard Towneley of Royle, Lancashire (d.c.1539) and Margaret Clarke. In 1531/2, she married Ralph Rishton of Ponthalgh, Lancashire (c.1518-1582+). They had no children. By the mid 1540s, Helen’s grief over her father’s death and Ralph’s absence to fight in Scotland left her in a fragile mental state. A relative, Sir Richard Towneley (1499-1556), was named her guardian. According to an online biography of Ralph Rishton, he lived for the last eleven years of Helen’s life with another woman, Elizabeth Parker, as his wife. After they had been together for some time, Ralph’s father and Elizabeth’s mother pushed for a real marriage between them. Ralph sought a divorce on the grounds that Helen was insane, but his petition was refused by Chancellor Bonner of Chester. Since the Rishtons and Towneleys were Catholic, Ralph then applied to the Lancashire representative of Pope Clement for a dispensation to divorce. This was granted, but in about 1552, in spite of the fact that Ralph and Elizabeth had several children (they would have six sons in all), they were ordered to separate by an ecclesiastical court of the Church of England. At the time of her death, Helen was living in the cottage of a Widow Sutcliffe, on the road between Burnley and Dunkenhalgh.

MARY TOWNELEY (1541-1606)
Mary Towneley was the only daughter of Sir Richard Towneley (d.1554) and Frances Wimbishe. In 1557, Mary married her cousin, John Towneley of Towneley Hall, Lancashire (1528-1607). They had fourteen children, including Richard (April 24, 1566-1628), John, Charles, Christopher, Thomas, Nicholas, Jennet, Frances, Mary, Anne, Margaret, and Elizabeth. From 1564 on, John Towneley was repeatedly imprisoned for recusancy. Portrait: group portrait/genealogy, 1601.







Elizabeth Tracy was the daughter of Sir Henry Tracy of Toddington, Gloucestershire (d. c. 1506) and Alice Baldington. Her first husband was Edmund Langley of Suddington, Worchestershire (d.1489). Her second husband was married Sir Alexander Baynham (d. September 25, 1524), a widower with three sons and a daughter. They had one child, Jane. Elizabeth’s will reads as follows: Moreover where in my said husband’s will it doth appear that I should have levied upon his lands in feoffment two hundred marks for the marriage of Jane, his daughter and mine, so that she were married by mine assent and advice, and the truth is that she married herself hastily and unknown to me so that I had never communication with her husband for a jointure of land that conveniently I ought to have required of him for her, therefore now I will that if her said husband, Robert Wye, will make unto her a sufficient and lawful jointure according to the order of the law by the feast of Saint Michael th’ Archangel next for to come after the date hereof of twenty pounds by year over all charges and reprises, according to his promise that he promised my said husband and me that she should be made sure of by one Charles Herbert, to whom he then laboured that she should have been married unto, and of that his own labour to be married to her till thetime she should be married truly I knew not, and therefore if the said jointure be made, sealed and delivered by the said Robert Wye to my brother, William Tracy, to the use of the said Jane by the said feast of Michaelmas at the sight and advice of the said William, whom by this present I put in trust, to th’ use of the said Jane and of her children, then I will and hold me content that mine executors do levy and pay the said two hundred marks to the said Robert, and if the said Robert no such jointure will make, seal and deliver in form abovesaid, then I will that mine executors do levy the said 200 marks of the said lands and tenements so to me in his said will assigned to levy, and so received, it to retain and cause surely to be kept to the use of the said Jane if it shall happen her to live after the said Robert, and if it shall happen her to die and depart this world afore the said Robert, then I will that the said sum of 200 marks wholly remain to th’ use and profit of the children of the said Jane.

JUDITH TRACY (c.1551-1586+)
Judith Tracy was the third daughter of Richard Tracy of Stanway, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire (c.1500-March 8, 1569) and Barbara Lucy. She married Francis Throckmorton of Ullenhall (1545-1617). Their marriage intentions, filed February 25, 1578/9, list him as of the Inner Temple and Judith as of Islington, spinster. Their children were Michael, John, Michael, Judith, Winifred, Frances, and Elizabeth. Portrait: c.1570/80 (National Trust, Coughton Court, Warwickshire).

MARY TRACY (May 18, 1581-December 25, 1671)
Mary Tracy was the daughter of Sir John Tracy of Toddington, Gloucestershire (d.1591) and Ann Throckmorton (d. May 21, 1581). In 1600, she married William Hoby of Hailes Gloucestershire (d.c.1602). Their children were Philip (d.1617) and William (d.1623). In November 1607, she married Sir Horace or Horatio Vere (1565-1635). Their children were Elizabeth (d.1683), Mary (c.1611-1669), Catherine (1612/13-1641+), Anne (1617/18-1665), and Dorothy. He was a soldier. In 1608, Mary followed him to the Netherlands, where their two eldest daughters were born. On July 24, 1624, he was created baron Vere of Tilbury. They bought an estate at Clapham, near Hackney. Vere suffered a stroke while at dinner with a friend and died within two hours. He was buried in Westminster Abbey on May 8, 1635. His will, dated November 10, 1634, left the bulk of his estate to his “most loving wife.” She continued to live at Clapton until she inherited Kirby Hall from her brother-in-law’s widow. She was a patron of puritan ministers and had a wide correspondence. For a time in 1643, she served as parliamentarian governor of two of Charles I’s children, Elizabeth and Henry. In 1645, she was granted £1000 by Parliament as part of the £2500 owed her late husband by the state. John Geree dedicated Might Overcoming Right (1649) to her and her daughter, Anne Fairfax.  Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Vere [née Tracy; other married name Hoby], Mary.” Portraits: engraving by F. H. Van Hove; portrait by William Larkin, c. 1615.


JOCOSA TRAPPES (1531-1587)
Jocosa or Joyce Trappes was the daughter of Robert Trappes (d.1560), a London goldsmith, and Joan Cryspe. On August 15, 1549, she married Henry Saxey, clothworker, in Banstead, Surrey. They had a son, William (d. August 22, 1581). In 1568, she founded four scholarships at Lincoln College, Oxford. She married William Frankland (d.1577), another clothworker. Frankland left her the manor of Thele, Stanstead St. Margaret’s, Hertfordshire, and rights to Rye House in Stanstead Abbots, Hertfordshire. Since her son and both husbands had predeceased her, Jocosa left her fortune to charity. An estimate of her gifts to various educational institutions during her lifetime and after her death puts the total contribution at £4840. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Frankland [née Trappes; other married name Saxey], Joyce.” Portraits: three c. 1586.

Philippa Trappes was the daughter of Robert Trappes (d.1560). a London goldsmith, and Joan Cryspe. Her first husband was a London haberdasher, Edmund Shaa (d. 1539). By 1542, she married Sir George Gifford of Middle Claydon, Buckinghamshire (d. December 27, 1557), as his second wife. He made his will November 20, 1556, leaving her a wealthy widow. By 1563, she married Richard Norton of Norton Conyers, Yorkshire (1488-April 9, 1585). He had twenty children to support, as well as numerous siblings. He was also a rebel, participating in the Northern Rebellion of 1569, which resulted in his attainder and exile. In his will, he asked his wife to pay his debts. Her will, dated November 1, 1593, mentions sons and daughters, but not by name, and asks that she be buried in Middle Claydon near her second husband.

Margaret Traves was the daughter of Richard Traves, merchant tailor of London, and his wife Alice. She married Thomas Blanke (d. October 28, 1588), a haberdasher who was Lord Mayor of London in 1582-3. They had no children. By his father’s 1562 will, they inherited a messuage called Abbot’s Inn, in which they were then living, and all the cellars, yards, warehouses and other buildings in the parish of Saint Maryhill, and also his messuage in Peter Lane. Blanke wrote his will on September 30, 1585 and it was proved November 2, 1588. His land, houses, and leases in Mitcham, Surrey were left to his wife. On July 31, 1591, the queen came to dinner there as a break from her journey from Westminster to Nonsuch. The queen visited Mitcham a second time in October 1594. Margaret made her will on November 24, 1595 and it was proved October 26, 1597. She had erected a monument to her husband in the parish church of Saint Maryhill by Billingsgate and asked to be buried there. The monument features lines of verse about both husband and wife and tells us that they were married for forty-four years. The inscriptions are included in Stow’s Survey of the cities of London and Westminster (1598).

LORA TRECARELL (1521-1544+)
Lora Trecarell was one of the four daughters and coheiresses of Henry Trecarell of Trecarell in Lezant, Cornwall. In 1536, her father alleged that she had been abducted on her way to church by Oliver Kelly of Southwick, Devon (d. by autumn 1543) and that Kelly had married her without his consent. Trecarell retained an attorney named Chidley to draw up a bill of complaint to the Star Chamber. Further details of the kidnapping were included, such as the fact that she was tied to her abductor on horseback with towels and that she was carrying valuables belonging to her father at the time she was taken. Curiously, another bill of complaint Chidley drew up, this one in 1544, made the same claims concerning the abduction of Alice Borlase, who was in the custody of George Woolcock of St. Breock, Cornwall when she was carried away to Ottery St. Mary, Devon and married to Thomas Tredenek. As a widow, Lora Kelly lived at Germansweek, Devon on a rental income of £3/year. By the summer of 1544, she had married John Trelawney of Poole in Menheniot, Cornwall (1504-September 29, 1563), a widower. They had two sons.






JOAN TRELAKE (d. February 8, 1573)
Joan Trelake was the daughter of John Trelake, alias Davy, of Cornwall. London City Churches by A. E. Daniel (1895) calls him John Lake of London, gentleman. She married the extremely wealthy Sir Ralph Warren (c.1483-July 11, 1553), mercer and Lord Mayor of London in 1536-7 and again in 1544. Their children, Joan (c.1540-August 22, 1584; the Oxford DNB says she died in 1572) and Richard (d.1597). He had a stepdaughter, Joan (née North) by his first wife, Christian or Christina Warcup/Warcop. It is not certain which one was his wife in January 1537 when she supplied Princess Mary with silk frontlets and other items. His wife may also have been part of Sir Ralph’s gift of embroidery to the Mercer’s Chapel. The family lived in St. Swyth’s Lane. An inventory of Sir Ralph’s possessions included framed portraits of himself, St. Jerome, and Sultan Suleiman and tapestry and cushion covers decorated with the maid’s head, symbol of the mercer. He had £2000 in plate, £300 in jewels, over £2000 in wool and cloth, and almost £500 in cash. The house contained two “maidens’ chambers.” As a widow, Joan gave generous bequests to Whittington College and the Mercers’ Company. In 1557, she was named supervisor of the will of Catherine Gedding Hall, mother of the historian Edward Hall. Mrs. Hall left Lady Warren a gold ring worth 40s. and in a codicil left her a featherbed and a down bolster and one of her cypress chests. In 1558-9, Lady Warren had a license to ship wool to Bruges. On November 28, 1558, she married Sir Thomas White (c.1495-February 12, 1567), merchant tailor, Lord Mayor in 1553-4, and founder of St. John’s College at Oxford. Queen Elizabeth visited Lady White at Bethnal Green, Middlesex in July 1572. Joan died at the home of her son-in-law, Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrooke, Huntingdonshire. She was buried with her first husband and his first wife in St. Benet Sherehog, London.

JOAN TRELAWNY (d. November 17, 1582)
Joan or Jane Trelawny was the daughter of Sir John Trelawny and Jane Holland. She married John Winslade of Tregarrick, Cornwall and Buckland Brewer, Devon (x. January 27, 1549/50) as his second wife. They had at least one son, William (c.1515-1590+), and one daughter. In 1545, Winslade assigned a life interest in the Cornwall manors of Bochym, Tregarrick, Talcarne, Penfugh, and Killiow to his wife as her jointure. They were worth 100 marks a year. The presentation of the deed of conveyance, the key to the hall door, a turf, and a twig was was witnessed by some fifty friends and relations. In 1549, when rebels raided the house at Tregarrick, the deed and other writings were taken away, but the deed was subsequently returned. By then, Winslade was in prison for his part in the Prayer Book rebellion. He was executed and his lands, except for her jointure, were forfeited to the Crown. In 1552, King Edward granted the reversion of these lands to Reginald Mohun. By then, Joan (called Agnes by A. L. Rowse and John Chynoweth) had married John Trevanion of Carhayes. In about 1581, her son William left England as a fugitive. Queen Elizabeth claimed his lands, including the reversion of the jointure lands, and granted them to John Berkeley. Before Joan died in 1582, the Mohuns twice tried to bribe or threaten Trevanion into giving them possession of her lands. As her widower, he sold them her jointure deed for £120 and an annuity of £8. It was later argued that this would have been unnecessary if they already held the reversion. In 1582, a jury found that William Winslade had been entitled to the reversion, which meant it belonged to Berkeley, but the matter didn’t end there. In December 1584, Sir Richard Grenville was named head of a commission to investigate the conflicting claims. Sitting at Launceston on January 21, 1585, they heard the evidence of an old serving-woman, Alice King of Talland. She had been with her mistress when she was dying at Tregarrick and testified that Joan had begged her husband to give her the deeds that belonged to the Winslades. He refused. On the day of her death, her daughter and son-in-law burned evidence of a debt owed Winslade by his son-in-law. John Connock, a lawyer from Liskeard, handed over certain deeds to Trevanion, saying “the Winslades shall never be able to recover their lands.” How much of this is true is hard to say. The Mohuns had a deed. Berkeley claimed it was a forgery but he had no evidence this was so.


Catherine Trentham was the daughter of Thomas Trentham of Shrewsbury, Shropshire (d.1519) and Elizabeth Corbet (d.1519+). She married Thomas Hakluyt of Eyton in Leominster, Herefordshire (d.1544), clerk of the council in the marches of Wales. Catherine may have been the mother of Thomas Hakluyt (c.1533-1596). The marriage settlement Hakluyt made on her led to later disputes with her stepson, Richard Hakluyt (d.1591). By 1545, she married Edmund Foxe of Ludford, Shropshire (d.1550). Their children were Edward (b.1546) and a daughter. Foxe made his will on October 7, 1550 and it was proved the following November 27. He left property to his father and to his wife and provided for payment to his stepchildren of their legacies under their father’s will. In 1552, Richard Hakluyt charged in a chancery suit that his stepmother and Foxe had wrongfully withheld title deeds and occupied twenty acres of land at Eyton. Catherine’s third husband was Nicholas Depden or Debden of Brampton, Suffolk (c.1520-1588). His patron, Robert Townshend, may have arranged the marriage, which took place in 1553. This match was not a success and ended in a separation in 1565, when the council in the marches of Wales issued an order for the division of their property. The “unnatural disagreement” between them had caused “contention, debate and quarreling about mere follies and trifles” during the previous four years. Catherine lived at Ludford and had other property in Leominster.

Catherine Trentham was the daughter of Thomas Trentham of Rochester, Staffordshire (April 21, 1538-May 1587) and Jane Sneyd (d.1616). Her sister married the earl of Oxford. Catherine married, as his second wife, Sir John Stanhope of Elvaston, Derbyshire and Shelford, Nottinghamshire (1559-1611). Their children were John (d. May 29, 1638), Cordelia (1585-1639), Jane (1587-1663), Katherine (1593-1637), Dorothy (1595-1647) and Thomas (d.yng.). Portrait: effigy at Elvaston; portrait c. 1615 by William Larkin.

ELIZABETH TRENTHAM (c.1559-December 1612)
Elizabeth Trentham was the daughter of Sir Thomas Trentham of Rochester, Staffordshire (April 21, 1538-May 1587) and Jane Sneyd (d.1616). Her father left her a marriage portion of £1000 in his will, payable in three yearly installments of 500 marks each. She was a maid of honor to Queen Elizabeth in 1588/9. In September 1591 she became the second wife of Edward de Vere, earl of Oxford (April 12,1550-June 24, 1604). She was the mother of his son Henry (February 24, 1593-June 1625). In 1601, she accused Arthur Mills, one of Oxford’s servants, of stealing a casket from her. He was tried and acquitted of the charge. Although some sources credit Elizabeth with saving Oxford’s estates from bankruptcy, she was forced to sell her home in 1609 and live with her son because she had no money to maintain her own establishment. Despite that, she entertained King James and his retiniue at Havering-atte-Bower in mid-1612. Her will, dated November 25, 1612 and proved February 15, 1613, left bequests to her mother, two sisters, a brother, her son, and St. Augustine’s Church, as well as to a goddaughter named Vere Trentham and her waiting woman, Margery Flower. The latter got a tawny satin gown, £10, and half of the countess’s “wearing linen.” The entire will can be found at http://www.oxford-shakespeare.com. Elizabeth was buried at Hackney, Middlesex on January 3, 1613.

CLEMENCE TRESHAM (d. September 6, 1567)
Clemence, Clementia, or Clementine Tresham was the daughter of John Tresham of Rushton, Northamptonshire (d.c.1521) and Isabel Harrington (d.c.1558). She was a nun at Syon Abbey, Isleworth until the dissolution. Expelled from the religious life, she returned to Rushton and remained there for the rest of her life. Portraits: marble effigy in nun’s habit on her tomb in the church of St. Peter’s (no longer extant).


MARY TRESHAM (c.1535-December 28, 1597)
Mary Tresham was the daughter of John Tresham of Rushton, Northamptonshire (c.1520-May 27, 1546) and Eleanor Catesby (d. May 27, 1546). As both her parents died the same day, it is likely they fell victim to the plague. In about1563, Mary married William, 3rd baron Vaux (August 14, 1542-August 20, 1595) as his second wife. Their children were George (bp. September 27, 1564-July 13, 1594), Catherine (February 1566-before 1597), Edward (d. July 25, 1585), Muriel or Merill (January 28, 1570-1597+), and Ambrose (d. April 26, 1626). In Vaux of Harrowden, Godfrey Anstruther quotes a contemporary source that describes Mary as “a better hand at spending than at gathering” and states that they moved into the large house at Harrowden soon after they married. Lord Vaux, according to Anstruther, went from being a “wealthy cultured patron of learning” to “a pathetic, poverty-stricken, weak-minded wreck” because of his Catholic faith and his friendship with radical priest Edmund Campion. He was imprisoned in the Fleet in London for recusancy in 1581, as was Thomas Tresham. Mary moved into the house of Francis Browne in Southwark to be closer to her husband and brother. Priests frequently visited this house and were, on occasion, smuggled into the prison to celebrate Mass. In April 1583, after twenty months in the Fleet, Vaux was placed under house arrest in Hackney. On May 28,1585, a young man named Anthony Babington called on Lady Vaux at Hackney and presented her with a silver and gilt basin and ewer “for her friendship.” It was at about this time that she acquired a new maid named Sarah Williams (see her entry) who had been exorcised of a demon while in the household of the Peckham family in Buckinghamshire. In August 1586, at the same time her stepson, Henry Vaux, was arrested, Lord Vaux distracted the pursuivant sent to search the house long enough for Lady Vaux to hide “her little casket.” Both Vaux and his wife were excommunicated from the Church of England. In their later years, they fell victim to their strong-willed daughter-in-law, Elizabeth Roper, wife of their eldest son George. By the winter of 1594, Elizabeth had turned them out of Harrowden. They moved into Irthlingborough, “a far inferior house.” It was there that William Vaux died. Ralph Houlbrooke, in The English Family 1450-1700, reports that in 1595, Lady Vaux was “completely overwrought” by the death of her husband, barely left her room for the next year, and was unable to force herself to enter the wing of the house where he had died for more than four years after that. This Lady Vaux was Elizabeth Roper, not Mary. In 1597, Mary was taken to Oxford, apparently to consult a physician, and died there. She was buried beside her husband at Irthlingborough, but no monument was erected. Although it was invalid under the law because she died excommunicate, Mary left a will, dated September 18, 1597. She made her brother, Thomas Thresham, her executor and asked that the “great sums of money” she and her late husband had borrowed from friends be repaid. She left the most valuable item she owned, her coach and coach horses (inventoried at £20) to Lady Tresham, £300 to her oldest granddaughter, Mary, £200 to her second grandson William, and £100 to each of three younger grandchildren. Her eldest grandson had already succeeded to the title of 4th baron Vaux. Even if this will had not been declared invalid, it is unlikely her wishes would have been carried out. The inventory of her goods, made on January 12, 1598, listed their total value at just over £70. Portrait: circle of Cornelius Ketel, 1575.


Margaret Treskillard was the daughter of Thomas Treskillard. On June 11, 1531 she married Richard Lanyon of Gwinear, Cornwall (d. 1592). Their children were William (d.1619), John, Richard, Edward (d. 1630), Ralph (d. 1605), Simon, Clement, Maud, Jane, and Joan. The story goes that a dream Margaret had led her husband to find a rich tin work from which he made nearly £4000 in four years.

Elizabeth Trevanion was the daughter of Hugh Trevanion of Correheigh, Cornwall (c.1530-1575) and Sybilla Morgan (1533-1579+). In July 1580, she married Sir Henry Widdrington (sometimes spelled Withrington) of Widdrington Castle, Northumberland (d. February 1593). In 1588, she pursued his suit at court while he stayed in the north as marshal of Berwick. On August 20, 1593, in Berwick-upon-Tweed, she married Sir Robert Carey (1560-April 12,1639). Their children were Philadelphia (1594-1654), Henry (1596-1661), Thomas (1597-1634), and Katherine. Their mothers were sisters. Queen Elizabeth did not approve of the match and the couple were out of favor, but under James I their fortunes improved. In July 1603, Elizabeth was appointed to Queen Anne’s Privy Chamber and made Mistress of her Sweet Coffer. She had her own lodgings at court. In August 1604, Carey was made Keeper of Prince Charles, duke of York. He was created earl of Monmouth for his services in Prince Charles’s household. Elizabeth served as the future king’s governess from 1605-1611 and is credited with curing him of his lameness by limiting the treatments suggested by his doctors. She got a warrant to reimburse her for £326 in personal expenses in the prince’s service. Portrait: group portrait with her husband and children c.1617, attributed to Paul Van Somer.




Elizabeth Trewinard was the second daughter of James Trewinard of St. Erith, Cornwall (1490-1523) and his wife Philippa. She married Sir John Killigrew of Arwennack, Cornwall (1508-1577). Their children were John (d.1584), Peter, Thomas, Henry (c.1530-1603), William (d.1622), Jane, Grace, Alice, Anne, and Margaret. In the 1540s, Pendennis Castle was built on John Killigrew’s land and he became the first hereditary captain of the new fortification, which commanded shipping in the Falmouth area. He used his position to prey on the cargoes of vessels that came within his grasp. In 1556, he and his oldest son were arrested for treason. Under Elizabeth Tudor, their fortunes changed. In 1567, Arwennack House was rebuilt into a fortified stronghold where stolen merchandise was regularly hidden. Neville Williams, author of The Sea Dogs: Privateers, Plunder & Piracy in the Elizabethan Age (1975), calls Elizabeth “a tough and unprincipled businesswoman” who managed Arwennack and oversaw the burial of treasure in the garden. He also reports that two of her sons, Sir Henry and Sir William, then at court, had to pay substantial bribes to secure her release. It appears, however, that the Lady Killigrew in this case was not Elizabeth, but rather her daughter-in-law, Mary Wolverston. There has been considerable confusion about the Killigrew women, thanks to the Tudor tendency to refer only to “Lady Killigrew.” At one point there where two Lady Killigrews, Elizabeth and her daughter-in-law, and a Mrs. Killigrew (her grandson John’s wife, Dorothy Monk) at the same time. It is not clear when Elizabeth died. Portrait: memorial in the church of St. Budock.

JANE TROSSE (d.1579+)
The story of Jane Trosse is told in Shakespeare Among the Courtesans: Prostitution, Literature and Drama 1500-1660 by Duncan Salkeld. Jane was a prostitute whose career was particularly well recorded. In early 1575, she spent seven days in the chamber of John Browne at Grey’s Inn. This was revealed in the deposition given on February 25, 1576/7 by George Craven (alias Smerkin), servant of Master Richard Lane of Lincoln’s Inn. In the interim, Jane had been arrested at least twice. On June 20, 1576, she was sent to Bridewell because of her “lewd life.” The date of her release is unknown but in December she was apprehended in Holborn and charged with stealing four double pistolettes (Spanish gold escudos) from the brothel run by Stephen French. French accused her of charging a Spaniard 20s to lie with him and then, in the middle of the night, stealing another £7 from her customer. She was held in the Compter where, on January 2, 1576/7, Robert Bingham paid her 20s to lie with her in the buttery. He also gave her a ring, a pair of gloves, and 10s to pay for her release. She was arrested again on March 9, 1576/7, this time for dressing in men’s clothing. Among the other details that came out about Jane in depositions were that clients were fetched to her by “a little black fellow” named Myles, servant to Mr. Osborne, and another serving man, and that she’d shared a bed with Joseph Adnett and his wife Elizabeth. In May, 1577, while serving time in Bridewell, Jane was punished for swearing, refusing to work, and attempting to escape. In late August, hoping to get rid of a troublemaker, the authorities arranged for her to be released into the custody of her father. Jane refused to leave the city. She was arrested again in February 1577/8. Salkeld says she broke out and took with her a kerchief, sheets, and things of the house. A week later she was whipped for striking and beating the matron and refusing to work. In May 1579, in Bridewell, she was again punished for swearing. According to Gustav Ungerer’s “Prostitution in Late Elizabethan England: The Case of Mary Newborough,” in Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, Vol. 15, edited by John Pitcher, Robert Lindsey, and Susan Cerasano, Jane knotted bedsheets together to make a rope and escaped through a window. Salkeld says that she was freed because she was pregnant by Robert Newman, who promised to pay 20s. to cover the cost of her food and provide for the child. He collected her belongings and they left. Salkeld ends her story there, but the Parish Books of St. Mary Matfelon, Whitechapel refer to a presentment against Ralph Dudley on October 1, 1583 “for harboring of suspected persons as Jane Trosse and such like.”



DOROTHY TROYES (1480-May 11, 1530)
Dorothy Troyes was the daughter and coheiress of Thomas Troyes of Kilmeston, Hampshire. In 1501, she married Sir William Uvedale of Wickham, Hampshire (1483-November 28, 1528). Their children were Arthur (1503-February 1538), John, William, Richard (x. April 28, 1556), Francis, Agnes, Anne, and one other daughter. She had a life interest in an estate in Hampshire and brought that income, briefly, to her second husband, Lord Edmund Howard (c.1478-March 19, 1538/9), a younger son of the 2nd duke of Norfolk who was deeply in debt. She was his second of three wives and is misidentified by M. St. Clare Byrne as the wife mentioned in letters included in The Lisle Letters. She made her will in May 1530.

Elizabeth Trussell was the daughter of Edward Trussell of Kibblestone (c.1464-1499) and Margaret Don. Elizabeth became a royal ward after her father’s death with an estate worth over £300/year. In 1501, her wardship was purchased by George Grey, earl of Kent for 4,500 marks. Kent died in 1503, still owing £1,800 of this. Although the debt was inherited by his son and heir, Richard, Kent left Elizabeth in the keeping of his second wife, Katherine Herbert (d.c.1504), with the provision that his son by her, Lord Henry Grey (1494-1562) eventually marry her.The new earl kidnapped Elizabeth from his stepmother at Harrold, a serious offense for which he was fined 2500 marks. The charge was ravishment, but that simply meant he took her illegally. On May 29, 1505, Richard surrendered her wardship to the Crown in return for reducing his fine to 1500 marks. The king, in turn, resold the wardship to the earl of Oxford for £1333. At some point before April 10, 1509, Elizabeth married John de Vere, 15th earl of Oxford (1490-March 21, 1540). Their children were John (1512-August 3, 1562), Frances (1516-June 30, 1571), Elizabeth (1511-1564), Aubrey, Robert, Anne (c.1522-February 1571/2), and Geoffrey. Elizabeth had died by July 1527.

ANNE de TSERCLAES (d. December 7, 1555)
Anne de Tserclaes (also found as Taerclas and Tscerlas) is described as a Belgian attached to the household of Jacques de Bourgonne, seigneur de Falais. She had a sister who married Valérand Poullain, who succeeded John Calvin to the pulpit in Strasbourg. Anne was renowned as a Latin scholar by the time she married John Hooper (x. February 9, 1555), a religious refugee in the Low Countries during the reign of Henry VIII. The marriage probably took place in February 1547. Their children were Rachel (c.1548-c.1556) and Daniel (c.1550-c.1556). In England, Hooper served as chaplain to Edward Seymour, duke of Somerset and was later invested as Bishop of Gloucester. Their daughter’s education began extremely early and she was taught English, German, French, and Latin. When Mary Tudor became queen in 1553, Hooper was arrested. Anne and Rachel fled to Frankfurt, arriving there in early 1554. Her son was brought to her later. Her husband was executed for heresy. Anne died of the plague later that same year.

JOAN TUCKFIELD (1506-1573) (maiden name unknown)
Joan was the wife of John Tuckfield, mayor of Exeter in 1549-50. They had a son, John (1555-1630). In 1554, John Tuckfield wrote his will. Among other bequests, he left money to his apprentice, his servants, and his maids to pray for him. He died by 1557, when Joan was listed as a widow. She made her will on June 14, 1568. She left all her lands and tenements in the parish of St. Paul to the Tailors’ Company on the condition that they distribute 6s.8d. yearly among the poor and prisoners. The interest on £300 was to be loaned to needy tradesmen. Two houses in Fore Street were to provide gowns and shifts and 5s. yearly to twelve poor women. Three houses worth £6/year were to provide a trust for the distribution of 50 dozen penny loaves on Christmas Eve and the same on Easter Eve. Portrait: artist unknown, a companion piece to one of her husband.

ELLEN TUDOR (c.1459-1502+)
Ellen (Elyn/Helen) Tudor was the illegitimate daughter of Jasper Tudor, duke of Bedford (c.1431-December 21, 1495). She married William Gardiner (c.1450-1485), a skinner (according to the Oxford DNB), cloth merchant, or grocer. Their children were Thomas (c.1479-1536), Pryor of Tynemouth, Philippa, Margaret, Beatrice, and Anne. Some sources say Gardiner hired out as a mercenary and was one of the men who killed Richard III on the battlefield at Bosworth in 1485. These same sources say he was knighted on the battlefield by Henry VII, Jasper Tudor’s nephew, and after that married Jasper’s illegitimate daughter. This makes a good story, but is largely untrue. Neither is it true that William and Ellen were the parents of Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester (d.1555), or Richard (1486-1546), William (1488-1549) or Alice (d.1588) Gardiner. William and Ellen were married well before the Battle of Bosworth, which took place in the same year William died (the date of his will is September 25). By 1493, Ellen married William Sybson or Sibson of London (d.1501+), a skinner.

KATHERINE TUDOR (c.1540-August 27, 1591)
Better known as Katherine of Berain, Katherine Tudor was the daughter of Tudor ap Robert Fychan of Berain, Denbighshire (d.1564) and Jane Velville. Her grandfather, Sir Rowland Velville (1474-1535), is said to have been the illegitimate son of Henry VII by a Breton lady, born while Henry was in exile in Brittany. In 1558, Katherine married John Salisbury (Salusbury/Salesbury) of Llewenny, Denbighshire (c.1542-1566). They had two sons, Thomas (1561-x. September 20, 1586) and Sir John (1566-1612). Katherine was courted by Sir Richard Clough (d.1570), a merchant, during his brief visit to Wales in April 1567. According to one biography of Clough’s employer, Thomas Gresham, Clough and Katherine had grown up together and been childhood sweethearts. In May, she married him and returned with him to the Low Countries. They had two daughters, Anne (b.1568) and Mary (b.1570). They lived in Antwerp and in Spain but made several visits to Wales. In January 1569, they were in Flanders when they heard that English merchants in Antwerp were being arrested. They fled but were captured in Dieppe and held there until Sir William Cecil negotiated their release. Clough died in Hamburg the next year and was buried there, all but his heart, which his wife brought back to Wales with her and buried at Whitechurch, his parish church in Denbigh. Clough left Katherine his lands but left all his moveable goods to Gresham, who was asked to decide who should have them. Gresham returned them to Katherine along with an annuity and paid off all of Clough’s debts. In 1573, she married Maurice Wynn of Gwydir (d. August 10,1580). Their children were Edward and Jane. In The Expansion of Elizabethan England, A. L. Rowse writes of the arrangements she made for her children’s marriages and her stormy relationship with her stepson, Sir John Wynn. In 1584, Katherine married Edward Thelwell of Plas-y-Ward, Denbighshire (d. July 29, 1610). She was buried on September 1, 1591 at Llanefydd. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Katheryn of Berain [called Mam Cymru].” Portrait: c.1568 by Adriaen van Cronenburgh.


MARGARET TUDOR (November 29, 1489-October 18, 1541)
Margaret Tudor was the oldest daughter of Henry VII (1457-1509) and Elizabeth of York (1465-1503). Margaret married James IV of Scotland (1473-1513) in 1503. They had six children but only one, James V (1513-December 14, 1542) survived infancy. William Dunbar wrote a poem, “The Thistle and the Rose,” in honor of the occasion of their wedding. Newly a widow in 1513, after her husband was killed in battle with the English, she was willing to marry Louis XII of France, but he wanted her sister. Shortly after that marriage was contracted, Margaret chose her own second husband, Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus (1489-1557). They had a daughter, Margaret (October 8, 1516-March 7, 1578), who was born in England after Margaret escaped house arrest in Scotland. In May of that year, Margaret was reunited with her brother, Henry VIII, and a tournament was held in her honor at Greenwich, but their relationship was a prickly one. She did not remain at the English court, nor did she remain married to the earl of Angus. Biographies: Hester W. Chapman’s The Thistle and the Rose; Nancy Lenz Harvey’s The Rose and the Thorn; Maria Perry’s The Sisters of Henry VIII; Patricia Hill Buchanan’s Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scots; Oxford DNB entry under “Margaret [Margaret Tudor].” Portraits: a full length study by Daniel Mytens in the Royal Collection at Holyrood, which is a copy of a lost portrait painted c.1515-17; a double portrait with John Stewart, duke of Albany; several head-and-shoulders portraits at various points in her life; one portrait identified as Margaret Tudor until 1971 is actually Marie Haneton, c. 1522 by Bernard Van Orley.

MARY TUDOR (March 18, 1495-June 25, 1533)
Mary Tudor was the daughter of Henry VII (1457-1509) and Elizabeth of York (1465-1503) and the sister of Henry VIII and Margaret Tudor. For some years, she was betrothed to Charles of Castile (later Charles V), but she repudiated that marriage in order to wed Louis XII of France (1462-1515) in 1514. She is said to have been in love with Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk (1485-August 22,1545), before she left England and to have made her brother promise that she could choose a second husband for herself when Louis died. She may have helped this outcome along by encouraging the French king to stay up late and join in the revels celebrating their marriage. She married Suffolk in Paris sometime before February 20, 1515. They were remarried at Greenwich, with her brother’s blessing, on May 13, 1515. Their children were Henry (March 11, 1516-1534), Frances (July 16, 1517-November 20, 1559), and Eleanor (1519-September 27, 1547). Biographies: Hester W. Chapman’s The Thistle and the Rose; Nancy Lenz Harvey’s The Rose and the Thorn; Maria Perry’s The Sisters of Henry VIII; Walter C. Richardson’s The White Queen; Oxford DNB entry under “Mary [1496-1533], queen of France.” Portraits: several sketches by unknown artists; Mary as a young girl; a double portrait with the duke of Suffolk, possibly at the time of their marriage; c. 1530 by Johannes  Corves; alabaster monument in Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk (destroyed when the abbey was dissolved in 1540).

CECILY TUFTON (d. June 18, 1584)
Cecily or Cecilia Tufton was the daughter of John Tufton of Hothfield, Kent (1519-October 10, 1567) and Mary Baker. She married Sir Thomas Sondes of Throwley, Kent (d.1592). They had no children. Portrait: alabaster effigy on Sondes tomb in Throwley, Kent.

CECILY TUFTON (1587-1653)
Cecily Tufton was the eldest daughter of Sir John Tufton of Hothfield, Kent (1544-April 21, 1624) and Christian Browne. She married Sir Edward Hungerford (c.1533-1607) as his second wife. They had no children. In 1608, she married Francis Manners, later 6th earl of Rutland (1578-1632). They had two sons, Henry, Lord Ros (d.1618) and Francis (d.yng.). Three servants at Belvoir Castle, Joan Flower and her daughters Margaret and Philippa, were blamed for Henry’s death. The charge was witchcraft.

MARY TUFTON (d.1659)
Mary Tufton was the second daughter of John Tufton of Hothfield, Kent (1544-April 21, 1624) and Christian Browne. In about 1615, she married Henry Constable, Viscount Dunbar (1588-June 28, 1645). They had four sons and three daughters, including John (1615-1668), Matthew, and Henry. After her husband’s death fighting for the Royalist cause, Mary lost all but one third of her £200 pension. Portrait: by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, 1599.

JOHANNE TURNBULL (d.1569+) (maiden name unknown)
Johanne’s first husband was named Margettson and was an alebrewer. They had at least one child, Thomas Margettson, a merchant tailor. Her second husband was Thomas Turnbull (d. before 1563). In 1563, as a widow, Johanne bought The Crowne in Aldgate, a hostelry, from David Gittens and John Lloyd, vintners. In 1569, she leased it to Richard Irme, woolmonger, and his wife Johanna for thirty years at £12/year. Her son had inherited the inn by 1581.



Margaret Turner was the daughter of John Turner of Colne, Essex (1500-1574) and Christian Fisher (1505-January 9, 1603/4). Her mother was heir to Creping (Crepping/Cressing) Hall in Colne, which passed to Margaret on her death. Margaret married Thomas Smyth of Surrey and Smyth’s Hall, Blackmore, Essex (d. May 10, 1592). Their children were John (c.1572-May 31, 1621), Charles, Arthur (c.1580-March 7, 1622), Clement, Stephen, William (d. February 12,1629), Margaret, Abigail, Jane, and Elizabeth. One genealogy also lists a Thomas. In 1593, she married Stephen Powle or Powell (c.1553-May 26, 1630) as his second wife. He adopted her children. They had none of their own. She was buried with her first husband in the Priory Church of St. Lawrence, Blackmore. Portrait: effigy.



ANNE TUTT (c.1570-January 28, 1610)
Anne Tutt was daughter of John Tutt. She married Thomas Garrard (c.1564-August 9, 1619). Their children were Francis, Richard (c.1652), Thomas (d.1656), Roger, and one other son. Portrait: monumental brass in Lambourn Church, Berkshire.


Blanche Twyforde was part of the household of Catherine of Aragon, although it is not clear when she joined it. She remained with the former queen until December 1533, when she and others who would not take the Oath of Supremacy were sent away. When she was dying, Catherine asked that Blanche be given a bequest of £100. In November 1539, Blanche received £66 13s. 4d. from the king for her “long service to the Princess Dowager.”

Blanche Twyforde was the daughter of Henry Twyforde (Twiford/Twyford) of Kenwick, Shropshire and Baginton, Warwickshire (d.1556+). He seems to have resided at Kenwick in Ellesmere parish, formerly part of Haughmond Abbey. Blanche had a sister Elizabeth (c.1552-1611), who married Thomas Ashton of Croston, Lancashire and with whom she was coheiress to a brother, Thomas Twyforde. Blanche married William Stopford or Stopforth of Bispham and Wrighington, Lancashire (d.1584). They had at least one son, John (d.1601/2+). Stopford was a servant of the earl of Derby. He was buried on June 18, 1584 in Eccleston churchyard. Blanche married Robert Hesketh of Rufford and Martholme, Lancashire (January 20, 1560-1620) as his second wife. They had no children. He was a justice of the peace from 1592 and sheriff of Lancashire in 1599-1600, despite the family’s Catholicism. Blanche brought a goodly amount of property to her second marriage. Portrait: illustration in 1594 Hesketh pedigree.



Alice Tyldesley was the daughter of Thurstan Tyldesley of Tyldesley and Wardley Hall, Lancashire (d.1554) and his first wife, Parnell Shakerley. By 1533, she married Sir Robert Worsley of Booths, Lancashire (d.1585). They had a son, Robert (d.1604/5). At some point before 1547, Worsley repudiated her and bigamously married Margaret Beetham of Upholland, by whom he had three more sons, Richard, a second Robert, and Thomas. The will of Thurstan Tyldesley, made September 1, 1547 and confirmed June 24, 1552, it contains the following passage: “Notwithstanding that my son-in-law Sir Robert Worsley knight is married to Margaret Beetham, his wife yet living, yet I remit and pardon him £7 10s, upon condition that he give yearly unto my daughter Alice his wife £5 or more for her exhibition during her absence from him, or upon condition that he take his said wife into his company and entreat her as he ought to do.”

Margaret Tyler was a servant in the household of Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk during his marriage to his second wife, Margaret Audley (d. January 1564). She translated The Mirror of Princely Deeds and Knighthood, a chivalric romance, into English from the Spanish of Diego Ortúñez de Calahorra. It was published in 1578.

In 1577, Sir Wiston Browne tried to close St. Thomas’s Chapel in Burntwood (Brentwood), Essex in the South Weald. He stopped paying the chaplain’s stipend, removed the pews, and planned to tear down the building. On August 5th of that year, a local woman named Thomasina Tyler led twenty-nine other women in a protest. According to the Essex Sessions Rolls, they “raised an unlawful riot” in the chapel, the steeple, and the graveyard. They forcibly dragged Richard Brooke, the local schoolmaster, out of the chapel and beat him. Then they barricaded themselves inside the chapel, refusing to come out and defending themselves with “five pitchforks, bills, a piked staff, two hot spits, three bows, nine arrows, an axe, a great hammer, two kettles of hot water, and a great whetstone.” When Browne, who was sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire, arrived with two justices of the peace, fifteen of the women were arrested. The others escaped. “The same riotous women rescued themselves from their captors, so as to render it impossible to put them into Her Majesty’s gaol.” As Thomasina was being taken away, the sheriff and magistrates “were forcibly and with violence hindered by Henry Dalley,” a local laborer. Among the other names listed in the Sessions Rolls are Anna Woodall, Margaret Banester, Alice Greatheade, Priscilla Prior, Margaret Bayford, Mary May, Alice Degon, and Dorothea Woodall. All were identified as “spinsters of Burntwoode.” When the matter came before the Privy Council on August 11, the women were released on bail. The case was heard at Michaelmas Quarter Sessions where relatively low fines of 4d. each were imposed. Browne eventually abandoned his efforts to close the chapel.

AGNES TYLNEY (1477-May 1545)
Agnes Tylney was the daughter of Hugh Tylney or Tilney of Skirbeck and Boston, Lincolnshire and Eleanor Tailboys (or Talbot). She was first at court at fifteen. According to Elizabeth Norton’s The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women, Agnes joined the household of her kinswoman, Elizabeth Tylney, countess of Surrey, shortly before a move to Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire, and was there when the countess was visited by poet John Skelton in May 1495. On August 17, 1497, she married Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (1443-May 21, 1524) as his second wife. Their children were Dorothy (1513-1545), Thomas (d.1537), William (1510-January 21, 1573), Anne (c.1500-1558/9), Katherine (1508-1554), Elizabeth, Richard (d.1517), and two sons and four daughters who died young. Agnes waited on Catherine of Aragon during Catherine’s marriage to Arthur, Prince of Wales in 1501-2. In 1503, she went with Princess Margaret to Scotland for Margaret’s marriage to James IV. In 1514, she accompanied Princess Mary to France for her wedding to King Louis XII. By then Agnes’s husband had been elevated in the peerage to duke of Norfolk. In 1516, Agnes was one of Mary Tudor’s godparents. In 1520, she was one of the few noblewomen who did not attend the Field of Cloth of Gold. Her husband was left behind to defend England and Agnes, together with her daughters Dorothy, Katherine, and Elizabeth, remained with Princess Mary at Richmond. As a widow, the dowager duchess of Norfolk lived mostly at Horsham and at Lambeth. Her household always included a number of young relatives. Her daughter, Lady Daubeney, sent all three of her daughters by Rhys ap Griffith to be raised by her mother. In June 1528, during an epidemic of the sweating sickness, Agnes wrote to Cardinal Wolsey with advice on curing those who fell ill. She recommended treacle and “water imperial” and setwell for the stomach and advised that those who fell victim to the disease should fast for sixteen hours and stay in bed for twenty-four. She also suggested isolating sufferers for an entire week and putting vinegar, wormwood, rosewater, and crumbs of brown bread on linen and sniffing it, but warned that this mixture must not touch the face. Then she lobbied for the wardship of one of the daughters of Sir John Broughton, which she eventually obtained. In 1529, she gave evidence that Catherine of Aragon had truly been Prince Arthur’s wife. The deposition was given on June 16, 1529 in the Cluniac priory at Thetford. She took part in the coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn, daughter of one of her Howard stepchildren. Agnes was godmother to Princess Elizabeth. When King Henry VIII began to court Catherine Howard, one of the young girls who had been brought up at Horsham, Agnes said nothing to discourage the match. When Catherine’s past misconduct was revealed in 1541. Agnes was held accountable and arrested. She was pardoned on May 5, 1542 and released. She was buried May 31, 1545 at Thetford Abbey, Norfolk. Her will, dated March 12, 1542, was proved November 9, 1545. Biography: Oxford DNB entry under “Howard [née Tilney], Agnes.” There is also quite a bit of information about her life in Gareth Russell’s biography of her step-granddaughter, Young and Damned and Fair: The Life of Catherine Howard, Fifth Wife of King Henry VIII (2016). Portrait: an engraving done long after her death.

ELIZABETH TYLNEY (d. April 4, 1497)
Elizabeth Tylney was the daughter of Sir Frederick Tylney of Ashwellthorpe, Norfolk (c.1420-1447) and Elizabeth Cheyney (c.1420-September 20, 1473). She married Humphrey Bourchier (d. April 14, 1471). Their children were Margaret (1468-1552), John (1467-1532), and Anne. On April 30, 1472, she married Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey (1443-May 21, 1524). Their children were Thomas, 3rd duke of Norfolk (1473-August 25, 1554), Elizabeth (1476-April 3, 1538), Edward (1477-1513), Edmund (1478/80-1539), Muriel (1485-December 14, 1512), and five or six more who died young. In 1485, after the Battle of Bosworth, Elizabeth’s husband briefly succeeded his father as duke of Norfolk but he had been wounded in the battle and was a prisoner in the Tower and within three months both he and their eldest son had been attainted for treason and stripped of their titles. Elizabeth and her four younger children took refuge on the Isle of Sheppey. On October 3, 1485, she wrote to John Paston from there. His wife was her cousin. In the letter, she stated that she had hoped to send her children to Thorpe and reminded Paston that he had promised her horses to help convey them there. She complained that one of Henry VII’s followers, Lord Fitzwalter, had dismissed all her servants. Despite her husband’s attainder and imprisonment (she did not see him for four years), she continued to enjoy her own inheritance. This prevented Fitzwalter from seizing her manor of Ashwellthorpe, Suffolk. By December, she was in London, living near St. Katherine’s hospital, close to the Tower. John Skelton’s “The Garlande of Laurell” (1523) may have been inspired by Elizabeth and her daughters Anne, Elizabeth, and Muriel. Alison Weir’s biography of Mary Boleyn suggests it was composed in May 1495 during a visit to Sheriff Hutton Castle, Yorkshire, where Thomas Howard and his family were then living. If so, the circle of ladies included Elizabeth Tylney, countess of Surrey, her daughters Elizabeth and Muriel Howard and Anne Bourchier (Lady Dacre), Margery Wentworth (later Lady Seymour), and Margaret Brewes, wife of Sir Philip Tylney. Elizabeth Norton, in The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women, adds Agnes Tylney, who joined the household when it moved to Sheriff Hutton, and Isabel Pennel, another of Elizabeth’s relatives. Under Henry VII, according to Gareth Russell’s Young and Damned and Fair: The Life of Catherine Howard, Fifth Wife of King Henry VIII (2016), Elizabeth was a lady in waiting to Elizabeth of York and godmother to Princess Margaret. Elizabeth Tylney’s grandchildren included two queens—Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. She made two wills, one on February 28, 1472, as the widow of Humphrey Bourchier, and one on May 8, 1472, as the wife of Thomas Howard. In the first, she left £100 to each of her daughters by her first husband. In the second, she left life interest in her properties to her second husband and willed that if her son, John Bourchier, died without issue during her or her husband’s life, “then Margaret and Anne to have none of the £100 given by my other will.” Testamenta Vetusta (vol. 2, p. 483) also identifies a third will as belonging to Elizabeth Tylney, but in fact this one is the will of Elizabeth Talbot, widow of the last Mowbray duke of Norfolk. Biography: sections of Elizabeth Norton’s The Hidden Lives of Tudor Women. Portrait: stained glass window in Long Melford Church, Suffolk.

Elizabeth Tylney was the daughter of Sir Philip Tylney or Tilney of Shelley, Suffolk (d. January 8, 1532/3) and Elizabeth Jeffrey. She was a lady in waiting to Lady Jane Grey, possibly by 1548, when Lady Jane was chief mourner for Queen Kathryn Parr. Through her mother, Elizabeth was related to Frances Brandon, Lady Jane’s mother. Elizabeth was with Lady Jane in the Tower, both during her short nine day reign and afterward, when she was a prisoner. She attended Lady Jane on the scaffold in 1554. She married a man named Peter Clarkson or Clark.

Katherine Tylney was the daughter of Sir Philip Tylney or Tilney of Shelley, Suffolk (d. January 8, 1532/3) and Elizabeth Jeffrey. She was the niece of Agnes Tylney, duchess of Norfolk. Through her mother, she was also related to the Brandon family and thus to the duke of Suffolk. She was a member of the dowager duchess of Norfolk’s household at Horsham in Sussex and at Lambeth, along with her sister-in-law, Malyn Tylney (née Chambre), Dorothy Baskerville, Margaret Benet, and Alice Wilkes, at the same time Catherine Howard was in the duchess’s care. After Catherine became queen, Katherine Tylney and Alice Wilkes, now Alice Restwold, were among her chamberers, as was Margaret Morton, who had also been at Lambeth. While the queen was carrying on with her lover, Thomas Culpepper, everyone but Lady Rochford and Katherine were barred from Catherine’s bedchamber. When the whole sordid story came out, Katherine was interrogated on November 5, 1541 about events at Lambeth, particularly how much the duchess knew about them. On November 13 and 30, she was questioned about more recent events at court, particularly at Lincoln on the recent progress and at Hampton Court. Katherine insisted that she’d never seen who it was the queen met in the wee hours of the morning. When the queen was tried, her appointment of Katherine as her chamberer was offered as further proof that she intended to return to the “abominable life” she had led in the duchess’s household. On December 22, 1541, along with a number of others, Katherine pleaded guilty to knowing of the wicked life of Catherine Howard before her marriage and concealing it from the king. She might have been executed for this, but the reference to the “good service” she had done the investigators suggests she cooperated fully. She was sentenced to imprisonment in the Tower of London and the seizure of all she owned. As a single woman, she did not actually own anything. How long she was held is uncertain, but it was probably not for an extended period of time. The duchess was freed in May 1542. Katherine later married John Baker of Cambridge (d.1579+), half brother of Archbishop Matthew Parker. They had at least one child, Elizabeth (d.1606).



ELIZABETH TYRINGHAM (d. November 1550+)
Elizabeth Tyringham married Sir Edmund Tame of Fairford, Gloucestershire (d. October 1, 1534) as his second wife. They had no children. In his will, made in 1532, he called her the person “whom I trust above all other to see this my last will to be performed,” and named her sole executor. She constructed several brass memorials in the Lady Chapel at Fairford, Gloucestershire, where Sir Edmund had endowed a chantry. Although her stepson inherited Fairford Manor, she continued to live there even after his death. She made her will in November 1550. Portrait: two brasses with her husband and his first wife, Agnes Greville (d. July 26, 1506) at Fairford.



Catherine Tyrrell was the daughter of Sir Thomas Tyrrell of Heron in East Horndon, Essex and Constance Blount (d. 1540+), daughter of John, 3rd baron Mountjoy. Catherine married George Kebell of Newbottle, Northamptonshire. They had a daughter, Mary, who married John Paschall of Much Baddow, Essex. Catherine was mentioned in her brother’s will (written June 6, 1540 and proved November 18, 1540), along with her sister, Anne Knight. Each was to receive 40s. Catherine may have been the “Mistress Keble” who occupied a chamber at Ingatestone Hall in 1550. Her eldest brother, John Tyrrell was the first husband of Anne Browne (d.1582), Lady Petre, whose second husband built Ingatestone Hall in 1540-2. “Mistress Keble” is frequently identified as Petre’s mother-in-law, but Kebell was the maiden rather than the married name of Anne Browne’s mother and she had been dead for over twenty years by the time her daughter married William Petre.

CATHERINE TYRRELL (1533- before 1569)
Catherine Tyrrell was the daughter of John Tyrrell of Heron Hall, East Horndon, Essex (d.1540) and Anne Browne (d.1582). She is the only daughter mentioned in his will, written June 6, 1540 and proved November 18, 1540, in which she is left the lease of the manor of Old Sampford, then in the possession of her grandmother with reversion to her father. By 1542, her mother married William Petre, who built Ingatestone Hall in Essex in 1540-42. On June 12, 1552, Catherine was married there to Richard Baker of Sissinghurst, Kent (c.1528-June 18, 1594). Their children were John (d.1596), Thomas (d. April 10, 1625), and a daughter. Catherine’s father’s will suggests that Richard’s  father, John Baker, was a close family friend. For the occasion of the wedding, Catherine’s stepfather brought a master cook named Wilcock and four undercooks to Ingatestone from London. Over 400 people attended and stayed for two days after the ceremony.

CATHERINE TYRRELL (d. before 1569)
Catherine Tyrrell was the daughter of John Tyrrell of Heron Hall, East Horndon, Essex (d.1540) and Anne Browne (d.1582). She is the only daughter mentioned in his will, written June 6, 1540 and proved November 18, 1540, in which she is left the lease of the manor of Old Sampford, then in the possession of her grandmother (Alice Keble) with reversion to her father. By 1542, her mother married William Petre, who built Ingatestone Hall in Essex in 1540-42. On June 12, 1552, Catherine was married there to Richard Baker of Sissinghurst, Kent (c.1528-June 18, 1594). Their children were John (d.1596), Thomas (d. April 10, 1625), and a daughter. Catherine’s father’s will suggests that Richard’s  father, John Baker, was a close family friend. For the occasion of the wedding, Catherine’s stepfather brought a master cook named Wilcock and four undercooks to Ingatestone from London. Over 400 people attended and stayed for two days after the ceremony.

ELEANOR TYRRELL (d. September 20, 1520+)
Eleanor Tyrrell was the daughter of Sir William Tyrrell of Gipping, Suffolk (x. February 23, 1462). She married Sir Edmund Knyvett of Buckenham Castle, Norfolk (c.1462-c.1504). Their children were Thomas (d. August 10, 1512), William, Anthony (1485-1549), Christopher (1491-1520), James, Anne (d.1558), Edward, and Edmund (d. May 1, 1540). King Henry VIII granted her an annuity of £10. She was the guardian of her son Thomas’s orphaned children and received quarterly wages of £22 8s. 4d. in July 1515 for the “finding” of them. These grandchildren were Catherine, Anne, Edmund (1507/8-May 1, 1550/1), Ferdinando, Henry (d. March 30, 1547), and Anthony Knyvett.

Elizabeth Tyrrell was the daughter of Sir Thomas Tyrrell of Heron Hall, East Horndon, Essex (c.1405-March 28, 1476) and Anne de Marney (d.1476). She married Sir Robert Darcy of Danbury, Essex (c.1419- November 2,1469). Their children were Anne, Thomas (1459-September 22, 1485), Robert, Elizabeth, Eleanor, and four others. In c.1470, she married Richard Haute or Hawte of Bishopsbourne, Kent (1434-1487). They had two daughters, Anne and Elizabeth. Elizabeth Woodville appointed Elizabeth as lady mistress of the king’s nursery in 1471, making her responsible for Prince Edward and his staff of attendants. After the birth of Prince Arthur on September 20, 1486, she was given the same responsibilities in his household as lady governess. She was paid an annuity of £46 in June 1487 and an additional forty marks in 1488. Serving under her supervision, among others, were Catherine Gibbs, nurse, Elizabeth Wood, gentlewoman, and three rockers—Amy Boteler, Emelyn Hobbes, and Alison Biwimble.


GERTRUDE TYRRELL (c.1510-May 28, 1541)
Gertrude Tyrrell was probably the daughter of Sir John Tyrrell of Little Warley Hall, Essex (d. February 28, 1541) and his first wife Anne Norris (d.1531), even though Tyrrell does not mention her, her husband, or her children in his will. In c.1533, Gertrude married William Petre (c.1500-1572), later secretary of state. They had one son who died young and two daughters, Dorothy (1534-May 16, 1618) and Elizabeth (1540-1593). Portrait: Petre tomb at Ingatestone, Essex.

MARGARET TYRRELL (x.1540) (maiden name unknown)
Margaret was the wife of William Tyrrell, a gentleman of Essex. She made the mistake of expressing the opinion that Prince Edward was not the rightful heir to the throne. She was examined by Thomas Cromwell on November 24, 1537 and was in the Tower of London by December 5 of that year. She was held there without being charged with treason or tried, but on July 24, 1540, Parliament passed an act of attainder against her. She was scheduled to be executed—hanged, drawn and quartered—on July 30, 1540. Most sources say she was executed, but a book published in 1904, Lives of the English Martyrs declared blessed by Pope Leo XIII, states that the sentence was not carried out. Her husband, who may have been the son of Sir James Tyrrell of Gipping (x. May 6, 1502), was arrested for saying that the king’s assassins would “attain paradise” and other remarks made in 1536 and in 1539. He was tried and convicted of treason in 1541 but was pardoned in March 1543.


MARY TYRRELL (1552-1593+)
According to the History of Parliament, Mary Tyrrell was the daughter of John Tyrrell of Warley, Essex. According to an online genealogy, she was the only child of Thomas Tyrrell (son of John Tyrrell and Anne Norris) and Anne Wolley. In about 1571, she married Thomas Clinton (or Fiennes de Clinton) of Horbling, Lincolnshire (c.1548-c.1613), second son of the first earl of Lincoln and a gentleman pensioner. They had one son, Francis, and two daughters. Mary brought the manor of Warley and other Essex lands to the marriage and the earl settled lands worth £900 on the couple. In his will, Lincoln left Thomas a £50 annuity from property in Lincolnshire. Thomas was involved in a lawsuit with his older brother Henry, 2nd earl of Lincoln, claiming in part that Henry deprived Mary of the profits of her Tyrrell inheritance. Thomas was heavily in debt by 1579. By July 1590, Thomas and Mary had separated and were on very bad terms. He refused to maintain her and she reportedly feared for her life. The Privy Council ordered the captain of pensioners to make sure that she received £30 a year out of his wages. The earl of Lincoln was also having marital difficulties at about this time. In 1593, Thomas was charged with trying to take away the Tyrrell inheritance. He claimed he had been setting aside £50 a year for his wife and again blamed his brother. It is unclear which of them was responsible for alienating her lands through sales and mortgages. Thomas and Mary may have reconciled. No dates of death have been recorded for either of them, but in c.1613/14, Francis Clinton sold Horbling and other lands to his uncle, the earl. Francis was deeply in debt and, to add insult to injury, there was a rumor circulating that he had been born to Mary Tyrrell before her marriage to Thomas Clinton and was therefore not the legal heir.

AGNES TYRWHITT (c.1481-1531+)
Agnes Tyrwhitt was the daughter of Sir William Tyrwhitt of Kettleby, Lincolnshire (d. April 10, 1522) and Anne Constable. In 1496, she married Thomas Borough or Burgh, later 3rd baron Borough of Gainsborough  (1483-February 28,1549/50). They had numerous children, including Anne (c.1500-1582), Edward (c.1508-1533), Thomas (d.1542), William, 4th baron (c.1521-September 10,1584), Margaret, Agnes, Henry (c.1531-April 22, 1557), Eleanor, John, Richard, and two daughters (Dorothy and Elizabeth) who became nuns. From 1510, when he was declared a lunatic, Agnes had to deal with an insane father-in-law who lived until 1528. Agnes may have been at court with her husband when Anne Boleyn was queen (1533-36), since he was Queen Anne’s chamberlain, and may still have been alive to deal with the domestic uproar caused when her husband accused their son Thomas’s wife of adultery in 1537. Portrait: Agnes has been proposed as the subject of the incomplete sketch by Hans Holbein the younger labeled “Lady Borow” and dated c.1532-42, although the inscription was added much later.